Terasawa Y, Fukushima H, Umeda S. How does interoceptive awareness interact with the subjective experience of emotion? An fMRI study. Hum Brain Mapp 34: 598-612

Centre for Advanced Research on Logic and Sensibility (CARLS), Keio University, Minato-ku, Kodaira-shi, Tokyo, Japan
Human Brain Mapping (Impact Factor: 5.97). 01/2011; 34(3). DOI: 10.1002/hbm.21458
Source: PubMed


Recent studies in cognitive neuroscience have suggested that the integration of information about the internal bodily state and the external environment is crucial for the experience of emotion. Extensive overlap between the neural mechanisms underlying the subjective emotion and those involved in interoception (perception of that which is arising from inside the body) has been identified. However, the mechanisms of interaction between the neural substrates of interoception and emotional experience remain unclear. We examined the common and distinct features of the neural activity underlying evaluation of emotional and bodily state using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The right anterior insular cortex and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) were identified as commonly activated areas. As both of these areas are considered critical for interoceptive awareness, these results suggest that attending to the bodily state underlies awareness of one's emotional state. Uniquely activated areas involved in the evaluation of emotional state included the temporal pole, posterior and anterior cingulate cortex, medial frontal gyrus, and inferior frontal gyrus. Also the precuneus was functionally associated with activity of the right anterior insular cortex and VMPFC when evaluating emotional state. Our findings indicate that activation in these areas and the precuneus are functionally associated for accessing interoceptive information and underpinning subjective experience of the emotional state. Thus, awareness of one's own emotional state appears to involve the integration of interoceptive information with an interpretation of the current situation. Hum Brain Mapp, 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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    • "The insula is critical to the integration of emotional and homeostatic information , and may be involved in translating interoceptive signals into conscious feelings ( Critchley et al . , 2005 ; Critchley et al . , 2004 ; Naqvi and Bechara , 2009 ; Terasawa et al . , 2013a ) . For example , the magnitude of insula activation while participants evaluated their own emotional and bodily states was found to be associated with social anxiety and neuroticism ( Terasawa et al . , 2013b ) . Insula activation has also been associated with self - report measures of anxiety ( Stein et al . , 2007 ) and anticipation "
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    ABSTRACT: This work investigated the impact of heavy marijuana use during adolescence on emotional functioning, as well as the brain functional mediators of this effect. Participants (n = 40) were recruited from the Michigan Longitudinal Study (MLS). Data on marijuana use were collected prospectively beginning in childhood as part of the MLS. Participants were classified as heavy marijuana users (n = 20) or controls with minimal marijuana use. Two facets of emotional functioning—negative emotionality and resiliency (a self-regulatory mechanism)—were assessed as part of the MLS at three time points: mean age 13.4; mean age 19.6; and mean age 23.1. Functional neuroimaging data during an emotion-arousal word task were collected at mean age 20.2. Negative emotionality decreased and resiliency increased across the three time points in controls but not heavy marijuana users. Compared with controls, heavy marijuana users had less activation to negative words in temporal, prefrontal, and occipital cortices, insula, and amygdala. Activation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to negative words mediated an association between marijuana group and later negative emotionality. Activation of the cuneus/lingual gyrus mediated an association between marijuana group and later resiliency. Results support growing evidence that heavy marijuana use during adolescence affects later emotional outcomes.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
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    • "Specifically, 16 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (SZ/SZAF) and 15 healthy controls (CON) completed a neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant picture-rating task, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to measure ACC activation to the emotional stimuli. A previous investigation documented particular engagement of the ACC in a task, much like ours, in which participants were asked to report on their current emotional experience (Terasawa et al., 2013). SZ/SZAF participants also completed clinician-rated measures of negative and positive symptom severity and current occupational and social functioning. "
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    ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is a chronic mental illness characterized by distinct positive and negative symptoms and functional impairment. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is a region of the brain's limbic system that is hypoactive during emotion processing in schizophrenia. Recent evidence suggests the hypoactive ACC in schizophrenia is due to negative (and not positive) symptoms. However, this finding has not been replicated and the functional significance of this relationship remains unclear. The present study examined the association between positive and negative symptoms, ACC activation to emotional images, and functional outcome in schizophrenia. Specifically, 16 schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (SZ/SZAF) and 15 control (CON) participants underwent an fMRI scan while completing an emotional picture-rating task. SZ/SZAF participants also completed clinician-rated measures of positive and negative symptoms and functional abilities. SZ/SZAF participants with high negative symptoms had reduced ACC activation to pleasant images relative to those with low negative symptoms and CON, who did not differ. Furthermore, amongst all SZ/SZAF participants poorer social functioning was associated with decreased ACC activation to pleasant images. Finally, ACC activation partially mediated the relationship between negative symptoms and social dysfunction. These results provide evidence of the functional significance of the relationship between negative symptoms and ACC dysfunction in schizophrenia.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging
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    • "have indicated that we refer to our internal bodily state when we are aware of our emotional state . Additionally , our internal state modulates our emotional experience ( Bechara et al. , 1996 ; Pollatos et al . , 2005 ; Lane , 2008 ; Dunn et al ., 2010 ; Terasawa et al . , 2013a , b ) . The perception of afferent information arising from anywhere and everywhere within the body has been termed " interoception " ( Sherrington , 1906 ; Cameron , 2001 ) . Some methods have been developed as measurements of an individual ' s sensitivity to perceive interoception , such as the heartbeat perception task ( Schandry , 1"
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    ABSTRACT: The insular cortex has been considered to be the neural base of visceral sensation for many years. Previous studies in psychology and cognitive neuroscience have accumulated evidence indicating that interoception is an essential factor in the subjective feeling of emotion. Recent neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that anterior insular cortex activation is associated with accessing interoceptive information and underpinning the subjective experience of emotional state. Only a small number of studies have focused on the influence of insular damage on emotion processing and interoceptive awareness. Moreover, disparate hypotheses have been proposed for the alteration of emotion processing by insular lesions. Some studies show that insular lesions yield an inability for understanding and representing disgust exclusively, but other studies suggest that such lesions modulate arousal and valence judgments for both positive and negative emotions. In this study, we examined the alteration in emotion recognition in three right insular and adjacent area damaged cases with well-preserved higher cognitive function. Participants performed an experimental task using morphed photos that ranged between neutral and emotional facial expressions (i.e., anger, sadness, disgust, and happiness). Recognition rates of particular emotions were calculated to measure emotional sensitivity. In addition, they performed heartbeat perception task for measuring interoceptive accuracy. The cases identified emotions that have high arousal level (e.g., anger) as less aroused emotions (e.g., sadness) and a case showed remarkably low interoceptive accuracy. The current results show that insular lesions lead to attenuated emotional sensitivity across emotions, rather than category-specific impairments such as to disgust. Despite the small number of cases, our findings suggest that the insular cortex modulates recognition of emotional saliency and mediates interoceptive and emotional awareness.
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