Association Between Seasonal Influenza Vaccination in 2008-2009 and Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Infection Among School Students From Kobe, Japan, April-June 2009

Field Epidemiology Training Program, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan.
Clinical Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 8.89). 11/2011; 54(3):381-3. DOI: 10.1093/cid/cir787
Source: PubMed


We assessed the effect of seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccination (TIV) on pandemic influenza 2009 (pH1N1)–related
illness from April to June 2009 among 2849 students (aged 12–18 years). TIV was associated with an increase in the frequency
of pH1N1-related illness among subjects (adjusted odds ratio, 1.47; 95% confidence interval, 1.14–1.89). TIV during the 2008-2009
season increased the risk of pH1N1-related illness from April to June 2009.

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    ABSTRACT: The efficacy of seasonal influenza vaccination against 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) remains unclear. One child aged 6-17 years in each of 796 households was randomized to receive 2009-2010 seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) or saline placebo between August 2009 and February 2010. Households were followed up with serology, symptom diaries, and collection of respiratory specimens during illnesses. The primary outcomes were influenza infection confirmed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or a ≥4-fold rise in serum antibody titer measured by hemagglutination inhibition assay. Receipt of TIV led to 8-13-fold mean geometric rises in antibody titers against seasonal A and B viruses, but only 1.5-fold mean geometric rises against the pandemic A(H1N1) virus that was not included in the vaccine. Children who received TIV had a reduced risk of seasonal influenza B confirmed by RT-PCR, with a vaccine efficacy estimate of 66% (95% confidence interval [CI], 31%-83%). Children who received TIV also a had reduced risk of pandemic influenza A(H1N1) indicated by serology, with a vaccine efficacy estimate of 47% (95% CI, 15%-67%). Seasonal TIV prevented pandemic influenza A(H1N1) and influenza B infections in children. Pandemic A(H1N1) circulated at the time of vaccination and for a short time afterward with no substantial seasonal influenza activity during that period. The potential mechanism for seasonal TIV to provide protection, possibly short lived, for children against pandemic A(H1N1) infection despite poor cross-reactive serologic response deserves further investigation. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00792051.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Clinical Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction The 2011−12 trivalent influenza vaccine contains a strain of influenza B/Victoria-lineage viruses. Despite free provision of influenza vaccine among target populations, an epidemic predominated by influenza B/Yamagata-lineage viruses occurred during the 2011−12 season in Taiwan. We characterized this vaccine-mismatched epidemic and estimated influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE). Methods Influenza activity was monitored through sentinel viral surveillance, emergency department (ED) and outpatient influenza-like illness (ILI) syndromic surveillance, and case-based surveillance of influenza with complications and deaths. VE against laboratory-confirmed influenza was evaluated through a case-control study on ILI patients enrolled into sentinel viral surveillance. Logistic regression was used to estimate VE adjusted for confounding factors. Results During July 2011−June 2012, influenza B accounted for 2,382 (72.5%) of 3,285 influenza-positive respiratory specimens. Of 329 influenza B viral isolates with antigen characterization, 287 (87.2%) were B/Yamagata-lineage viruses. Proportions of ED and outpatient visits being ILI-related increased from November 2011 to January 2012. Of 1,704 confirmed cases of influenza with complications, including 154 (9.0%) deaths, influenza B accounted for 1,034 (60.7%) of the confirmed cases and 103 (66.9%) of the deaths. Reporting rates of confirmed influenza with complications and deaths were 73.5 and 6.6 per 1,000,000, respectively, highest among those aged ≥65 years, 50−64 years, 3−6 years, and 0−2 years. Adjusted VE was −31% (95% CI: −80, 4) against all influenza, 54% (95% CI: 3, 78) against influenza A, and −66% (95% CI: −132, −18) against influenza B. Conclusions This influenza epidemic in Taiwan was predominated by B/Yamagata-lineage viruses unprotected by the 2011−12 trivalent vaccine. The morbidity and mortality of this vaccine-mismatched epidemic warrants careful consideration of introducing a quadrivalent influenza vaccine that includes strains of both B lineages.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    Preview · Article · May 2013 · Clinical Infectious Diseases
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