Cyclosporin A and tacrolimus induce renal Erk1/2 pathway via ROS-induced and metalloproteinase-dependent EGF-receptor signaling
pharmazentrum frankfurt/ZAFES, Klinikum der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, D-60590 Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Biochemical pharmacology
(Impact Factor: 5.01).
11/2011; 83(2):286-95. DOI: 10.1016/j.bcp.2011.11.001
We previously demonstrated that the widely used immunosuppressive drugs cyclosporin A (CsA) and tacrolimus (FK506), independent of immunophilin binding, can activate profibrogenic transforming growth factor β (TGFβ)/Smad signaling cascades in rat renal mesangial cells (MC). Here we report that both peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) inhibitors activate the extracellular-signaling regulated kinase (ERK) a member of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and induce a rapid and transient increase in ERK phosphorylation. The MEK inhibitor U0126, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), a cell-permeant superoxide dismutase (SOD) and stigmatellin, an inhibitor of mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 complex strongly attenuated the increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation triggered by PPIase inhibitors. Moreover, neutralizing antibodies against heparin binding-epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF), and inhibition of the EGF receptor by either small interfering (si)RNA or AG1478, demonstrate that ERK activation by both PPIase inhibitors is mediated via HB-EGF-induced EGF receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase activation. The strong inhibitory effects achieved by GM6001 and TAPI-2 furthermore implicate the involvement of a desintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17). Concomitantly, the PPIase inhibitor-induced ADAM17 secretase activity was significantly reduced by SOD and stigmatellin thus suggesting that mitochondrial ROS play a primary role in PPIase inhibitor-induced and ADAM17-mediated HB-EGF shedding. Functionally, both immunosuppressants caused a strong increase in MC proliferation which was similarly impeded when cells were treated in the presence of NAC, TAPI-2 or AG1478, respectively. Our data suggest that CsA and FK506, via ROS-dependent and ADAM17-catalyzed HB-EGF shedding induce the mitogenic ERK1/2 signaling cascade in renal MC.
Available from: Nam-Hyuk Cho
- "activates the EGFR , we questioned whether CsA might activate Akt through EGFR activation. The results indicate that CsA temporally increased phospho-EGFR levels (Fig. 4A), and the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib reversed phospho-Akt levels in CsA-treated PC-3 cells (Fig. 4B). "
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ABSTRACT: Cyclosporin A (CsA) has antitumor effects on various cancers including prostate cancer. However, its antitumor mechanism is poorly understood. In this study, we showed that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) mediates the antitumor effect of CsA on prostate cancer cells. CsA attenuated cell growth by inducing a G1 arrest through the inhibition of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling. In this context, Akt was paradoxically activated downstream of the EGF receptor (EGFR)-mediated increase in phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP₃) production. However, CsA also caused a Ca²⁺/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ)-dependent activation of AMPK, which inhibits mTORC1 signaling; this led to ineffective Akt signaling. An EGFR or Akt inhibitor increased the growth suppressive activity of CsA, whereas the combination of an AMPK inhibitor and CsA markedly rescued cells from the G1 arrest and increased cell growth. These results provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of CsA on cancer signaling pathways.
Available from: Marinella Roberti
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ABSTRACT: Galloflavin (GF), a recently identified lactate dehydrogenase inhibitor, hinders the proliferation of cancer cells by blocking glycolysis and ATP production. The aim of the present experiments was to study the effect of this compound on breast cancer cell lines reproducing different pathological subtypes of this tumor: MCF-7 (the well differentiated form), MDA-MB-231 (the aggressive triple negative tumor) and MCF-Tam (a sub-line of MCF-7 with acquired tamoxifen resistance). We observed marked differences in the energetic metabolism of these cell lines. Compared to MCF-7 cells, both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-Tam cells exhibited higher LDH levels and glucose uptake and showed lower capacity of oxygen consumption. In spite of these differences, GF exerted similar growth inhibitory effects. This result was explained by the finding of a constitutively activated stress response in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-Tam cells, which reproduce the poor prognosis tumor forms. As a further proof, different signaling pathways were found to be involved in the antiproliferative action of GF. In MCF-7 cells we observed a down regulation of the ERα-mediated signaling needed for cell survival. On the contrary, in MCF-Tam and MDA-MB-231 cells growth inhibition appeared to be contributed by an oxidative stress condition. The prevalent mechanism of cell death was found to be apoptosis induction. Because of the clinical relevance of breast cancer forms having the triple negative and/or chemoresistant phenotype, our results showing comparable effects of GF even on aggressively growing cells encourage further studies to verify the potential of this compound in improving the chemotherapy of breast cancer.
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ABSTRACT: Both matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) and transforming growth factors-β1 (TGF-β1) are the important factors in the pathogenesis of the aortic aneurysm (AA) and aortic dissection (AD). Recent studies have shown that inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2(ERK1/2) or NF-κB pathways is able to suppress aneurysm formation. The median layers of arterial walls are mainly the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), while the pathogenesis of AA and AD is closely related to the changes in the median layer structure. Thus, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying TGF-β1-induced MMP-9 expression in VSMC, the involvement of intracellular ROS and signaling molecules, including ERK1/2 and NF-κB. Rat vascular smooth muscle cells (A7r5) were used. MMP-9 expression was analyzed by gelatin zymography, western blot and RT-PCR. The involvement of intracellular ROS and signaling molecules including ERK1/2 and NF-κB in the responses was investigated using reactive oxygen scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and pharmacological inhibitors (U0126 and BAY11-7082), determined by ROS testing and western blot testing for their corresponding proteins. TGF-β1 induces MMP-9 expression via ROS-dependent signaling pathway. ROS production leads to activation of ERK1/2 and then activation of the NF-κB transcription factor. Activated NF-κB turns on transcription of the MMP-9 gene. The process in which TGF-β1 induces MMP9 expression involves the ROS-dependent ERK-NF-κB signal pathways in VSMC. This discovery raises a new regulation pathway in the VSMC, and it shows the potential to help to find a new solution to treating aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection.
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