Article

Evaluation of antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera in experimental diabetes

Authors:
  • National Institute of Occupational Health (Indian Council of Medical Research)
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Abstract

Moringa oleifera, a widely cultivated species in India, is an exceptionally nutritious vegetable with a variety of potential uses in treating rheumatism, venomous bites, and microbial infections. In the present study, we investigated the antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of methanol extracts of M. oleifera pods (MOMtE) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic albino rats. Diabetic rats were treated with 150 or 300 mg/kg MOMtE for 21 days and the antidiabetic effects of the extract were evaluated by measuring changes in biochemical parameters in the serum and pancreatic tissue. Two phytoconstituents, namely quercetin and kaempferol, were isolated from the MOMtE extract and their structures were determined using nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy. The progression of diabetes was significantly reduced after MOMtE treatment. In treated rats, both doses of MOMtE induced a significant reduction in serum glucose and nitric oxide, with concomitant increases in serum insulin and protein levels. Furthermore, MOMtE treatment increased antioxidant levels in pancreatic tissue, with concomitant decreases in levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. Histologic examination of the pancreas from diabetic rats showed degenerative changes in β-cells; MOMtE treatment significantly reversed the histoarchitectural damage to the islets cells. In conclusion, M. oleifera exerts protective effects against STZ-induced diabetes. The MOMtE exhibited significant antidiabetic and antioxidant activity and active constituents may be isolated from the extract for evaluation in future clinical studies.

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... Thereafter diabetes was induced in rats by intraperitoneal (i.p) single injection of freshly prepared streptozotocin (STZ) at a dose of 70 mg/kg, dissolved in di-sodium citrate buffer (pH 4.5) in a dose volume of 1 ml/kg [13] . Rats were then given access to feed and 2% glucose water was also made available for about 16 h in order to prevent hypoglycaemia [14] . After this the rats had access to normal water. ...
... After this the rats had access to normal water. After 72h of STZ injection, diabetes was confirmed in rats showing blood glucose level greater than 200 mg/dl, [14] . Animals with blood glucose levels greater than 200 mg/dl were considered for further study and grouped as B, D and E. ...
... Animals with elevated blood glucose were selected for treatment with Moringa extract at a dose of 100 mg/kg and Pioglitazone at a dose of 25 mg/kg orally for a period of fourteen (14) days. On the fifteenth day, blood was collected from each of the animal via the retro-orbital vein and the animals were then euthanized by cervical dislocation. ...
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The anti-diabetic property of aqueous leaf extract of Moringa oleifera was performed in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats using serum chemistry, histology and immunochemical parameters as indices of diabetes. The blood glucose level of the diabetic untreated group continues to increase while that of the treated group after 21 days decreased. While the animals in the diabetic untreated group experienced increase in the levels of markers of organ damage when compared to the control group (P values < 0.0001). ALT increased from 61.83±1.5 to 96.1±22.4, AST was 225.1±26.6 from 172.6±13.9, ALP 13.5±0.006 to 13.6±0.002, UREA 1.0±0.08 to 3.0±0.4, their reduction was observed in the extract-treated groups. ALT reduced from 96.1±22.4 to 73.70±9.7; AST from 225.1±26.6 to 184.4±18.2; ALP from 13.6±0.002 to 13.6±0.01; UREA from 3.0±0.4 to 2.0±0.4. Treatment with the extract significantly reduced markers of oxidative stress in the kidney [hydrogen peroxide (898.8±6.26 to 688.0±13.7), malondialdehyde (640±0.1 to 600±0.2) and protein carbonyl (548.4±1.5 to 458.1±1.6)]; heart [hydrogen peroxide (389.4±1.8 to 358.2±1.5), malondialdehyde (264.0±0.5 to 122.0±0.3), protein carbonyl (196.8±0.5 to 162.7±3.5)]; and liver [hydrogen peroxide (119.36±3.2 to 103.94±10.7), malondialdehyde (236.0±0.4 to 73.0±0.2), protein carbonyl (269.3±1.0 to 174.2±1.1) respectively. The levels of antioxidants were reduced in the diabetic untreated group but there was increase in the Moringa treated group. Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT 4) was down regulated in the diabetic untreated group while it was well expressed in the treated groups. The histology of pancreas and liver showed varied levels of infiltration of inflammatory cells, congestion and necrotic lesions, but these were mild in the treated groups. The result shows that the extract does have an anti-diabetic effect with the decrease in the levels of blood glucose and markers of oxidative stress as well as increase in the amount of antioxidants in the treated group when compared to the diabetic untreated group. More importantly, the extract caused upregulation of GLUT 4, which is relevant in reversing insulin resistance in the same manner as pioglitazone, the standard antidiabetic agent used in this study.
... They belonged to Cameroonians' publications on diabetes randomized selected in all regions. Their strategy to regenerate pancreatic beta cells [36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55], significant to manage diabetes is presented in Table 1. The research of Lai et al. showed that treatment of diabetic patients with a Bidens pilosa formulation (400mg/day) for three months decreased fasting blood glucose concentration and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), but augmented fasting serum insulin in healthy subjects [35]. ...
... Additionally, a histological pancreas examination showed that Moringa oleifera treatment significantly reversed the histopathological damage that occurred to islet cells by induced diabetes. The Moringa oleifera leaves consumption by alloxan-induced diabetic rats, showed a hypoglycemic/upshot and prevented body weight loss [50]. ...
... Other parts of Moringa plant also showed good hypoglycemic effects. Researchers have reported that the crude extract of the bark and pods could effectively decrease blood glucose levels (Gupta et al. 2012;Sholapur and Patil 2013). The aqueous extract of Moringa leaves could improve the glucose tolerance and glucose uptake rate of yeast cells in vitro and inhibit the activity of a-glycosidase, a-amylase and reduced the blood glucose of diabetic rodents in vivo (at a dose of 100 mg/kg to STZinduced rats and 200 mg/kg in HFD mice, orally) (Khan et al. 2017). ...
... A significant rejuvenation of the pancreatic islets was observed in M.oleifera leaves-treated diabetic rats, Langerhans size was remodeled, the ultrastructure cellular density and collagen sheets of b-cells were recovered (Yassa and Tohamy 2014). Researchers have reported that after treating with methanol extract of M. oleifera pods, the pancreatic islets of diabetic rats were significantly regenerated (Gupta et al. 2012). Moreover, treatment with high dose of M. oleifera seed powder restored the structure of pancreas almost to normal in diabetic rats (Al-Malki and El Rabey 2015). ...
Article
Moringa oleifera Lam. is a perennial tropical deciduous tree with high economic and pharmaceutical value. As an edible plant, M. oleifera Lam. is rich in nutrients, such as proteins, amino acids, mineral elements and vitamins. Besides, it also contains an important number of bioactive phytochemicals, such as polysaccharides, flavonoids, alkaloids, glucosinolates and isothiocyanates. M. oleifera for long has been used as a natural anti-diabetic herb in India and other Asian countries. Thus, the anti-diabetic properties of Moringa plant have evolved highly attention to the researchers. In the last twenty years, a huge number of new chemical structures and their pharmacological activities have been reported in particularly the anti-diabetic properties. The current review highlighted the bioactive phytochemicals from M. Oleifera. Moreover, evidence regarding the therapeutic potential of M. oleifera for diabetes including experimental and clinical data was presented and the underlying mechanisms were revealed in order to provide insights for the development of novel drugs.
... The value of the predicted glycaemic index of the reference sample was 94.61% and the reduction in values could be attributed to the contributory effect of moringa seed flour. Gupta et al. [29] reported the blood glucose reduction effect of moringa seed on Streptozocin (STZ) induced rats. Investigations have revealed that low glycaemic index diets improve metabolic consequence of insulin resistance as well as improvement in glucose and lipid metabolism [30] . ...
... Nowadays, a few experiments have been accounted for the antidiabetic capability of MO leaves and seeds. Regardless, the vast majority of them were centered around the leaf [12][13][14][15][16]. ...
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Diabetes is among the most common debilitating and non-transferable diseases on the planet. The idea of using nanoparticles as a drug to treat diabetes mellitus seems intriguing. The Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were effectively produced utilizing Moringa olifera (family: Moringaceae ) plant extract employing a simple, cheaper, faster, and environmentally friendly green synthesis process. The antidiabetic effect of the produced Ag NPs was also tested in vivo. In the presence of plant extract, silver nitrate was converted to silver ions (Ag). XRD, FTIR, UV, XPS, and HRTEM studies characterize the formed Ag NPs. Ag NPs that have been biosynthesized, crystal nature was confirmed through XRD analysis and confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy. FT-IR spectra were used to verify the presence of various functional groups in the biomolecules, forming and stabilizing the nanoparticles. The size of the NPS was in the range of 20-40 nm determined by HRTEM. The induction of diabetes using STZ showed increased blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, VLDL, massive loss in body weight. These changes were reversed following the treatment of diabetic rats for 28 days and showed significant inhibition (p < 0.001) at a dose range of 0.2 mg/kg leaf extract and 0.2 mg/kg Ag NPs compared with the extract-treated group. These obtained results suggested that plant-mediated Ag NPs have shown promising antidiabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic activity compared to the crude extract.
... Dietary consumption of Moringa is encouraged by several health organizations due to the plant's nutrient content and potential in treating various diseases. It has been shown to have antioxidant, antiinflammatory, cholesterol-lowering, antidiabetic, and hepatoprotective properties (Alegbeleye, 2018;Gupta et al., 2012;Mbikay et al., 2012;Waterman et al., 2015;Vargas-Sánchez et al., 2019). Its traditional use in Ayurvedic medicine as an aphrodisiac is supported by animal studies (Goswami et al., 2016;Suarni et al., 2019;Syarifuddin et al., 2017;Zade et al., 2013). ...
... Significantly decreased blood glucose in diabetic rats and mice [114][115][116][117][118][119][120][121][122][123][124][125][126][127][128][129][130]. Reduced triglycerides levels [115]. ...
Article
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Diabetes is a chronic disorder that is characterized by an increase in blood glucose (hyperglycemia) with alteration of protein, carbohydrates, and fat metabolism. Consequently, it can lead to renal failure, atherosclerosis, nerve damage, blindness, and coronary heart disease. It is also known as the 5th leading cause of death. Although, there are numerous types of glucose-lowering drugs that exhibit antidiabetic effects but results of treatment in patients are still not so perfect. Therefore, many treatments that include the use of medicinal plants are suggested and encouraged. Medical plants are believed to contain chemical substances with potential curative effects and can often have anti-diabetic effects. This study introduced about 23 effective medicinal plants reported by various experimental researchers with the curative potential to treat diabetes. Although, most of the research used animal models, there is a clear indication that medicinal plants with anti-diabetic potentials are being investigated by several researchers. However, there is a need for further research to be conducted with isolated bioactive ingredients present in these plants in order to have potential ingredients that could be used as a pharmacological agent in the treatment of diabetes mellitus with fewer adverse effects. Again, the mechanisms of action of these medicinal plants in ameliorating diabetes need to be investigated.
... Many parts of the tree Moringa oleifera are widely used for multiple applications, including human nutrition in developing countries [12], and recognized in folk medicine for their hypoglycemic activity. In the extracts from Moringa that have been certified to lower blood glucose in diabetic animal models [13][14][15], one active principle, called moringine or phenylmethanamine, is identical to Bza. However, these observations are not sufficient to currently include Bza into the list of the most known biogenic amines, since only traces are expected to occur in human tissues, and to the best of our knowledge, have not been quantified so far. ...
Article
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Substrates of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) exert insulin-like actions in adipocytes. One of them, benzylamine (Bza) exhibits antihyperglycemic properties in several rodent models of diabetes. To further study the antidiabetic potential of this naturally occurring amine, a model of severe type 2 diabetes, the obese db-/- mouse, was subjected to oral Bza administration. To this end, db-/- mice and their lean littermates were treated at 4 weeks of age by adding 0.5% Bza in drinking water for seven weeks. Body mass, fat content, blood glucose and urinary glucose output were followed while adipocyte insulin responsiveness and gene expression were checked at the end of supplementation, together with aorta nitrites. Bza supplementation delayed the appearance of hyperglycemia, abolished polydypsia and glycosuria in obese/diabetic mice without any detectable effect in lean control, except for a reduction in food intake observed in both genotypes. The improvement of glucose homeostasis was observed in db-/- mice at the expense of increased fat deposition, especially in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue (SCWAT), without sign of worsened inflammation or insulin responsiveness and with lowered circulating triglycerides and uric acid, while NO bioavailability was increased in aorta. The higher capacity of SSAO in oxidizing Bza in SCWAT, found in the obese mice, was unaltered by Bza supplementation and likely involved in the activation of glucose utilization by adipocytes. We propose that Bza oxidation in tissues, which produces hydrogen peroxide mainly in SCWAT, facilitates insulin-independent glucose utilization. Bza could be considered as a potential agent for dietary supplementation aiming at preventing diabetic complications.
... The study concluded the potent hypoglycemic effects possessed by the antioxidant present in the aqueous extract of Moringa leaves via regularization of elevated pyruvate carboxylase enzyme in the liver, rejuvenating damaged pancreatic β-cells and hepatocytes. A similar study also established that Moringa leaf extract rectifies STZ-induced DM in rats(Gupta et al., 2012;Yassa & Tohamy, 2014).Chronic hyperglycemia is a signal of Type-2 diabetes conditions. Likewise, in animal studies, STZ-induced diabetic rats were studied using Moringa leaf water extract for oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). ...
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Moringa oleifera is a multi-purpose plant and a comprehensive source of dietary components such as proteins, essential amino acids, vitamins, antioxidants, etc. The plant is also a rich source of other bioactive components, including flavonoids, glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, etc. Incorporating M. oleifera in diet can improve the nutritional status of pregnant and nursing mothers and helps to combat malnutrition and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) among children. The phytochemicals and secondary metabolites, especially the polyphenolic compounds from Moringa, have a significant free-radical scavenging effect attributed to this plant's therapeutic potential. Investigations targeting to explore M. oleifera for its nutritional makeup, novel bioactive components, and analysis of their health-promoting attributes have received much attention. This review demonstrates an overview of recent (past ten years) advancements and patenting activity in discovering different parts of M. oleifera plant for providing adequate nutritive and bioactive components. The pharmacological potential and action mechanisms of M. oleifera in many diseases like diabetes mellitus, cancer, hypertension, ulcer, etc., are also discussed. Practical applications Moringa oleifera is a vital plant that has a varied set of nutritional and therapeutic properties. The indigenous components of Moringa can treat humankind of its diseases and contribute to overall health. The qualitative and functional characteristics of its components indicate possible commercial exploitation of this high-value plant by utilizing its plant parts in many proprietary medicines and nutraceuticals. In conclusion, the Moringa plant needs to be used commercially. It can lead to tremendous economic development if the industries and researchers exploit its potential for highly nutritional super food and therapeutic application by undertaking further research to corroborate earlier studies.
... Kefir plays a protecting role since the milk is fermented with kefir grain and shows the highest radicalscavanging activities than the non-fermented milk. Moringa oleifera leaf powder is reported to have a high antioxidant (Gupta et al., 2012) and the extract of Moringa oleifera leaf shows a DPPH scavenging activity at IC 50 by 19.12 µg/mL. Therefore, incorporating Moringa oleifera leaf powder up to 2% into goat milk kefir manufacture and storing the product for 14 days could significantly improve the antioxidant properties of the goat milk kefir. ...
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Abstract Fortification of compounds that contain functional components can improve product quality without affecting the product characteristics in the storage. This study evaluated the effect of supplementing Moringa leaf powder (0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0% w/w) and different storage periods (0, 7, and 14 days) on the quality of goat milk kefir. The observed parameters were microbiological characteristics (total lactic acid bacteria (LAB), total plate count or TPC, total yeast) chemical characteristics (total solids, acidity, pH, alcohol level, free fatty acid (FFA)), fatty acid profiles, and antioxidant properties (total phenol and DPPH). The result showed that Moringa leaf powder supplemented into kefir increased acidity, total phenol, and DPPH and decreased the alcohol level. Storage time decreased TPC, total yeast, and total solids but increased alcohol, total phenol, and DPPH. We also identified 31 fatty acids. Supplementing 2% Moringa leaf powder combined with 14-day storage can produce ± twice as much total phenol and DPPH as those in the control group and does not negatively affect the quality of the kefir product.
... Other parts of the plant also have antidiabetic properties: an alcoholic bark extract prevented dexamethasoneinduced insulin resistance in peripheral tissues of rats (Sholapur and Patil, 2013). A methanol extract of the pods reduced blood sugar levels in diabetic rats (Gupta et al., 2012) and a hydroalcoholic flower extract had significant activity against hyperglycemia in diabetic rats (Sunilkumar, 2011). ...
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Background: Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) leaves are commonly used for diabetes in Mali. This pilot clinical study aimed to evaluate its effect on post-prandial blood glucose in preparation for a larger trial. Methods: Diabetic patients and non-diabetic healthy volunteers (35 each) were asked to fast for 13 hours on three occasions. Blood glucose was measured before and after eating 100g of white bread (at 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 minutes). On their second and third study visits, they were given 1g and 2g respectively of M. oleifera leaf powder, 30 minutes after eating the bread. We calculated the mean paired reduction in blood glucose at each time interval and the incremental area under the curve. Results: Ingestion of Moringa powder had no effect on blood glucose in non-diabetic participants, but in diabetic patients, it lowered blood glucose at 90 minutes. There was a trend towards lower incremental area under the curve when diabetic patients took 2g of Moringa. No side-effects were reported by any participants. Conclusions: Moringa oleifera leaf powder reduced post-prandial glycaemia in diabetic patients. A larger study is needed to define the optimal dose and to assess whether this translates into longer-term benefits.
... Those plant resources contain secondary metabolites such as saponins, flavonoids, steroids, alkaloids, and tannins that play an essential role in controlling diabetes [132]. In several studies (in vivo, in vitro), BNPs have been considered α-amylase inhibitors [135][136][137]. ...
Article
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The study of bimetallic nanoparticles (BNPs) has constantly been expanding, especially in the last decade. The biosynthesis of BNPs mediated by natural extracts is simple, low-cost, and safe for the environment. Plant extracts contain phenolic compounds that act as reducing agents (flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, and alkaloids) and stabilising ligands moieties (carbonyl, carboxyl, and amine groups), useful in the green synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs), and are free of toxic by-products. Noble bimetallic NPs (containing silver, gold, platinum, and palladium) have potential for biomedical applications due to their safety, stability in the biological environment, and low toxicity. They substantially impact human health (applications in medicine and pharmacy) due to the proven biological effects (catalytic, antioxidant, antibacterial, antidiabetic, antitumor, hepatoprotective, and regenerative activity). To the best of our knowledge, there are no review papers in the literature on the synthesis and characterisation of plant-mediated BNPs and their pharmacological potential. Thus, an effort has been made to provide a clear perspective on the synthesis of BNPs and the antioxidant, antibacterial, anticancer, antidiabetic, and size/shape-dependent applications of BNPs. Furthermore, we discussed the factors that influence BNPs biosyntheses such as pH, temperature, time, metal ion concentration, and plant extract.
... L. enhanced the expression of both proteins involved in insulin signaling (i.e., IRS-1, IRS-2, Akt) and Glut-4 in liver and SKM, and deeply ameliorated hyperglycemia-induced inflammation in the liver and adipose tissue of mice. These findings accord with previous results reported by Gupta and colleagues, who administered a methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera L. (150 and 300 mg/kg for 21 days) to streptozocin-induced diabetic rats(Gupta et al., 2012). In vitro, the main ITC deriving from Moringa oleifera L. (MIC-1) reduced glucose production by approximately 60% in HII4E hepatic cells, in part through reduction in the expression of G6Pase and PEPCK; accordingly, G6P expression was significantly lower also in the hepatic tissue of diabetic mice daily treated with the isothiocyanate-rich extract from Moringa oleifera L. Recently, the beneficial effects of MIC-1 in T2DM and diabetic nephropathy have been confirmed by Cheng et al., who hypothesized a critical role for Nrf2 in the mechanism of action of this aliphatic dietary ITC(Cheng et al., 2019). ...
Article
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) represents the most common age‐related metabolic disorder, and its management is becoming both a health and economic issue worldwide. Moreover, chronic hyperglycemia represents one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular complications. In the last years, the emerging evidence about the role of the endogenous gasotransmitter hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the pathogenesis and progression of T2DM led to increasing interest in the pharmacological modulation of endogenous “H2S‐system”. Indeed, H2S directly contributes to the homeostatic maintenance of blood glucose levels; moreover, it improves impaired angiogenesis and endothelial dysfunction under hyperglycemic conditions. Moreover, H2S promotes significant antioxidant, anti‐inflammatory, and antiapoptotic effects, thus preventing hyperglycemia‐induced vascular damage, diabetic nephropathy, and cardiomyopathy. Therefore, H2S‐releasing molecules represent a promising strategy in both clinical management of T2DM and prevention of macro‐ and micro‐vascular complications associated to hyperglycemia. Recently, growing attention has been focused on dietary organosulfur compounds. Among them, garlic polysulfides and isothiocyanates deriving from Brassicaceae have been recognized as H2S‐donors of great pharmacological and nutraceutical interest. Therefore, a better understanding of the therapeutic potential of naturally occurring H2S‐donors may pave the way to a more rational use of these nutraceuticals in the modulation of H2S homeostasis in T2DM.
... Moringa oleifera contains ascorbic acid, β-carotene, quercetin, kaempferol and phenolic acids (Anwar et al., 2007;Gupta et al., 2012;Kumar et al., 2012;Mahajan et al., 2007;Sreelatha et al., 2011). Quercetin is implicated in altering androgen levels (Padashetty & Mishra, 2007). ...
Article
Moringa oleifera (MO) is an excellent source of dietary antioxidant. MO is used traditionally to enhance libido and as an aphrodisiac in the treatment of sexual dysfunction. This study aimed to investigate the direct effect of aqueous leaf extract of MO on Leydig cell in vitro. Specifically, the effect of MO on viability, testosterone production, antioxidant activity and lipid peroxidation on TM3 cells were evaluated. TM3 cells seeded for 24 hr were exposed to aqueous leaf extract of MO (0, 10, 50, 100, 250, 500 and 1,000 µg/ml) for 24 hr, in the absence or presence of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG; 6 mIU/200 µl). Cell viability remained unchanged while testosterone production significantly increased at 500 and 1,000 µg/ml of the extract under stimulatory conditions by 34 and 45% respectively. Glutathione level substantially increased at 250 µg/ml, while lipid peroxidation, catalase and superoxide dismutase activity, and total antioxidant capacity remained unchanged. Our results demonstrate the androgenic effect of MO especially at high concentrations in TM3 cells. The androgenic effect may be attributed to its antioxidant enzyme activities.
... The findings concerning the blood glucose count of adult male albino Wister rats administered aspartame, and subsequently administered Moringa oleiera seed extract, as shown in table 3, is consistent with the report of Gupta et al. (2012), who reported the outcome of in-vivo antidiabetic effects of methanolic extracts of Moringa oleifera pods in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic albino rats; in which diabetic rats were treated with 150 or 300 mg/kg of extract for 21 days and the antidiabetic effects were evaluated by measuring changes in biochemical parameters in serum and pancreatic tissue. The progression of diabetes was significantly reduced after treatment with the extract. ...
Article
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The study was carried out to assess the effect of oral administration of Moringa oleifera seed extract following aspartame consumption on the intestinal wall. Twenty-seven (27) rats were used for this study. They were divided into nine groups. Group A, the control group were administered distilled water, Group B were administered 0.4 ml of Aspartame, Group C were administered 1.5 ml of Aspartame, Group D1 were administered 0.6 ml of aspartame for the first three weeks followed by 1.5 ml of ethanolic extract of ground moringa seed on the fourth week, Group D2 was administered 0.5 ml of aspartame for the first three week followed by 1.3 ml of n-Hexane extract of ground moringa seed on the fourth week, Group E1 were administered 1.3 ml of apartame for the first three weeks, followed by 2.5 ml of ethanolic extract of ground moringa seed on the fourth week, Group E2, were administered 1.5 ml of aspartame for the first three weeks followed by 3.0 ml of n-Hexane extract of ground moringa seed on the fourth week, Group F1 were administered 1.4 ml of aspartame and 2.8 ml of ethanolic extract of ground moringa seed from week one to week four. Group F2 were administered 1.3 ml of aspartame and 2.5 ml of n-Hexane extract of ground moringa seed from week one to week four. The experiment lasted for 28 days. The rats were weighed once a week. On the 28th day, the rats were anaesthetized via chloroform inhalation; the large intestine harvested and fixed in 10% buffered formalin, processed and stained with Harris Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E). Blood were harvested for analysis of Blood Glucose Level. Data were expressed as Mean ± standard error of the Mean (M±SEM) and subjected to one-way analysis of variance. Significant difference between mean was accessed by Student-New-Man-Keuls post hoc test. 95% level of significance (p < 0.05) was used for statistical analysis. Ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera seed extract could not protect the Large intestine from the toxic effect of aspartame while the n-Hexane extract of Moringa oleifera seed has a protective effect on the large intestine.
... It is a plant whose leaf's alcoholic extract along with its antidiabetic phytocompounds like flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, steroids and glycosides is assumed to be effective to treat diabetic complications. Quercetin and kaempferol, two major phytoconstituents, isolated from M. oleifera notably reduced serum glucose (33.34%) along with augmentation in serum insulin level when introduced to diabetic rat models for four weeks (123). In another study, moringinine, quercetin and chlorogenic acid, notable phytochemicals extracted from this plant were introduced to diabetic rat models to evaluate antidiabetic efficacy. ...
Article
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Diabetes, a chronic physiological dysfunction affecting people of different age groups and severely impairs the harmony of peoples' normal life worldwide. Despite the availability of insulin preparations and several synthetic oral antidiabetic drugs, there is a crucial need for the discovery and development of novel antidiabetic drugs because of the development of resistance and side effects of those drugs in long-term use. On the contrary, plants or herbal sources are getting popular day by day to the scientists, researchers, and pharmaceutical companies all over the world to search for potential bioactive compound(s) for the discovery and development of targeted novel antidiabetic drugs that may control diabetes with the least unwanted effects of conventional antidiabetic drugs. In this review, we have presented the prospective candidates comprised of either isolated phytochemical(s) and/or extract(s) containing bioactive phytoconstituents which have been reported in several in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies possessing noteworthy antidiabetic potential. The mode of actions, attributed to antidiabetic activities of the reported phytochemicals and/or plant extracts have also been described to focus on the prospective phytochemicals and phytosources for further studies in the discovery and development of novel antidiabetic therapeutics.
... Bitkinin yapraklarının, β-hücrelerinin uyarılmasında ve daha sonra önceden oluşturulmuş insülin salgılanmasında rol oynayan terpenoitleri içerdiği de bildirilmiştir.Moringa oleifera yapraklarında bulunan izotiyosiyanatlar gibi diğer bileşiklerin insülin direncini ve hepatik glukoneogenezi azalttığı deneysel çalışmalarla gösterilmiştir[27].M. oleifera tohumlarının metanol ile hazırlanmış ekstrelerinin, hücresel antioksidan savunma mekanizmalarını güçlendirerek ve streptozotosin (STZ) ile indüklenen diyabette hiperglisemiyi en azaindirerek β-hücrelerini reaktif oksijen türlerinden kaynaklanan hasara karşı koruduğu da yapılan çalışmalarla belirlenmiştir. Yazarlar tarafından bu çalışmanın, bu bitkiden güçlü bir antidiyabetik ilaç geliştirmek için heyecan verici bir fırsat olduğu yönünde değerlendirme yapılmıştır[28].Bir başka çalışmada ise; Moringa yapraklarının sulu ekstresinin hipoglisemik ve antidiyabetik etkileri, normal ve STZ ile indüklenen hafif ve şiddetli diyabetik albino sıçanlarda araştırılmıştır.Moringa yaprağı ekstresinin oral yoldan verilmesinin, açlık kan şekeri seviyesinde maksimum % 26,7'lik bir azalmaya ve 3 saatlik glikoz tüketiminden sonra glikoz toleransında maksimum % 30'luk bir azalmaya aracılık ettiği tespit edilmiştir. Ayrıca, ileri derecede diyabetik sıçanların 21 gün boyunca aynı dozda Moringa yaprağı ekstresi ile tedavi edilmesi, açlık kan şekeri ve tokluk kan glikoz seviyelerinde ...
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Z Amaç: Moringa oleifera Lamarck, Orta Doğu, Afrika ve Asya Ülkeleri'nde yetişen bir bitki olup; bu ülkelerde özellikle bitkinin tohumları ve yaprakları gıda olarak tüketilmektedir. Sonuç ve Tartışma: Bitkinin yaprak ve tohum kısımları fitokimyasallar açısından oldukça zengin olup; flavonoit, glukosinolat, alkaloit, fenolik asit, terpen, sterol, mineral, vitamin, amino asitler ve yağ asitleri taşımaktadır. Tohumlardan elde edilen yağ ise; esansiyel yağ asitleri omega 3, 6 ve 9 açısından çok zengin olması sebebiyle zeytinyağına alternatif bir besin kaynağı olarak görülmektedir. Bitkinin tüm kısımları (yaprak, tohum, kök ve çiçek) insan ve hayvan tüketimine uygun olarak bulunmuştur. Bununla birlikte bitkinin su arıtımı, biyodizel olarak kullanımı, kozmetik sektörü gibi gıda dışı alanlarda da değerlendirildiği bilinmektedir. Bitkinin biyolojik etkileri konusunda uluslararası saygın dergilerde yayımlanmış bilimsel çalışmalar mevcuttur. Yapılan araştırmalar ile bitkinin içerdiği fitokimyasallar sebebiyle antioksidan, antimikrobiyal, antikanser, antidiyabetik ve kardiyovasküler riskleri önleyici etkileri ispatlanmıştır. ABSTRACT Objective: Moringa oleifera Lamarck is a plant grown in Middle East, Africa and Asian countries, where seeds and leaves of the plant are consumed as food in these countries. Result and Discussion: The leaf and seed parts of the plant are very rich in phytochemicals; high content of flavonoids, glucosinolates, alkaloids, phenolic acids, terpenes, sterols, vitamins, minerals, amino acids and fatty acids. As for the oil obtained from the seeds; It is seen as an alternative food source to olive oil because it is very rich in essential fatty acids omega 3, 6 and 9. All parts of the plant (leaves, seeds, roots and flowers) were found suitable for human and animal consumption. However, it is known that the plant is also used in non-food areas such as water treatment, use as biodiesel, and cosmetics sector. There are scientific studies published in internationally respected journals about the biological effects of plant. The researches revealed that, phytochemicals contained in the plant have proven their antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, antidiabetic and preventive effects on cardiovascular risks.
... Fifty-two studies provided the antioxidative mechanism of MO concerning its anti-hyperglycemia, anti-hyperlipidemia, antihypertensive effects, and protective effects in the vascular, kidney, and cardiac. MO lowers blood glucose levels and improves insulin secretion in a diabetic rat model by reducing MDA and 8-OH-dG, increasing GSH concentrations, GPx, SOD, and catalase activities (Gupta et al., 2012;Al-Malki and El Rabey, 2015;Arise et al., 2016;Abd Eldaim et al., 2017;Omodanisi et al., 2017;Paula et al., 2017;Tang et al., 2017;Umar et al., 2018;Aju et al., 2019;Abdel-Daim et al., 2020;Oldoni et al., 2021). ...
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Cardiometabolic disorders (CMD) have become a global emergency and increasing burden on health and economic problems. Due to the increasing need for new drugs for cardiometabolic diseases, many alternative medicines from plants have been considered and studied. Moringa oleifera Lam. (MO), one of the native plants from several Asian countries, has been used empirically by people for various kinds of illnesses. In the present systematic review, we aimed to investigate the recent studies of MO in CMD and its possible mechanism of action. We systematically searched from three databases and summarized the data. This review includes a total of 108 papers in nonclinical studies and clinical trials of MO in cardiometabolic-related disorders. Moringa oleifera , extracts or isolated compound, exerts its effect on CMD through its antioxidative, anti-inflammatory actions resulting in the modulation in glucose and lipid metabolism and the preservation of target organ damage. Several studies supported the beneficial effect of MO in regulating the gut microbiome, which generates the diversity of gut microbiota and reduces the number of harmful bacteria in the caecum. Molecular actions that have been studied include the suppression of NF-kB translocation, upregulation of the Nrf2/Keap1 pathway, stimulation of total antioxidant capacity by reducing PKCζ activation, and inhibiting the Nox4 protein expression and several other proposed mechanisms. The present review found substantial evidence supporting the potential benefits of Moringa oleifera in cardiovascular or metabolic disorders.
... M. oleifera has gained popularity among researchers due to its antidiabetic properties. Different parts of M. oleifera such as leaves [83], seeds [84,85], bark and pods [86,87] have shown anti-diabetic effects. However, to the best of the authors' knowledge, only one research into the anti-diabetic properties of moringa polysaccharides has been conducted isolated polysaccharides from M. oleifera leaves using microwave assisted extraction [29]. ...
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Owing to numerous biological activities of different parts of Moringa oleifera Lam., various studies have been carried out to isolate and explore the activities of its various bioactive compounds including polysaccharides. Polysaccharides of M. oleifera have been reported to possess a variety of biofunctionalities including antihyperlipidemic, anti-diabetic, immunomodulatory, antihypertensive and gastrointestinal protection. In addition to bioactive polysaccharides, the gum exudated by stem of this plant is of commercial importance with wide range of applications in pharmaceutical industries. Various extraction and purification methods as well as combination of methods have been used to isolate and purify moringa polysaccharides. Studies suggest that extraction methods influence the structure of polysaccharides and thus their biological activity. This review summarizes all the available literature to provide updated information related to extraction, purification, modification, structural characterization, bioactivities and potential applications of moringa polysaccharides. This review will provide novel insights for future research and applications of moringa polysaccharides.
... M. oleifera has gained popularity among researchers due to its antidiabetic properties. Different parts of M. oleifera such as leaves [83], seeds [84,85], bark and pods [86,87] have shown anti-diabetic effects. However, to the best of the authors' knowledge, only one research into the anti-diabetic properties of moringa polysaccharides has been conducted isolated polysaccharides from M. oleifera leaves using microwave assisted extraction [29]. ...
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... The result showed that the more polar methanol extract posses more phytoconstituents than non-polar hexane extracts. The antioxidant and other biological properties of the plant are related to the presence of these phytochemicals in the extracts (Rice-Evans et al. 1996), (Kota et al. 2017), (Gupta et al. 2012). ...
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Methanol and hexane extracts of leaves of Moringa oleifera and aerial parts of Alternanthera sessilis were screened for the presence of different classes of phytoconstituents. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, terpenoids, polyphenols, glycosides, and coumarins in methanol extracts. Volatile oils, quinines, and phytosterols were absent in all extracts and saponins were present in all extracts. The biological activity of all the extracts was tested by performing brine shrimp bioassay. All the extracts except hexane extract of Moringa oleifera were found to be cytotoxic against brine shrimp nauplii. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the extracts. Methanol extracts of Moringa oleifera showed the strongest antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 65.77 µg/mL. Regarding the ascorbic acid (IC50 value 39.53 µg/mL) as standard, methanol extracts of both plants showed high free radical scavenging activity than that of hexane extracts.
... Experiments on diabetic rats were conducted to examine the antidiabetic and antioxidative effects of Moringa oleifera methanol extracts [202]. Nitric oxide and serum glucose levels dropped significantly at both doses, whereas protein and insulin levels rose. ...
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic syndrome. Diabetes has become more common in recent years. Chemically generated drugs are used to lessen the effects of DM and its following repercussions due to unpleasant side effects such as weight gain, gastrointestinal issues, and heart failure. On the other hand, medicinal plants could be a good source of anti-diabetic medications. This article aims to determine any plant matrix’s positive potential. Food restriction, physical activity, and the use of antidiabetic plant-derived chemicals are all being promoted as effective ways to manage diabetes because they are less expensive and have fewer or no side effects. This review focuses on antidiabetic plants, along with their bioactive constituent, chemically characterization, and plantbased diets for diabetes management. There is minimal scientific data about the mechanism of action of the plant-based product has been found. The purpose of this article is to highlight anti-diabetic plants and plantderived bioactive compounds that have anti-diabetic properties. It also provides researchers with data that may be used to build future strategies, such as identifying promising bioactive molecules to make diabetes management easier.
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Tropical neglected diseases (TNDs) are a group of parasitic infections that prevail in tropical and subtropical regions, affecting more than one billion people who live predominantly in developing countries. The poorest and marginalized populations suffer the most because of TNDs. These diseases strongly impact the local economy since billions of dollars are spent each year on public health strategies to treat or prevent these diseases. For this reason, they are often neglected by governments. Different tissues of the tree Moringa oleifera Lam. contain a set of metabolites, including proteins, vitamins, and minerals, with nutritional, pharmacological, and biotechnological potential. Several studies have described the activities of extracts and compounds isolated from the seeds, flowers, leaves, and roots of M. oleifera. Of these, lectins (carbohydrate-binding proteins), protease inhibitors, and the thiocarbamate glycoside niazinin stand out for their potential use in combating vectors and/or etiologic agents of TNDs such as dengue, African human trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, Buruli ulcer, lymphatic filariasis, and schistosomiasis. Here, we provide a brief review of each of these diseases, and of the metabolites of M. oleifera with a potential to treat or prevent the spread of TNDs.
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The plant Moringa oleifera has been reported to have various ethnomedicinal uses, of particular interest is the anti-inflammatory effect of the seed oil. In this study, suppository formulations containing Moringa seed oil (MSO) were developed for the management of inflammatory conditions of the anorectal region. The suppositories were prepared using a water soluble base, macrogol (MG) and a fatty base, dika fat (DF), obtained from Irvingia gabonensis seeds; they were evaluated for appearance, hardness, weight variation, melting point, pH, liquefaction time and in vitro release according to standard pharmacopoeia procedures. Anti-hemorroidal activity of the formulations in laboratory rats were also evaluated. Results show that all the suppositories prepared had good physicochemical properties. In vivo studies revealed that the optimized preparation containing dika fat was effective in reducing hemorrhoids induced in rats. Therefore, this study demonstrates the propensity of Moringa seed oil suppositories in the treatment of anorectal inflammatory conditions.
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The article presents research on the exploring of extraction process of biologically active substances from the leaves of the Moringa oleifera tree using ethanol. Ethanolic extracts were obtained using three different techniques: maceration with shaking, ultrasound-assisted extraction and extraction in Soxhlet apparatus, in different time variants: 1, 2 and 4-hours. After solvent evaporating and drying, the yields of dry extracts obtained in particular processes were calculated. The antioxidant activity of extracts was analyzed spectrophotometrically using DPPH radical scavenging method, and total phenolic content (TPC) was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method. By means of gas chromatography with mass selective detector (GC-MS), 11 biologically active compounds present in ethanolic extracts were identified, among which α-tocopherol had the greatest share. Based on the results, the influence of the extraction technique and time on the yield and antioxidant activity of M. oleifera leaf extracts were discussed.
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Traditional utilization of medicinal plants against diabetes mellitus (DM) is common in South Africa and other African countries. This study was aimed at documenting medicinal plants used against DM by the Bapedi and Vhavenda ethnic groups of the Limpopo province, South Africa. This study was based on a review of literature published in scientific journals, books, reports from national, regional, and international organizations, theses and conference papers obtained from libraries and electronic databases. A total of 61 plant species belonging to 39 botanical families, mainly the Fabaceae (n=6), Asteraceae (n=5), and Cucurbitaceae (n=4) were used by Bapedi (n=33) and Vhavenda (n=25) to treat and manage DM. Cassia abbreviata, Momordica balsamina, and Moringa oleifera are used by both the Bapedi and Vhavenda people. Plant parts widely used to prepare DM medicines include roots (40.0%), leaves (27.0%), bark (15.0%), and whole plant (7.0%). Monotherapy preparations made from a single plant species are the most dominant (88.5%) while 11.5% are prepared from a combination of two or more species. More than half (65.5%) of the species used to treat and manage DM are known to possess antidiabetic activities and various secondary metabolites. This study illustrates the importance of medicinal plants in the treatment and management of DM in South Africa.
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Goat milk kefir has gained popularity as a functional food. Incorporating natural ingredients with functional properties into kefir making could increase the functional properties in the kefir product. Moringa oleifera leaf has been extensively used for traditional medicine due to its multifunctional properties. This study aimed to investigate the chemical properties of goat milk kefir added with moringa leaf powder. The study was conducted in a Completely Randomized Design, using five treatments and five replicates (three replicates for each treatment). The additional levels of moringa leaf powder were 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 % w/w. The result showed that moringa leaf powder added to kefir making has significantly (P<0.05) increased acidity and decreased pH; however, the proximate analysis did not show a significant effect (P>0.05). Incorporating 2% moringa leaf powder could increase acidity by 58.61% and decrease pH by 8.53% compared to control. This study found that 2% moringa leaf added to the kefir making produced that the highest acidity (1.115%) and the lowest pH (5.07). The average compositions of total solids, fat, protein, ash, and carbohydrate in this study were 18,17%, 4.939%, 7.22%, 0.988%, and 5.019%, respectively.
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Moringa oleifera, a plant widely used in traditional medicine as well as for water purification, contains a lectin on its seeds named WSMoL which modulates several immune characteristics and has shown cardiac safe properties. Here, we tested the hypothesis that WSMoL is able to recover fasting glucose levels and to improve the cardiac left ventricular (LV) function in a type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) mice model. T2DM was induced in adult C57BL/6 mice by combining a high fat diet and low doses of Streptozotocin. Mice were randomly divided in two groups: i. received WSMoL for 21 consecutive days by gavage (T2DM + WSMoL) and ii. received saline solution (T2DM). Metabolic parameters and LV function were assessed. WSMoL was able to reduce fasting blood glucose levels in T2DM mice after 2 weeks of treatment, when compared to T2DM untreated group. Regarding to cardiac LV function, the T2DM + WSMoL group depicted ejection fraction values comparable to non-diabetic group. Our results show: i. WSMoL treatment presented a potent hypoglycemic effect decreasing insulin resistance and ii. WSMoL was able to improve cardiac LV ejection fraction. Collectively, the results presented here show WSMoL as a potential hypoglycemic agent to be tested in T2DM patients.
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The use of conventional drugs to treat metabolic disorders and the pathological consequences of diabetes further increases the complications because of the side effects, and is sometimes burdensome due to relatively higher costs and occasionally painful route of administration of these drugs. Therefore, shifting to herbal medicine may be more effective, economical, have fewer side effects and might have minimal toxicity. The present review amasses a list of ethnomedicinal plants of 143 species belonging to 61 families, from distinctive domestic survey literature, reported to have been used to treat diabetes by the ethnic and local people of Bangladesh. Leaves of the medicinal plants were found leading in terms of their use, followed by fruits, whole plants, roots, seeds, bark, stems, flowers, and rhizomes. This review provides starting information leading to the search for and use of indigenous botanical resources to discover bioactive compounds for novel hypoglycemic drug development.
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Study and comparing the anti-glycation and cross-link breaking effects of Moringa oleifera leaf, seed and root extracts with aminoguanidine, a known inhibitor of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). Their phytochemical composition and extraction yields were also assessed. All seed and root extracts demonstrated significantly higher anti-glycation effect than aminoguanidine against total immunogenic AGEs (p < 0.05). Both seed and root polar (methanol and water) extracts exhibited significantly higher anti-glycation effect against N′-(carboxymethyl)lysine than aminoguanidine (p < 0.05). Polar extracts of all M. oleifera tested parts demonstrated higher anti-glycation activity against fluorescent AGEs than aminoguanidine (p < 0.05). With exception to the aqueous root extracts, all leaf, seed and root extracts of M. oleifera demonstrated an ability to break AGE-protein cross-links. The highest cross-link breaking effect was exhibited by ethyl acetate extract of leaves.The methanol extract of seeds of M. oleifera showed the presence of all tested secondary metabolites.
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Background: Diabetes is an important disease without any available medicine to cure it. Lifestyle is having some strong roles in the initiation and progression of the disease. Plant resources are so far studied to get effective medicines for that disease only in their dry state, either directly or on the diluents-extracted sections to identify the active principles to synthesize marketable drugs, but achieved very limited success. The anti-diabetic medicinal plants contain a huge number of phyto-constituents at their succulent stage, all of which can work together when used unaltered for this purpose. Methods: Identification of commonly used anti-diabetic plants from previous reports was targeted to find out a few plants with strong potency for their use as some succulent biomedicines against diabetes. Standardization of a layout for the production of such medicines from these plants was attempted along with a listing of the lifestyle-related factors of diabetes. Result: The succulent plant materials can be encapsulated inside bio-encapsulating materials with bio-preservatives following the standard techniques of drug development with some modifications and can be transported to the patients under a cold chain. A brief list of reported anti-diabetic medicinal plants is added and forty plants are selected for the production of anti-diabetic biomedicines. The layout of all the related techniques is added. The lifestyle-related factors are identified and scopes for their modification are discussed. Conclusion: Triggering of the genetic predisposition for diabetes can be prevented and the severity of the disease can be minimized by incurring some modification in lifestyle and intake of some succulent biomedicine capsules.
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Cell proliferation and migration can be triggered by an injury where fibroblasts play a vital role in the repair processes. Extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, containing bioactive substances, have been used for healing of both wounds and burns. The objective of this study was to promote the proliferation and cellular migration of fibroblasts with a methanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves, obtained by sonication. Additionally, the bioactive constituents were dereplicated by high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. The effect of leaves methanolic extract on cell proliferation and migration (wound closure) in a human skin fibroblast cell line was assessed. At a low concentration (0.01 µg/ml), the extract promoted a significant increased rate of cell proliferation and migration. Flavonols and flavone glycosides were identified as the main group of compounds which contributed to this biological activity. The methanolic extract from M. oleifera leaves can have a positive effect on the processes of proliferation and migration during wound healing.Graphical abstract
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Plant-derived phytochemicals have been interested in as nutraceuticals for preventing the onset and progress of diabetes mellitus and its serious complications in recent years. Moringa oleifera Lam. is used in vegetables and in herbal medicine for its health-promoting properties against various diseases including diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to examine an effect of Moringa oleifera on diabetic hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia by meta-analyzing the current evidence of diabetic rodent models. Peer-reviewed studies written in English from two databases, PubMed and Embase, were searched to 30 April 2021. Studies reporting blood glucose or lipid levels in diabetic rodents with and without receiving extracts of Moringa oleifera were included. Forty-four studies enrolling 349 diabetic rodents treated with extracts of Moringa oleifera and 350 diabetic controls reported blood glucose levels. The pooled effect size was −3.92 (95% CI: −4.65 to −3.19) with a substantial heterogeneity. This effect was likely to be, at least in part, modified by the type of diabetic models. Moreover, diabetic hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia were also significantly improved in diabetic rodent models treated with Moringa oleifera.
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Background and aim The present study evaluates the antidiabetic effects of aqueous (CPAQ) and methanolic (CPME) extract of Costus pictus D. Don singly and/or in combination with metformin in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Experimental procedure CPAQ and CPME (400 mg/kg dose), metformin (120 mg/kg) and two different combinations of plant extracts and metformin (200 + 60 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg + 60 mg/kg) were orally given to alloxan-induced diabetic rats for 21 days. At 0, 7, 14, and 21 days, body weight and blood glucose levels were measured. Results and conclusion After 21 days of treatment, biochemical profiling and histopathology analysis were carried out. CPAQ and CPME, when administrated separately, could decrease blood glucose levels (P ≤ 0.05). CPME showed more promising results (P ≤ 0.05) compared to the diabetic control group. Extracts co-administrated with metformin showed dose-dependent significant recovery of hypoglycemic activity of metformin. Fasting blood glucose levels, body weight, protein, and lipid profile of the treatment group were compared to the diabetic and normal control groups. Animal groups co-administered with CPME and metformin showed more significant effects on the recovery of tissue damages. The synergistic effect of plant extracts with metformin has positive effects on all the parameters and enhanced the efficiency and reduction of blood glucose levels.
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Objectives Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) Lam (Moringaceae) is a perennial plant broadly used in South Asia and Africa as a traditional folk medicine to treat many ailments such as paralysis, helminthiasis, sores and skin infections. The review provides a critical and comprehensive evaluation of the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicity, agricultural economy and dietary benefit of M. oleifera and its future perspectives. Key findings In this review, the entire plant of M. oleifera, containing diverse phytochemicals, is summarized. The 163 chemical components, included flavonoids, carbamates, glucosinolates, phenols, and so on with various bioactivities, such as anti-tumour, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and so on. Additionally, M. oleifera is toxic at certain doses; and overuse can cause genotoxicity. Summary Although M. oleifera has been widely used in traditional medicine, the pharmacological studies that have been conducted so far are not sufficient for its use in the setting of evidence-based medicine. Little relevant data from clinical trials of M. oleifera have been reported. The majority of studies of its constituents, such as carbamates and glucosinolates, have been conducted only in vitro. Owing to a lack of available data, the pharmacology, toxicity, agricultural economy and dietary benefit of its constituents and extracts require further evaluation.
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Background: Modulation of non-specific immunity and other related activities of succulent parts of effective medicinal plants can prevent viral infections like COVID-19 through their dietary intake. Objective: The succulent parts of the medicinal plants with immunomodulation, anti-oxidation, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, etc . power can be used orally in the capsular form to prevent as well as to reduce the severity of symptoms of COVID-19. Methods: A proposal is displayed with a detailed description of related steps like the selection of medicinal plant parts consulting related reports, collection of biomedicines, validation of efficacy, dosing, encapsulation, storage, and transportation, etc . Results: The succulent bio-medicines against COVID-19 can be developed and marketed following only some adoptive research. Conclusion: Succulent bio-medicines can be prepared and marketed for the prevention and cure of different infectious and non-infectious diseases.
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Moringa oleifera commonly called as Drumstick tree is a multipurpose tree and it is widely present in the places like India, Asia, Africa, etc. Its leaves are emetic and their juices are used for medicinal purposes. Diabetes mellitus is a clinical syndrome with insufficient insulin secretion and abnormal glucose tolerance. It is a group of diseases which results in too much sugar in the blood. Leaves from Moringa oleifera were collected, analysed for their anti- diabetic activity. First the proteins are extracted using protein extraction methods, estimated using Lowry’s method, and then anti- diabetic activity was checked using Glucose uptake assay by yeast cells, where the plant extract (small proteins) was able to uptake glucose. SDS-PAGE was carried out to check the protein’s size and molecular weight. The characterization of Moringa oleifera conducted in this study shows that the small peptides from the leaves of this plant can contribute significantly in the daily recommended intake of it, since it serves as a rich source of all minerals, vitamins etc. This study has confirmed that the small peptides from the leaves of M.oleifera can fight against diabetics and the result indicated that Murungai (Moringa) leaves are suitable source of green leaf to reduce the diabetic complications in diabetic patients.
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Background Chronic administration of steroids like dexamethasone produces symptoms including weight loss and skeletal muscle dysfunction. Similar events are reported in chronic or high-intensity exercises, that can lead to fatigue and muscle damage. Objective In the present study, the effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract was evaluated against dexamethasone (Dex) and exercise (Exe)-induced muscle changes in rats. Materials and methods Six groups each containing 6 rats, namely normal, Dex control, Exe Control, Dex + M. oleifera leaf extract (300mg/kgp.o.), Dex + Exe, Dex + Exe + M. oleifera leaf extract were assessed in the study. Dex was administered at 0.6 mg/kg i.p. daily for 7 days. Exercise was given for a total of 10 days after 30 minutes of dosing using treadmill equipment for 900 seconds at speed 18 m/min. Animals were assessed for variation in body weight, muscular endurance using treadmill, locomotor activity using actophotometer, motor coordination using rotarod on day zero, and day seven. Hemidiaphragm of rats were isolated and used for evaluation of the glucose uptake. Gastrocnemius muscle was isolated and subjected to hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results Dex and Exe control animals showed a significant decrease in skeletal muscle activity when compared to normal control animals in the actophotometer test. Improvement in endurance were seen in Dex + M. oleifera leaf extract, and Dex + exercise + M. oleifera leaf extract groups compared to Dex control group. Improvement in locomotor activity was seen in Dex group subjected to exercise and was significant when treated with M. oleifera leaf extract. Histology reports were in accordance with the functional parameters. Conclusion M. oleifera leaf extract supplemented with exercise showed a reversal in the dexamethasone-induced functional impairment in skeletal muscles.
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Levels of glutathione, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activities in rat lung and liver have been investigated. After perfusing the lung to remove contaminating blood, this organ was found to have an apparent concentration of glutathione (2mM) which is approx. 20% of that found in the liver. Both organs contain very low levels of glutathione disulfide. Neither phenobarbital nor methylcholanthrene had a significant effect on the levels of reduced glutathione in lung and liver. In addition, the activities of some glutathione-metabolizing enzymes--glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activity assayed with four different substrates--were observed to be 5-to 60-fold lower in lung tissue than in the liver.
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A method for the investigation of the acute toxicity of an unknown chemical substance, with an estimation on the LD50, is described. Using this, it is possible to obtain with 13 experimental animals adequate information on the acute toxicity and on the LD50. This method has no limitations and applies to drugs, agricultural and industrial chemicals. It can be used for every route of administration.
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Oxygen radicals are implicated as an important cause of oxidative modification of proteins which may lead to their rapid degradation. Among the various oxidative modifications of amino acids in proteins, carbonyl formation may be an early marker for protein oxidation. This type of alteration is characterized as metal-catalyzed oxidation of proteins. The molecular mechanisms of this type of protein oxidation are discussed in this chapter. Redox cycling cations, such as Fe2+ or Cu2+ can bind to cation binding locations on proteins and with the aid of further attack by H2O2 or O2 can transform side-chain amine groups on several amino acids into carbonyls. The most likely amino acid residues to form carbonyl derivatives are lysine, arginine, proline, and histidine. Metal-catalyzed oxidation of proteins is not necessarily the only mechanism by which carbonyls are introduced into proteins. The chapter discusses the physiological importance of protein oxidation. Increases in carbonyl levels are examined in several diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, ischemia-reperfusion injury to heart muscles, and muscle damage caused by exhaustive exercise.
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Considerable evidence indicates that the maintenance of protein redox status is of fundamental importance for cell function, whereas structural changes in proteins are considered to be among the molecular mechanisms leading to diabetic complications. In this study, protein redox status and antioxidant activity were investigated in the lens and vitreous of diabetic and nondiabetic subjects. A significantly lower content of sulphydryl proteins was found in lens and vitreous of diabetic patients than in those of non-diabetic and control subjects. Moreover, an increased formation of protein-bound free sulphydryls and carbonyl proteins, indices of oxidative damage to proteins, was noted in diabetic patients. All these parameters were shown to be altered particularly when diabetes was complicated with retinal alterations. In addition, glutathione peroxidase activity and ascorbic acid levels, known to exert important antioxidant functions in the eye compartment, were found to be significantly decreased in the lens of diabetic patients, especially in the presence of retinal damage. This study indicates an alteration of protein redox status in subjects affected by diabetes mellitus; lens and vitreous proteins were found to be oxidized to a greater extent in the presence of retinal disease, together with a marked decrease of eye antioxidant systems. These results suggest that oxidative events are involved in the onset of diabetic eye complications, in which the decrease in free radical scavengers was shown to be associated with the oxidation of vitreous and lens proteins. Protein oxidation may, therefore, represent an important mechanism in the onset of eye complications in diabetic patients.
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Free radical damage is an important factor in many pathological and toxicological processes. Despite extensive research efforts in biomarkers in recent years, yielding promising results in experimental animals, there is still a great need for additional research on the applicability of, especially non-invasive, biomarkers of free radical damage in humans. This review gives an overview of the applications in experimental and human situations of four main groups of products resulting from free radical damage, these include: lipid peroxidation products, isoprostanes, DNA-hydroxylation products and protein hydroxylation products.
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The effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 1 nM-5 mM) on the tone of the rings of aorta precontracted with phenylephrine (PE) were studied in 4-5 months streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats and their age-matched controls. H2O2 induced brief contraction before relaxation in endothelium-containing rings that was more pronounced in diabetic rats. Removal of the endothelium or pretreatment of rings with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100 microM) abolished H2O2-induced immediate and transient increase in tone, but preincubation with indomethacin (10 microM) had no effect on contractions induced by H2O2 in both group of animals. Pretreatment with L-NAME or indomethacin as well as absence of endothelium produced an inhibition of H2O2-induced relaxation that was more pronounced in diabetic rings. Chronically STZ-diabetes resulted in a significant increase in H2O2-induced maximum relaxation that was largely endothelium-dependent. Decreased sensitivity (pD2) of diabetic vessels to vasorelaxant action of H2O2 was normalized by superoxide dismutase (SOD, 80 U/ml). Pretreatment with SOD had no effect on H2O2-induced maximum relaxations in both group of animals but led to an increase in H2O2-induced contractions in control rats. When the rings pretreated with diethyldithiocarbamate (DETCA, 5 mM), H2O2 produced only contraction in control rats, and H2O2-induced relaxations were markedly depressed in diabetic rats. H2O2 did not affect the tone of intact or endothelium-denuded rings in the presence of catalase (2000 U/ml). Aminotriazole (AT, 10 mM) failed to affect H2O2-induced contractions or relaxations in all rings. Our observations suggest that increased production of oxygen-derived free radicals (OFRs) in diabetic state leads to a decrease in SOD activity resulting an increase in endogenous superoxide anions (O2*-), that is limited cytotoxic actions, and an increase in catalase activity resulting a decrease in both H2O2 concentrations and the production of harmful hydroxyl radical (*OH) in diabetic aorta in long-term. Present results indicate that increased vascular activity of H2O2 may be an important factor in the development of vascular disorders associated with chronically diabetes mellitus. Enhanced formation of *OH, that is a product of exogenous H2O2 and excess O2*, seems to be contribute to increased relaxations to exogenously added H2O2 in chronically diabetic vessels.
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Streptozotocin has been used to induce diabetes mellitus in experimental animals and has been thought to have a selective cytotoxic effect on the beta-cells in the islets of Langerhans. The aim of the present study was to determine whether streptozotocin has any cytotoxic effect on other neuroendocrine cells of the gastrointestinal tract. Eight female Sprague-Dawley rats received intraperitoneal injections of 100 mg/kg streptozotocin in citric acid buffer; the concentration of streptozotocin was adjusted to 25 mg/ml buffer. Seven rats, serving as controls, received an equivalent volume of the vehicle. The rats were killed after three days and the fundus, antrum, small intestine and pancreas were examined for neuroendocrine cells. Our study confirms that streptozotocin is cytotoxic towards beta-cells. In addition, it is cytotoxic towards neuroendocrine cells of the oxyntic mucosa of the stomach. This finding may have clinical significance and suggests that streptozotocin may be used in the treatment of gastric neuroendocrine tumors as well as insulinomas.
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Since 1922 when Wu proposed the use of the Folin phenol reagent for the measurement of proteins (l), a number of modified analytical pro- cedures ut.ilizing this reagent have been reported for the determination of proteins in serum (2-G), in antigen-antibody precipitates (7-9), and in insulin (10). Although the reagent would seem to be recommended by its great sen- sitivity and the simplicity of procedure possible with its use, it has not found great favor for general biochemical purposes. In the belief that this reagent, nevertheless, has considerable merit for certain application, but that its peculiarities and limitations need to be understood for its fullest exploitation, it has been studied with regard t.o effects of variations in pH, time of reaction, and concentration of react- ants, permissible levels of reagents commonly used in handling proteins, and interfering subst.ances. Procedures are described for measuring pro- tein in solution or after precipitation wit,h acids or other agents, and for the determination of as little as 0.2 y of protein.
Biomarkers of free radical damage: Application in experimental animals and in humans Antidiabetic activity of M. oleifera ª
  • Lz Locckie
  • Jhn Meerman
  • Jnm Commander
  • Npe R Vermeulen
Locckie LZ, Meerman JHN, Commander JNM, Vermeulen NPE. Biomarkers of free radical damage: Application in experimental animals and in humans. Free Radic Biol Med. 1999; 26: 202–6. R. GUPTA et al. Antidiabetic activity of M. oleifera ª 2011 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd 171 ASIA TRACK
Flavonoids of the seeds of Crotlaria retusa and C. striata
  • Ss Subramanian
  • Nagarajan
Subramanian SS, Nagarajan S. Flavonoids of the seeds of Crotlaria retusa and C. striata. Curr Sci. 1969; 38: 65–8.
Vermeulen NPE. Biomarkers of free radical damage: Application in experimental animals and in humans
  • L Z Locckie
  • Jhn Meerman
  • Jnm Commander
Locckie LZ, Meerman JHN, Commander JNM, Vermeulen NPE. Biomarkers of free radical damage: Application in experimental animals and in humans. Free Radic Biol Med. 1999; 26: 202-6.