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When Curiosity Breeds Intimacy: Taking Advantage of Intimacy Opportunities and Transforming Boring Conversations

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Abstract

Curious people seek knowledge and new experiences. In 3 studies, we examined whether, when, and how curiosity contributes to positive social outcomes between unacquainted strangers. Study 1 (98 college students) showed that curious people expect to generate closeness during intimate conversations but not during small talk; less curious people anticipated poor outcomes in both situations. We hypothesized that curious people underestimate their ability to bond with unacquainted strangers during mundane conversations. Studies 2 (90 college students) and 3 (106 college students) showed that curious people felt close to partners during intimate and small-talk conversations; less curious people only felt close when the situation offered relationship-building exercises. Surprise at the pleasure felt during this novel, uncertain situation partially mediated the benefits linked to curiosity. We found evidence of slight asymmetry between self and partner reactions. Results could not be attributed to physical attraction or positive affect. Collectively, results suggest that positive social interactions benefit from an open and curious mind-set.

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... However, to our knowledge, fewer empirical research studies focus on the direct effect of anxiety on curiosity, especially on interpersonal curiosity during the COVID-19. Interpersonal curiosity is an individual's desire for new information about other people, including other people's life experience, habits, and details, as well as thoughts, feelings, and interests (Li & Yu, 2015;Litman & Pezzo, 2007), and is one of the most important kinds of curiosity in daily life for building interpersonal relationships (Kashdan, McKnight, Fincham, & Rose, 2011), reducing aggressive behavior (Kashdan et al., 2013), and maintaining social norms (Dunbar, 2004). It is helpful for us to expand our understanding of anxiety states and information-seeking behavior in current situations by further study of the possible relationship between general anxiety and different kinds of curiosity, in particular for interpersonal curiosty during the COVID-19. ...
... Besides, a previous study showed that children with ASD have less information-seeking behavior in response to instructions that exceeded their level of understanding than children with developmental delays (Young, Hudry, Trembath, & Vivanti, 2016). Interpersonal curiosity is one of the most important kinds of curiosity in daily life for building interpersonal relationships (Kashdan et al., 2011). So we hypothesize that interpersonal distancing and autistic tendency may negatively predict participant's social information seeking (for example, interpersonal curiosity). ...
... Interpersonal curiosity was negatively predicted by interpersonal distancing and autistic tendency during the COVID-19 pandemic, which is in consistent with the results of Young et al. (2016). This result is plausible because previous study indicates that interpersonal curiosity drives social interaction in daily life (Kashdan et al., 2011), which could be challenged in the COVID-19 pandemic. Interpersonal information includes knowledge about individuals' experiences, their public and private behaviors, and also their thoughts and feelings (Litman & Pezzo, 2007). ...
Article
With the worldwide implementation of quarantine regulations to suppress the spread of the COVID-19, anxiety, interpersonal distancing and autistic tendency may decrease individuals' desire to seek interpersonal information and thus might have negative effects on their interpersonal curiosity. Through behavioral paradigms and scales, two studies were conducted (Study 1: n = 570; Study 2: n = 501). We explored the predictive effect of anxiety on interpersonal curiosity in situations when mandatory isolation measures have led to dramatic changes in interpersonal distancing and autistic tendency. We found that interpersonal distancing and autistic tendency negatively predicted interpersonal curiosity, and these predictive effects suppressed the positive prediction of state anxiety to interpersonal curiosity. Our research provides insights into the relationships among anxiety, curiosity, interpersonal distancing, and autistic tendency during the COVID-19 pandemic.
... However, from a bounded agency perspective (Shanahan & Hood, 2000), such exploration, like any instance of human agency, is unlikely to operate in a vacuum, but will be bounded by the proximal social ecology in which it is enacted (Kashdan, McKnight, Fincham, & Rose, 2011;Kashdan & Yuen, 2007). In this study, we link the concept of bounded agency to the socioecological perspective. ...
... (Kashdan et al., 2004). However, Openness is largely a state of mind, whereas exploration primarily constitutes a mechanism of action (Kashdan et al., 2011). ...
... This replication across two independent, but parallel, samples greatly enhanced our confidence in these results. Our results also dovetail with recent studies showing that the effects of exploration are context-dependent (Kashdan et al., 2011;Kashdan & Yuen, 2007). More broadly, our findings are in line with research highlighting the power of personality in predicting important life outcomes (Roberts et al., 2007), and with accounts of social change that champion the role of individual agency and proactivity, while emphasizing their boundedness (Brandtst€ adter, 2010;Elder, 1994;Shanahan & Hood, 2000). ...
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Objective: We investigated the interplay between the personality trait exploration and objective socioecological conditions in shaping individual differences in the experience of two individual-level benefits of current social change: New lifestyle options, which arise from the societal trend toward individualization; and new learning opportunities, which accrue from the societal trend toward lifelong learning. We hypothesized that people higher in trait exploration experience a greater increase in lifestyle options and learning opportunities--but more so in social ecologies in which individualization and lifelong learning are stronger, thus offering greater latitude for exploring these trends. Method: Structural equation modeling in two parallel adult samples from Germany (N = 2,448) and Poland (N = 2,571), using regional divorce rates as a proxy of individualization and Internet domain registration rates as proxy of lifelong learning. Results: Higher exploration was related to a greater perceived increase in lifestyle options and in learning opportunities over the past five years. These associations were stronger in regions in which the trends toward individualization and lifelong learning, respectively, were more prominent. Conclusion: Individuals higher in exploration are better equipped to reap the benefits of current social change--but the effects of exploration are bounded by the conditions in the social ecology. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Gurning and Siregar (017) and as a disposition to inquire, investigate or seek knowledge. With high curiosity, they will have a greater desire to question gaps in learning, seek information, and explore knowledge Gurning and Siregar (2017), and Kashdan et al. (2011) have an open attitude to find newness. Some researchers define curiosity as an important basis in the learning process. ...
... Abakpa et al. (2018) basically, curiosity is the desire to learn. Meanwhile Berlyne (1954), Kashdan et al. (2011), Litman (2010 and Oudeyer et al. (2016) stated that curiosity is an intrinsic desire to find new information and experiences that motivate learner behavior and become the key to active learning. Scientific curiosity can be stimulated when individuals feel a lack of information, and the emergence of high motivation to find out (Litman, 2005;Noordewier & van Dijk, 2017). ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to identify the scientific curiosity of prospective Biological teachers based on gender. Scientific curiosity in this research consists of three components, namely 1) Practice Science, 2) Stretch, and 3) Embrace. The survey method used in this study involved 100 prospective students of education teachers as samples. Scientific curiosity data was collected using Science Curiosity in Learning Environments (SCILE) which has been declared reliable (Cronbach alpha: 0.91). Differences in the scientific curiosity of male and female were analyzed descriptively and statistically using t-test and Mann-Whitney test. The results showed that the scientific curiosity of science teacher candidates was in a good category, male and female teacher candidates were significantly different only in the science practice component (p: 0.020), while the stretching (p: 0.505) and embracing components (p : 0.05). : 0.185). no significant difference was found between male and female students
... This is why we controlled for neuroticism, extraversion and openness to experience. But there may be other personality variables that might have confounded the results, for example, curiosity (Kashdan et al. 2011). Furthermore, the personal level of tolerance of ambiguity (Mclain 1993;Furnham and Marks 2013) should be measured and controlled. ...
... The interviews of a first study (Laib et al. 2014) revealed that people believe that mutual sympathy is a crucial factor when deciding whether to address another person or using the Snackomat with them. It would thus be interesting to investigate how a factor like sympathy or relatedness or feelings of closeness (Kashdan et al. 2011) moderates the effect of the Snackomat. ...
Article
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The “Snackomat” is a vending machine offering snacks for free, installed in waiting situations, and is designed to initiate small talk and therewith to create a positive experience. Here, we experimentally compare the effect on user experience of the Snackomat to the effect of a coffee machine as control condition with 58 participants. Participants’ behaviour was observed in waiting situations where observers were blind to the study’s objective. The two experimental conditions were compared with an analysis of covariance. The alpha levels were Bonferroni corrected. Significant results with strong effect size indicate that the Snackomat was more effective in creating positive experiences than a coffee machine in a control condition. However, the experimental setting most likely attenuated differences between the two conditions. Future studies should thus replicate the findings in a natural setting. Nevertheless the Snackomat is a promising application example of designing for positive experiences.
... At the social level, curiosity can enhance interpersonal relationships. By studying the role of curiosity in conversations, Kashdan et al. [Kashdan et al. (2011)] suggested that curiosity can build social bonds by promoting behaviors such as engagement, responsiveness, and flexibility. ...
... ;Schoorman et al. (2007)]. The motivational role of curiosity in building interpersonal relationships can contribute to the trust building between strangers[Kashdan et al. (2011)]. Computational curiosity can potentially enhance an agent's judgment by making the agent more sensitive to novel, surprising, conflicting, and uncertain information presented in the environment. ...
Article
This book discusses computational curiosity, from the psychology of curiosity to the computational models of curiosity, and then showcases several interesting applications of computational curiosity. A brief overview of the book is given as follows. Chapter 1 discusses the underpinnings of curiosity in human beings, including the major categories of curiosity, curiosity-related emotions and behaviors, and the benefits of curiosity. Chapter 2 reviews the arousal theories of curiosity in psychology and summarizes a general two-step process model for computational curiosity. Base on the perspective of the two-step process model, Chapter 3 reviews and analyzes some of the traditional computational models of curiosity. Chapter 4 introduces a novel generic computational model of curiosity, which is developed based on the arousal theories of curiosity. After the discussion of computational models of curiosity, we outline the important applications where computational curiosity may bring significant impacts in Chapter 5. Chapter 6 discusses the application of the generic computational model of curiosity in a machine learning framework. Chapter 7 discusses the application of the generic computational model of curiosity in a recommender system. In Chapter 8 and Chapter 9, the generic computational model of curiosity is studied in two types of pedagogical agents. In Chapter 8, a curious peer learner is studied. It is a non-player character that aims to provide a believable virtual learning environment for users. In Chapter 9, a curious learning companion is studied. It aims to enhance users' learning experience through providing meaningful interactions with them. Chapter 10 discusses open questions in the research field of computation curiosity.
... Moreover, some evidence suggests character strengths cause well-being (e.g., Proyer et al. 2012). In examining any of the 24 specific character strengths, a myriad of positive benefits can be found, for example, curiosity is linked with interpersonal intimacy (Kashdan et al. 2011), perseverance with achievement (Lounsbury et al. 2009), gratitude with improved physical symptoms (Emmons and McCullough 2003), and zest with positive work outcomes ). General strengths use has been associated with flourishing in that workers who used their strengths a lot were 18 times more likely to be flourishing than those who reported using their strengths least (Hone et al. 2015). ...
... Character strengths help us broaden our skills and positive responding in the moment while simultaneously building resources for our future, as aligned with the broaden-andbuild theory of positive emotions (Fredrickson 2001). For example, using our strengths of social intelligence or curiosity in a new interpersonal situation allows us to use good social skills and see new opportunities for social intimacy (Kashdan et al. 2011) and are ways of exercising the strengths to make it more likely they'll be used in the future due to practice and rehearsal effects. Character strengths boost positive emotions and mood (e.g., Lavy et al. 2014b) and build resources for individuals in the future such as satisfaction, meaning, and calling (e.g., Harzer and Ruch 2015a). ...
Article
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Life is a collection of moments, some light and pleasant, some dark and unpleasant, some neutral. Character strengths contribute to the full range of human experiences, influencing and creating positive opportunities while also helping us to endure the mundane and embrace and navigate the struggles. Some researchers have argued that thriving, which casts a wider net on the human experience than constructs such as flourishing or resilience, constitutes strong well-being and performance at times of both adversity and opportunity (Brown et al. 2017). With this and the many findings in the science of character in mind, six character strengths functions are theorized and then applied across time orientations, making the case for the integral role of character strengths in these matters of thriving. Three opportunity functions are offered, including priming in which character strengths prompt and prepare for strengths awareness and use; mindfulness in which character strengths serve in synergy with mindful awareness of the present reality; and appreciation in which character strengths use expresses value for what has occurred. The three adversity functions include: buffering – character strengths use prevents problems; reappraisal – character strengths explain or reinterpret problems; and resilience – character strengths support the bounce-back from life setbacks. Several applications of these six functions for vocational and educational settings are explored.
... Curiosity seems to be healthy for long-term relationships. Kashdan, Mcknight, Fincham, and Rose (2011) found evidence that people who are curious actively cultivate intimacy in relationships. Gottman (1999) also strongly emphasizes the importance of maintaining curiosity in relationships. ...
... 8). Given her descriptions and Kashdan et al. (2011) findings that curious people generate intimacy in relationships, it is not surprising that I found a correlation between curiosity and sexual satisfaction. The findings imply that enhancing sensuality, curiosity, and imagination could improve sexual satisfaction, but only in the context of a healthy relationship. ...
Article
The central purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between certain personal qualities with high and optimal sexual satisfaction. There is a breadth of research on sexual function and dysfunction and several studies on sexual satisfaction. However, very little research exists on what kind of qualities are likely to lead to optimal sexual experiences, and to my knowledge this is the first quantitative study on the topic. The author selected three key qualities–sensuality, imagination, and curiosity—to examine how they relate to high and optimal sexual satisfaction. Because the literature has shown strong support of the positive relationship between sexual satisfaction and relationship satisfaction, participants were divided into two groups – those judged to be in secure relationships versus those in insecure relationships. A large sample of people (N = 195) completed an online survey composed of five measures. Results indicated a statistically significant positive correlation between sensuality, imagination, and curiosity with sexual satisfaction—but only among individuals in a secure relationship. Results indicate a statistically significant positive correlation of sensuality and imagination among those with optimal sexual satisfaction. In conclusion, implications are discussed, including strengths and limitations of the study, suggestions for sex therapists and sex educators, and recommendations for future research.
... For an individual of high interpersonal curiosity, it is easier to understand social behavior. In social activities, an individual showing quality curiosity has more positive emotions, creating a more positive and close social experience (Kashdan et al., 2011). An individual with poor control over interpersonal curiosity may eventually exhibit deviant behavior. ...
... For an individual of high interpersonal curiosity, it is easier to understand social behavior. In social activities, an individual with quality curiosity has more positive emotions, thus creating a more positive and close social experience (Kashdan et al., 2011). A suicidal attitude is a mixture of emotion and social experience. ...
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This study analyzed the mediation effect of a suicidal attitude from regulatory emotional self-efficacy to core self-evaluation. A measurement study was conducted among 438 college students using the Regulatory Emotional Self-Efficacy Scale, the Core Self-Evaluation Scale, and the Suicide Attitude Questionnaire. Results from the plug-in process in SPSS and the bootstrap method showed that the attitude toward suicidal behavior and the attitude toward family members of an individual who has committed suicide played a double-mediation role, from perceived self-efficacy in managing happiness to core self-evaluation. The results also showed that the attitude toward a person who committed suicide or attempted suicide played a mediation effect from perceived self-efficacy in managing curiousness to core self-evaluation. This research has great significance for improving the understanding of college students’ sense of happiness and prevention for self-evaluation.
... Curiosity is defined as a positive emotional-motivational system, which enables individuals to thrive and develop a sense of subjective and psychological wellbeing. There have been several studies supporting the beneficial role of curiosity, showing that people who exhibit high levels of curiosity experience higher levels of well-being (e.g., Gallagher & Lopez, 2007), greater meaning in life and life satisfaction (Kashdan & Steger, 2007), as well as greater positive emotions and closeness in social interactions (Kashdan, McKnight, Fincham & Rose, 2011). Although similar results have been obtained in adolescent samples (Jovanovi c & Brdari c, 2012;Kashdan & Yuen, 2007), it remains unknown whether trait curiosity may lead to maladaptive behaviors. ...
... Participants provided their responses using a 5-point scale ranging from 1 (very slightly or not at all) to 5 (extremely). Past research has found that the CEI-II is both valid and reliable measure of trait curiosity (e.g., Kashdan et al., , 2011. For the present study, internal consistency of the CEI-II total and Stretching and Embracing subscales were 0.77, 0.66, 0.65, respectively. ...
Article
Previous studies have shown that enhanced trait curiosity has positive influence on well-being. It remains an open question, however, whether curiosity has any detrimental effects on behavioral outcomes in adolescence. The main aim of this research was to investigate the role of trait curiosity in the prediction of risky behavior engagement and subjective well-being (SWB) among adolescents. A total of 371 Serbian adolescents (mean age 15.5, SD = 0.57) participated in the 5-month follow up study. The results showed that the embracing component of curiosity (but not stretching) predicted risky behavior engagement, while the stretching component of curiosity (but not embracing) predicted positive affect. In addition, neither embracing nor stretching was a significant predictor of negative affect and life satisfaction. The results of this study call into question the conceptualization of curiosity as a completely positive emotional-motivational system, and suggest that curiosity can contribute to negative outcomes in adolescence.
... Stretching refers to actively seeking new experiences and knowledge, while embracing entails a willingness to accept the new and unpredictable nature of daily life (Kashdan et al. 2009). In adults, curiosity is positively correlated with life satisfaction (Park et al. 2004) positive emotions (Kashdan et al. 2011), satisfaction and social support in existing relationships (Gallagher and Lopez 2007), less aggression in romantic relationships (Kashdan et al. 2013) and less sensitivity to social rejection (Kawamoto et al. 2017). Regarding the positive interpersonal outcomes associated with curiosity, a curious mindset encourages openness, flexibility and interest in one's own inner experience as well as the experiences and motivations of others; thus a curious person is more likely to respond thoughtfully and inquisitively to interpersonal difficulties rather than perceiving them as threats (Kashdan et al. 2013). ...
Article
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The adolescent developmental stage is characterized by multiple transitions, both physiological and environmental, and physical, cognitive and socioemotional growth that often leads to both challenges and opportunities. Developing coping strategies to contend with these challenges, such as strengthening resilience and being open to new experiences, can potentially facilitate traversing this developmental period with greater ease. Although previous research has supported the premise that self-compassion buffers the negative effects of these emotional challenges, little research to date has examined the link between strengths-based attributes such as resilience and curiosity/exploration (i.e., being open to and embracing new experiences) and self-compassion, and whether age or gender moderates these relationships. As such, the purpose of this study was to explore these relationships among a large adolescent sample. Results of 786 public school adolescents and 271 private school adolescents (68% white, 65% female, Mage = 15.6) who responded to questions in an online survey indicated that self-compassion was positively associated with both curiosity/exploration and resilience, and gender moderated the relationship between self-compassion and resilience such that this association was stronger among males than females. Age did not moderate the relationship between self-compassion and either resilience or curiosity/exploration, indicating that self-compassion is associated with both resilience and curiosity/exploration at all ages across adolescence. Implications are that interventions that cultivate self-compassion among adolescents may strengthen resilience and curiosity/exploration, offering new and healthy ways to cope with these challenges leading to improved emotional well-being.
... Participants were randomly assigned to undergo the fast friends procedure with a confederate who either did not mention sexual orientation (control condition) or revealed being gay or lesbian at the beginning (reveal-beginning condition) or end of the interaction (reveal-end condition). The fast friends simulation developed by Aron et al. (1997), facilitates a "friendship" between two people in a short period of time (e.g., 45 minutes) using a series of self-disclosure and relationship-building tasks (e.g., sharing details about their hopes and dreams) to induce closeness between people (Kashdan, McKnight, Fincham, & Rose, 2011;Page-Gould et al., 2008;Slatcher, 2010;Wright, Aron, & Tropp, 2002). Past research has found that reciprocal disclosure (like that which occurs during the fast friends procedure) promotes liking (Sprecher, Treger, Wondra, Hilaire, & Wallpe, 2013). ...
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There is limited correlational research on whether cross-orientation friendships reduce heterosexuals’ sexual prejudice, and no existing experimental studies on the impact of simulated cross-orientation friendships on attitudes toward gay men and lesbians. The current study involved a novel and experimental examination of whether simulated cross-orientation friendships would reduce sexual prejudice. College student participants (White heterosexual) completed an experimental-manipulated closeness exercise (the fast friends procedure, Aron et al., 1997) with a confederate (matched to participants’ gender). Participants were randomly assigned to undergo the fast friends procedure with a confederate who either did not disclose his/her sexual orientation (control condition) or disclosed being gay or lesbian at the beginning (reveal-beginning condition) or end of the interaction (reveal-end condition). Participants in the reveal-beginning experimental condition relative to those in a control condition reported significantly improved attitudes toward gay men and lesbians (pre- to post-experiment), greater feelings of interpersonal closeness, and more positive behavior (longer, more supportive and friendlier responses during the interaction). The reveal-end condition did not differ from the control condition on most measures and only differed from the reveal-beginning condition on supportiveness suggesting that early disclosure was a key ingredient in improving attitudes. Implications of these findings are discussed.
... In this article, we address this gap and use an experimental setting to examine the joint effects of personal attributes-in this case, the workers' level of the trait of curiosity-and design interventions on crowdsourcing workers' likelihood to perform extra-role behavior. Previous research has demonstrated that highly curious people are interested in discovering new things and tend to pursue new knowledge and experiences (Kashdan, 2004;Kashdan & Steger, 2007;Kashdan, McKnight, Fincham, & Rose, 2011). In addition, curiosity was found to be associated with intrinsic motivations (Gottfried, Marcoulides, Gottfried, & Oliver, 2009), whereby people's behavior is driven by inherent satisfaction, rather than the behavior's separable consequences (Deci & Ryan, 2012). ...
Article
Crowdsourcing has seen a substantial increase in interest from researchers and practitioners in recent years. Being a new form of work facilitated by information technology, the rise of crowdsourcing calls for the development of new theoretical insights. Our focus in this article is on extra-role behavior—employees' voluntary activities, which are not part of their prescribed duties. Specifically, we explored how user interface design can help increase extra-role behavior among crowdsourcing workers. In a randomized experiment, we examined the joint effects of the presentation of a performance display to crowdsourcing workers and the personal attributes of these workers on the workers' likelihood to engage in extra-role behavior. The experimental setting included an image analysis task performed on an environmental monitoring website. We compared workers' behavior across the different experimental conditions and found that the interaction between the presence of a performance display and the workers' personality trait of curiosity has a significant impact on the likelihood of engaging in extra-role behavior. In particular, the presence of a performance display was associated with increased likelihood of extra-role behavior among low-curiosity workers, and no change in extra-role behavior was observed among high-curiosity users. Implications for design are discussed.
... The strengths-based intervention is an approach that allows people to develop their character strengths volitionally (Proctor, 2017;Roberts et al., 2017). However, most strengths-based interventions were used by therapists, coaches, and educators (Biswas-Diener, Kashdan, et al., 2011;Littman-Ovadia et al., 2014;Park & Peterson, 2008) probably because only about one-third of people can identify their own strengths and fewer use them consciously in their lives (Biswas-Diener, Kashdan, et al., 2011). More than 70 strengths-based interventions have been developed to help individuals to build literacy regarding character strengths, cultivate specific strengths, boost happiness, find meaning and engagement, build positive relationships, strengthen resilience, pursue goals, and be more mindful (Niemiec, 2017). ...
Thesis
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This study investigates a technology-mediated experience design that fosters memorable and meaningful tourism experiences (MMEs). Technology has been playing an integral role in facilitating people to make personal choices on their tourism activities, from itinerary planning, online bookings, and way findings, to social sharing of people’s journeys. This study shows how technology may offer the potential to transcend personalized experiences into memorable and meaningful experiences. A review of literature in positive psychology provided three insights on MMEs. First, a holistic understanding of MMEs from one’s explicit experiential dimension to implicit experiential dimension, which includes what people do, feel, think, and value. Second, MMEs also result from pursuing growth goals derived from their past, present, and future aspirations. Lastly, character strengths, which represent positive traits of individuals, can be the pivotal component in MMEs because they are the bridge between the implicit and the explicit dimensions of experience. Experience of meaning can emerge by making the implicit explicit, thereby fostering self-awareness, a sense of purpose, and self-development towards flourishing. Therefore, this study seeks to incorporate character strengths into an informatics system so that users can cultivate their character strengths and facilitate users in the appreciation of their MMEs by connecting what they do, feel, think and value. This thesis is composed of interrelated three studies that progress through a design process. The first study explored how technology can support people to cultivate their character strengths for the creation of memorable and meaningful experiences. It resulted in a tripartite strengths-based HCI framework that encapsulates three aspects of strengths used namely, strengths well spent, reflection and introspection, and anticipation of future self. The second study focused on the stage of reflection and introspection by investigating people’s proficiencies in creating visual diary with photos generated on their memorable and meaningful journeys because comprehensive visual storytelling is the prerequisite for people to connect the experience to the associated implicit psychological motives and needs. The result informed the development of a proof-of-concept strengths-based journaling platform. The third study involved the evaluation of the platform from three perspectives. First, on the features that facilitate users to create meaning by making the implicit psychological dimensions of MMEs (e.g., character strengths, motives, and values) explicit. Second, participants’ strengths that had drawn upon on their MMEs. Third, their intentions on cultivating their characters strengths, and pursuing values gained in their future journeys. The result showed that people deepened their self-awareness by using the platform. Also, MMEs more often involved people’s moderate character strengths rather than signature strengths. Participants were more willing to pursue the value gained and develop the character strengths used in their future journeys rather than revisit the places. By making the implicit psychological dimensions explicit, this study showed that technology facilitates people to deepen their self-awareness through recognizing deep-rooted values and appreciate character strengths from their MMEs. The result of this study has multiple implications and contributions to the field of technology-mediated experience design and smart tourism innovation at the levels of empirical research, theory, and artifacts.
... For instance, in recent validation work done by Acun, Kapıkıran, and Kabasakal (2013), an embracing item was found to load on the stretching factor. Finally, past research has commonly used the total score of the CEI-II without differentiating the two subscales (e.g., Connelly, 2011;Kashdan, McKnight, Fincham, & Rose, 2011). Even among the few studies that calculated and analyzed the two subscale scores separately (e.g., Jovanovic & Brdaric, 2012;Kashdan et al., 2009), the correlations of these scores with other measures were quite similar in terms of their significance and valence. ...
Article
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This study aimed at validating the Curiosity and Exploration Inventory–II (CEI–II; Kashdan et al., 200946. Silvia, P. J., & Kashdan, T. B. (2009). Interesting things and curious people: Exploration and engagement as transient states and enduring strengths. Social Psychology and Personality Compass, 3, 785–797.View all references) in a Chinese context. A total of 294 Chinese first-year undergraduate students in Hong Kong completed the CEI–II and measures of satisfaction with university life, the Big Five personality traits, and human values. The results of exploratory structural equation modeling, parallel analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis supported a 1-factor solution and did not replicate the original 2-factor structure. Time invariance of the 1-factor structure was obtained among 242 participants who completed the questionnaires again after 4 months. The latent means and correlation indicated that curiosity as measured by the CEI–II was quite stable over the period of investigation. The CEI–II was found to be positively correlated with satisfaction with university life, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness to experience, and openness to change values, but negatively with neuroticism and conservation values. The results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that the CEI–II score had incremental validity above and beyond the Big Five personality traits in predicting human values and satisfaction with university life.
... The processes linking support for life opportunities to thriving in terms of psychological and physical health is supported by a longitudinal study with newlyweds showing that responsive support during the first year of marriage predicts better psychological and physical health 1 year later (Van Vleet & Feeney, 2011) and by studies indicating that the successful pursuit of personally meaningful goals is related to elated versus depressed mood, happiness, and satisfaction with life (Brunstein, 1993;Brunstein, Schultheiss, & Grassman, 1998;Emmons, 1986;Emmons & King, 1988;Omodei & Wearing, 1990;Palys & Little, 1983;Ruehlman & Wolchik, 1988;Sheldon et al., 2010;Yetim, 1993;Zaleski, 1987). Additional evidence is provided by research linking positive emotions such as excitement, enthusiasm, and curiosity (emotions elicited or amplified by RC support) to psychological and physical health (Cohen & Pressman, 2006;Fredrickson, 2000;Kashdan, McKnight, Fincham, & Rose, 2011;Kashdan & Silvia, 2009;Pressman & Cohen, 2005;Pressman et al., 2009). As a whole, these studies show that individuals high (vs. ...
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Close and caring relationships are undeniably linked to health and well-being at all stages in the life span. Yet the specific pathways through which close relationships promote optimal well-being are not well understood. In this article, we present a model of thriving through relationships to provide a theoretical foundation for identifying the specific interpersonal processes that underlie the effects of close relationships on thriving. This model highlights two life contexts through which people may potentially thrive (coping successfully with life’s adversities and actively pursuing life opportunities for growth and development), it proposes two relational support functions that are fundamental to the experience of thriving in each life context, and it identifies mediators through which relational support is likely to have long-term effects on thriving. This perspective highlights the need for researchers to take a new look at social support by conceptualizing it as an interpersonal process with a focus on thriving.
... Similar to the concept of Intrinsic motivation, Curiosity is defined as "a positive emotional-motivational system associated with the recognition, pursuit, and self-regulation of novelty and challenge" (Kashdan, Rose, & Fincham, 2004, p. 291). When people approach what makes them curious, they are likely to discover new information of interest, and likely to elaborate their own cognitive structures in the process (Kashdan, McKnight, Fincham, & Rose, 2011). They are also more likely to initiate an autocatalytic (internally initiated and directed) program of exploratory activity, an activity that continues to provide them with experiential benefits over time (Kaczmarek et al., 2013). ...
Article
In a three-wave, year-long, large-sample dataset (N = 755), 10 candidate "personality strengths" (Grit, Gratitude, Curiosity, Savoring, Control Beliefs, Meaning in Life-Presence, Strengths Use, and Engagement, Pleasure, and Meaning-Based Orientations Toward Happiness) were compared as predictors of 6-month increases in goal attainment, and as moderators of goal attainment effects upon boosted subjective well-being (SWB). Seeking internal replication, we tested our models twice, both during T1-T2 and during T2-T3. We also examined whether any Personality × Attainment moderator effects upon change in SWB at T2 still persisted at T3. Grit was the only candidate strength that predicted increased goal attainment from T1 to T2 and from T2 to T3, and Curiosity was the only candidate strength that moderated attainment effects on well-being from T1 to T2 and from T2 to T3. T2 Goal attainment effects on SWB were best sustained at T3 when Meaning Orientation increased from T1 to T2. Implications for identifying keystone constructs in personality (and positive) psychology are discussed. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
... According to the studies of the nonverbal aspects of interactions, the results have suggested three basic components: the communication environment, which includes physical and spatial aspects; the individuals' physical characteristics; and the various behaviours manifested by the communicators. The third component was subdivided into body movement and position, gestures, posture, touching behaviours, facial expressions, and eye behaviour 11 . ...
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A communicative hook contributes to positive romantic outcomes in initial dyadic interactions in a contemporary media dating context. The focus of the current research was on how the communicative goal “to arouse interest and curiosity” is achieved through the combination of verbal and nonverbal behaviours employed by the opposite-sex perfect strangers. The communicative cook was defined as coded message/information + addressee’s wish to receive an answer that immediately arouses interest and curiosity of a potential partner. For this study, the communicative hooks enacted by the female contestants (N = 189) on the dating show The Bachelor US (2012–2018) during initial romantic interactions with the single bachelors were analysed. Verbal behaviour of the communicative hook was expressed by the following verbal cues: Continuation of Relationship, Self-Presentation, Compliment, Profession, Self-Praise, Emotional State, Place of Residence, Identification, and Family. The most relevant nonverbal cues implemented within the communicative hook were as follows: head tilt, nodding, delivery gestures, upright posture, trunk leaning forward, holding hands in front of the body, hand-in-hand, hug, kiss, happiness, surprise, mutual gaze (forehead bow), gaze down, eyebrow flash. They enabled a potential partner to draw inferences about bachelorettes’ true intentions. Mastering verbal communication skills and not misinterpreting or ignoring partners’ nonverbal messages could maximize the efficiency of the communicative hook. These findings could have general implications for theorizing on changing social and cultural standards, gender stereotypes, and traditional gender roles in intimate relationships. They could also contribute a great deal to the study of reality TV.
... This dimension had the second highest positive associations with indices of well-being, from happiness to meaning in life to satisfying the need for competence, autonomy, and relatedness; of all the dimensions, Joyous Exploration had the strongest links to believing that a good life is a function of personal growth and contributing to others -a belief system that is about caring for the development of the self and one's tribe. This belief system provides evidence that curiosity is an intrapersonal motive and with some manifestations, a commerce for social good (Kashdan, Dewall, et al., 2013;Kashdan, McKnight, Fincham, & Rose, 2011;Kashdan et al., 2013). ...
Article
Since the origins of psychology, curiosity has occupied a pivotal position in the study of motivation, emotion, and cognition; and disciplines as far-ranging as biology, economics, robotics, and leadership. Theorists have disagreed about the basic tenets of curiosity; some researchers contend that the rewards arise when resolving ambiguity and uncertainty whereas others argue that being curious is an intrinsically pleasurable experience. Three studies were conducted to consolidate competing theories and isolated bodies of research. Using data from a community survey of 508 adults (Study 1), 403 adults on MTurk (Study 2), and a nationally representative household survey of 3,000 adults (Study 3), we found evidence for five distinct factors: Joyous Exploration, Deprivation Sensitivity, Stress Tolerance, Social Curiosity, and Thrill Seeking - forming The Five-Dimensional Curiosity Scale (5DC). Each factor had substantive relations with a battery of personality, emotion, and well-being measures. Taking advantage of this multidimensional model, we found evidence for four distinct types of curious people in Study 3 referred to as The Fascinated (28% of sample), Problem Solvers (28%), Empathizers (25%), and Avoiders (19%). Subgroups differed in their passionate interests, areas of expertise, consumer behavior, and social media use; challenging an assumption that there is a homogenous population to be discriminated on a single dimension from incurious to very curious. With greater bandwidth and predictive power, the 5DC offers new opportunities for research on origins, consequences, life outcomes, and intervention strategies to enhance curiosity.
... ., readiness to accept new situations) perspectives (Jovanovic & Gavrilov-Jerkovic, 2014) . Researchers identified curiosity as a characteristic of personal growth and psychological strength (Kashdan, Rose, & Fincham, 2004;Peterson & Seligman, 2004) that is related to life satisfaction, hope (Jovanovic & Brdaric, 2012;Kashdan, McKnight, Fincham, & Rose, 2011), academic success, and positive perceptions of learning environments (Kashdan & Yuen, 2007) . ...
Article
This study examined how character strengths and the importance of family influenced Mexican American college students' (N = 129) career decision self-efficacy. Findings from a multiple regression analysis indicated that psychological grit and curiosity were significant predictors of career decision self-efficacy. The authors discuss the importance of these findings and provide recommendations for future research.
... No doubt compassion/kindness is a core strength used in these practices. Curiosity is also important as research has found that being curious in social relationships can lead to stronger, more intimate relationships than those who don't take an open, curious approach (Kashdan, McKnight, Fincham, & Rose, 2011). ...
Article
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The "Five Mindfulness Trainings" of Thich Nhat Hanh (1993) have been pursued and practiced by countless individuals over the years. The core of the trainings is mindful living, in which individuals apply heightened awareness to their relationships, health behaviors, and activities of daily life, while considering the impact of these on society. The VIA character strengths, found to be universally valued and endorsed across cultures and nations, can serve as pathways to pursue these mindfulness trainings. Positive psychology interventions designed to enhance the synergy between character strengths and the mindfulness trainings are offered.
... Further, the researcher provided insight into their personally relevant experiences to drive reciprocal engagement and encourage openness and curiosity within an atypical social interaction. 31 The enhancement of subjective feeling state and acute happiness, respective to the imposed phone call is a novel outcome that should be evaluated in future research. Future research could integrate motivational interviewing, or superior communication strategies, as trivial social interactions between weak ties may be an underexplored mechanism underlying happiness. ...
Article
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Background: We evaluated the differential influence of preferred versus imposed media selections on distinct hedonic responses to an acute bout of treadmill walking. Methods: Twenty university students were recruited for this [160 person-visit] laboratory experiment, which employed a within-subject, counter-balanced design. Participants were exposed to 8 experimental conditions, including (1) Exercise Only, (2) Texting Only, (3) Preferred Phone Call, (4) Imposed Phone Call, (5) Preferred Music Playlist, (6) Imposed Music Playlist, (7)Preferred Video and (8) Imposed Video. During each visit (except Texting Only), participants completed a 10-minute bout of walking on the treadmill at a self-selected pace. Walking speed was identical for all experimental conditions. Before, at the midpoint of exercise, and post-exercise, participants completed the Feeling Scale (FS) and the Felt Arousal Scale (FAS) to measure acute hedonic response. The Affective Circumplex Scale was administered pre-exercise and post-exercise. Results: Significant pre-post change scores were observed for happy (Imposed Call: P=0.05;Preferred Music: P=0.02; Imposed Video: P=0.03), excited (Exercise Only: P=0.001; PreferredVideo: P=0.01; Imposed Video: P=0.03), sad (Preferred Music: P=0.05), anxious (ExerciseOnly: P=0.05; Preferred Video: P=0.01), and fatigue (Exercise Only: P=0.03; Imposed Video:P=0.002). For the FS all change scores were statistically significant from pre-to-mid and pre-topost (P<0.05). Conclusion: This experiment provides strong evidence that entertaining media platforms substantively influences hedonic responses to exercise. Implications of these findings are discussed.
... The broadest interest in social curiosity has lately been seen in the field of psychology, where social curiosity is examined as either an individual trait/state or, in positive psychology, as a character strength (Peterson and Seligman 2004). Both opt for measuring its relational effect quantitatively (Kashdan et al. 2011;Hartung and Renner 2013). Although largely associated with psychology, several other disciplinary perspectives have also elaborated on social curiosity. ...
Article
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There seems to be a broad agreement that curiosity is important in education. However, current research often seeks to answer the question of how best to nurture curiosity and fails to ask the normative question of why this should be done. A closer look reveals that the reasons for justifying the importance of curiosity vary, with some theorists pointing to its role in cognitive development as a starting point for learning, and others praising it as an element of democracy and a child’s right to participation. Most of these approaches understand curiosity as an individual urge or desire for knowledge. In contrast, this article will examine a relational understanding of the concept by focussing on social curiosity. Instead of following a cognitive developmentalist, intellectual virtue or emancipatory approach to valuing curiosity, I will employ relational ethical theory. The argument then explores a possible analogy between social curiosity and the concept of sovereign expressions of life, as developed by the Danish philosopher and theologian K.E. Løgstrup. By drawing on his relational ethics, the article aims to expand the theoretical grounds on which curiosity can be normatively legitimised in education. With children spending longer and longer hours in educational, structured and adult-led settings, I conclude with a twofold normative claim: Social curiosity should be a part of all relations in education and its absence should lead to an ethical demand. In addition, an awareness of the actual deeds through which social curiosity is realised is also a topic that must be addressed by educators.
... Consistent with this prediction, research shows that open people not only have smaller team friendship networks but also are disliked in workgroups ). However, research has also shown that people who are more curious are more interesting as conversational partners (Kashdan et al. 2011), which suggests that open people are more likely to be sought after for friendship. We examine these competing ideas concerning openness in relation to indegree centrality. ...
Article
Full-text available
U sing data from 138 independent samples, we meta-analytically examined three research questions concerning the roles of personality and network position in organizations. First, how do different personality characteristics—self-monitoring and the Big Five personality traits—relate to indegree centrality and brokerage, the two most studied structurally advantageous positions in organizational networks? Second, how do indegree centrality and brokerage compare in explaining job performance and career success? Third, how do these personality variables and network positions relate to work outcomes? Our results show that self-monitoring predicted indegree centrality (across expressive and instrumental networks) and brokerage (in expressive networks) after controlling for the Big Five traits. Self-monitoring, therefore, was especially relevant for understanding why people differ in their acquisition of advantageous positions in social networks. But the total variance explained by personality ranged between 3% and 5%. Surprisingly, we found that indegree centrality was more strongly related to job performance and career success than brokerage. We also found that personality predicted job performance and career success above and beyond network position and that network position partially mediated the effects of certain personality variables on work outcomes. This paper provides an integrated view of how an individual's personality and network position combine to influence job performance and career success.
... The processes linking support for life opportunities to thriving in terms of psychological and physical health is supported by a longitudinal study with newlyweds showing that responsive support during the first year of marriage predicts better psychological and physical health 1 year later (Van Vleet & Feeney, 2011) and by studies indicating that the successful pursuit of personally meaningful goals is related to elated versus depressed mood, happiness, and satisfaction with life (Brunstein, 1993;Brunstein, Schultheiss, & Grassman, 1998;Emmons, 1986;Emmons & King, 1988;Omodei & Wearing, 1990;Palys & Little, 1983;Ruehlman & Wolchik, 1988;Sheldon et al., 2010;Yetim, 1993;Zaleski, 1987). Additional evidence is provided by research linking positive emotions such as excitement, enthusiasm, and curiosity (emotions elicited or amplified by RC support) to psychological and physical health (Cohen & Pressman, 2006;Fredrickson, 2000;Kashdan, McKnight, Fincham, & Rose, 2011;Kashdan & Silvia, 2009;Pressman & Cohen, 2005;Pressman et al., 2009). As a whole, these studies show that individuals high (vs. ...
Article
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Close and caring relationships are undeniably linked to health and well-being at all stages in the life span. Yet the specific pathways through which close relationships promote optimal well-being are not well understood. In this article, we present a model of thriving through relationships to provide a theoretical foundation for identifying the specific interpersonal processes that underlie the effects of close relationships on thriving. This model highlights two life contexts through which people may potentially thrive (coping successfully with life’s adversities and actively pursuing life opportunities for growth and development), it proposes two relational support functions that are fundamental to the experience of thriving in each life context, and it identifies mediators through which relational support is likely to have long-term effects on thriving. This perspective highlights the need for researchers to take a new look at social support by conceptualizing it as an interpersonal process with a focus on thriving.
... Curiosity has been touted as beneficial for improving social relationships and reducing group conflict (Gino, 2018). Generally, social psychological research results have confirmed these claims, even when controlling for positive affect or physical attraction (Kashdan, McKnight, Fincham, & Rose, 2011;Kashdan & Roberts, 2004). Curiosity has been found to facilitate building close and intimate relationships because curious people engage in behaviors (e.g., being more responsive, seeking more self-disclosures among interaction partners) that are particularly relevant for increasing the likelihood of positive social outcomes and healthy social relationships. ...
Article
This paper focuses on the emergent importance of curiosity at work for individuals and organizations by reviewing management research on curiosity at work. We start by leveraging prior reviews on early and contemporary foundations of the curiosity construct in the larger psychological literature, with a focus on definitional clarity, dimen-sionality, and differences with other constructs in its nomological network. Next, we review different streams of management research on curiosity at work (i.e., broad generative and nongenerative effects, curiosity as a catalyst for personal action, curiosity as a catalyst for interpersonal action, curiosity as a catalyst for leadership, curiosity as an organizational or professional norm, and curiosity as a catalyst for organizing). Inter-weaving these diverse literatures and research streams gives us the wherewithal to provide conceptual clarity to curiosity research and highlight how curiosity not only has generative effects at the individual level but also acts as a more dynamic, interpersonal, and organizational property. In addition, our review brings attention to the potential dark side of curiosity. We end by outlining how the more nuanced insights of the role of curiosity at work generated by our review provide an impetus for future research.
... In line with this, the social psychology literature works on the assumption (the so-called 'self-expansion model of relationships') that a primary human motivation is to increase knowledge concerning the self, other people and the world, and that one way of accomplishing this goal is to establish intimate relationships. Kashdan, McKnight, Fincham, andRose (2011, p. 1371) usefully explain this idea with a metaphor: 'Expanding oneself by being in a close relationship is similar to a shared bank account where each person has access to the other's money. When we are in a relationship that offers self-expansion opportunities, besides feeling closer to our partner, we become linked to them -their qualities become part of us.' Similarly, the feminist philosopher Donna Haraway (2007, pp. 7, 36) also regards curiosity as a prerequisite for relating to others: 'Curiosity is one of the first obligations and deepest pleasures of worldly companion species.' ...
Article
Friendships formed in the course of scientific research are common and should be foregrounded in discussions of how the sciences are done. Inspired by the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge, I propose a ‘symmetrical’ analysis of friendships in both the social and natural sciences as a way of comparing knowledge-making practices. The research question that derives from this approach is: How are friendships with and between subjects generative of new forms of scientific knowledge and new types of relating? I provide an answer based on my experience of befriending a group of dendroclimatologists to whom I referred metaphorically as ‘my chimps’ in an analogy with the primatologist Jane Goodall’s affectionate relation with her research subjects. In my case, befriending dendroclimatologists involved cultivating a curiosity about each other’s research and worlds through different means. As a result, my work also came to matter to them and we produced it collaboratively. The instrumentalisation of friendships for the purpose of achieving a certain control and agreement with subjects and beings is, I argue, a normal aspect of knowledge formation, and should not be seen as unethical. If anything, befriending subjects promotes better research ethics as it generates a form of mutuality based on partial relatedness, constructive dissent and playfulness, rather than hybridity, totalising consensus and domination. Overall, my argument about friendship as a method in science seeks to criticise the ideal that isolation and indifference are at the heart of the way scientific knowledge, both social and natural, is and should be made.
... Acerca de las relaciones sociales, Padilla-Walker et al. (2020) mostraron que el comportamiento prosocial hacia extraños presenta mayor asociación con los incrementos en las fortalezas del carácter durante un año, en comparación con el comportamiento prosocial dirigido a familiares. Por su parte, Kashdan et al. (2011) plantearon que la curiosidad es importante para generar relaciones interpersonales positivas, porque las personas con alta curiosidad reportan mayor cercanía social en interacciones íntimas y charlas banales. ...
Thesis
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Good character is a principal area in Positive Psychology. The current thesis assesses character strengths with mixed method: quantitative though factor analysis and qualitative using content analysis. Main purpose is evaluate and analyze the character strengths factors in participants from Ecuador, Peru and Paraguay to identify whether international findings are replicated; and verify replication in each country independently. A non probabilistic intentional sample was used: 854 university students (273 Ecuadorians, 277 Peruvians and 304 Paraguayan). Participants completed Inventario de Virtudes y Fortalezas del Carácter IVyF (Cosentino & Castro Solano, 2012) and Protocolo de Cualidades Positivas (Castro Solano & Cosentino, 2013). Main results show three character strengths factors: moderation, progress and fraternity. Secondly, this three factor model is the most parsimonious and replicable despite some differences. Finally, dimensional structure has intercultural differences because each countries have specific relations. Main conclusion show three factors of character strengths and intercultural differences in dimensional structure of each country. Data has limitations: used sample could not be an average citizen of each culture and countries were considered as national culture. Future studies should research intracultural differences in character strengths, identify causes of intercultural differences in each population and analyze character strengths in others Latin-American countries.
... People with high openness have diverse interests and express tiredness from social experiences with conventional people, and thus, may have limited number of friends [19]. At the same time, open people are considered more exciting conversational partners [31], and may be sought after for friendship [19]. Those who score low in openness tend to be more conforming, conventional and conservative. ...
Article
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In this research, we evaluate the moderating role of personality on enjoyment and attention associated with a gamified data collection instrument, and the attractiveness of a surveying organization. In an online experiment, we compare a gamified survey with a traditional survey. The results suggest that gamified surveys are more enjoyable and users are more attentive when filling out gamified surveys. Specific personality traits moderate the effect of attention and enjoyment related to gamification, and the enjoyment associated with gamification increases the attractiveness of a surveying organization. These findings have theoretical and practical implications to improve the design of existing online surveys.
... Regarding cognitive well-being, curiosity was linked to better memory performance in both behavioral (McGillivray et al. 2015) and fMRI (Kang et al. 2009) studies. With respect to social well-being, a higher level of trait curiosity is linked to better emotional intelligence or better capability to monitor self and others' emotions (Leonard and Harvey 2007), better emotion expression, better sense of humor, greater tolerance to anxiety, and less usage of aggression (Kashdan et al. 2013a, b;Kashdan et al. 2011;Kashdan and Roberts 2004), which all seem to be important for maintaining healthy social relationships. In brief, being curious is related to many outcomes that are desirable for both younger and older adults. ...
Article
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This study aimed to examine the underlying mechanism behind the association of age and intellectual curiosity. Previous studies generally showed a negative association between age and intellectual curiosity. To shed light on this association, we hypothesize that older adults become more selective in where they invest their curiosity compared with younger adults. The present study (N = 857) first examined the association between age and intellectual curiosity and then the mediation roles of future time perspective and perceived importance of curiosity in the association. The moderation effect of culture was also included to test the generalizability of this model across European Americans, Chinese Americans, and Hong Kong Chinese. The findings suggested that there was a significant negative association between age and intellectual curiosity, even after controlling for sex, culture, and education level. The moderated serial multiple mediation model demonstrated that the indirect effect of age on curiosity through future time perspective and importance of curiosity was significant across all three cultural groups while age did not have a direct effect on intellectual curiosity. This finding suggested that, as future time becomes more limited with age, curiosity is less valued; hence, curiosity is negatively associated with the advance of age. This study illustrates the importance of future time and perceived importance of curiosity in explaining age-related differences in curiosity and sheds light on the situations in which older adults may be as intellectually curious as younger adults.
... 'Social curiosity' has been defined in previous work by Renner (2016, p. 306) as "…an interest in gaining new information and knowledge about the social world." Curiosity has also been found to generate greater intimacy, positive social interactions and increase opportunities to satisfy the need for relatedness (Kashdan, McKnight, Fincham & Rose, 2011), while it is also associated positively with other adaptive behaviours such as humour, dealing with social anxieties and tendencies to avoid negatively judging other people (Kashdan, Sherman, Yarbro & Funder, 2013 In a sign that interest in the very subject of 'interest' is growing, Tin (2016) dedicated a book to the construct applied in SLA research and its potential power in language learning. The meaning of 'interest' for her is centred more around the meaning of engagement, but there are valuable lessons in terms of her overview of the literature and how it appertains to answering key questions she presents at the start of the book, (pp. ...
Experiment Findings
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Abstract: One issue that has been identified in classrooms teaching English in Japan is that for many students learning the language often has little meaning other than preparing them for sections of their university entrance exams. It seems an intuitive proposition that the more curiosity and interest one feels toward studying a language, one would have corresponding greater associations with positive attitudes, affect and intended learning effort toward it. This exploratory research found support for this supposition through regression analyses of Likert scale questionnaire data from 269 Japanese high school students. Dimensions of Kashdan et al's (2018) Five-Dimensional Curiosity Scale (5DC) were found to relate to second language acquisition (SLA) constructs at differing levels of explanatory variance: 26% of a measure of language anxiety's variance being explained by stress tolerance; 40% of international posture's variance being primarily accounted for by joyous exploration; 52% of the variance in a new construct labelled 'curiosity in English studies' (CiES), again explained by joyous exploration. International posture and CiES were then found to subsequently relate to a measure of intended learning effort toward studying English, accounting for a high amount of explanatory variance at 72%, with CiES acting as the much more substantial predictor. The results found here suggest that curiosity, as measured by the 5DC, should be further probed as to how its associations and potential causal relations with language acquisition constructs may be leveraged to help students in Japan and beyond form meaningful connections to their English studies. (Changes from original submission: university ethics documentation & data declaration removed; error in Appendix 3 edited).
... A person characterized by curiosity is likely to be more responsive, showing interest and asking questions, than a person with low levels of curiosity, thus making the interlocutor feel understood, important, and valued. Consequently, as studies show, the feeling of closeness between the two interlocutors will increase (Kashdan & Roberts, 2004;Kashdan et al., 2012). Moreover, it is possible that a person with intellectual strengths like creativity could find new ways to reinvigorate the relationship, preserve the passion, and settle conflicts. ...
Article
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Numerous studies examined the association between character strengths—positive traits that comprise a good personality—and satisfaction with different aspects of life. However, few studies explored the connection between character strengths and marital satisfaction. The present study, conducted on a sample of 177 married couples, aims to examine this connection. Given the findings of previous studies, showing that both spouses’ personality traits contribute to relationship quality, we expect to find a connection between the spouses’ strengths and their marital quality. Using actor-partner interdependence model analyses, we examined the effects of three strengths factors (caring, self-control, and inquisitiveness) of both the individual and the partner on marital quality, evaluated by indices measuring marital satisfaction, intimacy, and burnout. Our findings revealed that the individual’s three strengths factors were related to all of his or her marital quality indices (actor effects). Moreover, women’s caring, inquisitiveness and self-control factors were associated with men’s marital quality, and men’s inquisitiveness and self-control factors were associated with women’s marital quality (partner effects). Our findings join the efforts of previous studies to understand the association between character strengths and the various elements of mental well-being, especially romantic relationships.
... Participants returned 1 week later for a follow-up assessment but these data were not used in the current study. Data on the validity of the experimental conditions has been reported from a prior study by this team (Kashdan & Roberts, 2007) and an initial reporting of this dataset, with no overlapping questions (Kashdan, McKnight, Fincham, & Rose, 2011). ...
Article
Experiential avoidance (EA), the tendency to avoid internal, unwanted thoughts and feelings, is hypothesized to be a risk factor for social anxiety. Existing studies of experiential avoidance rely on trait measures with minimal contextual consideration. In two studies, we examined the association between experiential avoidance and anxiety within real-world social interactions. In the first study, we examined the effect of experiential avoidance on social anxiety in everyday life. For 2 weeks, 37 participants with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and 38 healthy controls provided reports of experiential avoidance and social anxiety symptoms during face-to-face social interactions. Results showed that momentary experiential avoidance was positively related to anxiety symptoms during social interactions and this effect was stronger among people with SAD. People low in EA showed greater sensitivity to the level of situational threat than high EA people. In the second study, we facilitated an initial encounter between strangers. Unlike Study 1, we experimentally created a social situation where there was either an opportunity for intimacy (self-disclosure conversation) or no such opportunity (small-talk conversation). Results showed that greater experiential avoidance during the self-disclosure conversation temporally preceded increases in social anxiety for the remainder of the interaction; no such effect was found in the small-talk conversation. Our findings provide insight into the association between experiential avoidance on social anxiety in laboratory and naturalistic settings, and demonstrate that the effect of EA depends upon level of social threat and opportunity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
... African-American (9.4%), Middle-Eastern (4.7%), Hispanic (4.7%) and other categories (4.7%). The current data are from a larger study; the only existing publication addressed different research questions and variables (see Study 3 from Kashdan, McKnight, Fincham, & Rose, 2011). ...
Article
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Prior research has found that perceiving positive responses from others following self-disclosures enhances social bonds and plays a role in the maintenance of romantic relationships. We sought to extend this effect by exploring perceived responsiveness to good news in the context of initial social interactions with a stranger. In this study, unacquainted college students (n = 106) participated in a 45-minute semi-structured social interaction, and information on their emotions and behaviours was collected immediately after and one week later. We found that the receipt of supportive reactions to self-disclosure attempts during the social interaction was associated with immediate positivity and a more positive memory of the event (remembered enjoyment and positive emotions) one week later. This effect could not be attributed to how positively the event was experienced immediately afterwards, suggesting that perceived responsiveness during an initial social interaction facilitates a positive memory bias. These results offer new insights into how friendships might develop and be maintained.
... Consistent with this prediction, research shows that open people not only have smaller team friendship networks but also are disliked in workgroups ). However, research has also shown that people who are more curious are more interesting as conversational partners (Kashdan et al. 2011), which suggests that open people are more likely to be sought after for friendship. We examine these competing ideas concerning openness in relation to indegree centrality. ...
Article
Full-text available
Using data from 138 independent samples, we meta-analytically examined three research questions concerning the roles of personality and network position in organizations. First, how do different personality characteristics-self-monitoring and the Big Five personality traits-relate to indegree centrality and brokerage, the two most studied structurally advantageous positions in organizational networks? Second, how do indegree centrality and brokerage compare in explaining job performance and career success? Third, how do these personality variables and network positions relate to work outcomes? Our results show that self-monitoring predicted indegree centrality (across expressive and instrumental networks) and brokerage (in expressive networks) after controlling for the Big Five traits. Self-monitoring, therefore, was especially relevant for understanding why people differ in their acquisition of advantageous positions in social networks. But the total variance explained by personality ranged between 3% and 5%. Surprisingly, we found that indegree centrality was more strongly related to job performance and career success than brokerage. We also found that personality predicted job performance and career success above and beyond network position and that network position partially mediated the effects of certain personality variables on work outcomes. This paper provides an integrated view of how an individual's personality and network position combine to influence job performance and career success.
Article
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Literature in psychology has shown that curiosity is the intrinsic motivation for exploration, learning, and creativity. Various forms of computational curiosity have been developed to provide artificial beings with desirable functions, such as detecting and adapting to novel inputs, making decisions related to aesthetics, and achieving pedagogical purposes. This article reviews existing models of computational curiosity in light of psychological theories that are beneficial to building models of human cognition and designing human-like agents. We first study theories in psychology to shed light on the underpinnings of human curiosity, where a two-step process is proposed to serve as a general model for analyzing curiosity. Subsequently, existing models of computational curiosity are reviewed under the proposed framework. We conclude the review by identifying 4 key research issues in computational curiosity and 10 important research areas where computational curiosity could bring significant impact.
Conference Paper
The rapidly expanding elderly population is a significant niche market for game developers. However, the main target audiences of the existing digital games are young generations, who do not warrant the special needs required by elderly. In this paper, based on the field study of game for elderly - Chinese Water Painting - we propose a curious companion for the elderly. The curious mechanism of the artificial companion is developed based on Berlyne's model of curiosity. The implementation considers three needs of the elderly: the smoothness of game playing, the entertainment, and the caring for the elderly. A preliminary study suggests a wide range acceptance of the curious companion.
Article
What drives positive affective and interpersonal experiences during social interaction? Undergraduates with high (n = 63) or low (n = 56) trait social anxiety (SA) were paired with unfamiliar low SA partners in a 45-minute conversation task. Throughout the task, participants and their conversation partners completed measures of affiliative goals, affect, curiosity, authenticity, and attentional focus. Both affective and interpersonal outcomes were assessed. Dyadic analyses revealed that participants’ affiliative goals during the social interaction predicted positive outcomes for both themselves and their partners, although the link between affiliative goals and positive affect was weaker for participants with high SA. Mediation analyses demonstrated that adopting affiliative goals may promote more positive outcomes by increasing participants’ curiosity and felt authenticity. Taken together, results illuminate the pathways through which people with varying levels of trait SA may derive interpersonally generated positive affect and positive social outcomes, with implications for clinical theory and practice.
Article
In the extensive literature on couples and intimacy, little has been written about knowing and not knowing as people experience and understand them. Based on intensive interviews with thirty-seven adults, this book shows that knowing and not knowing are central to couple relationships. They are entangled in love, sexual attraction, trust, commitment, caring, empathy, decision making, conflict, and many other aspects of couple life. Often the entanglement is paradoxical. For example, many interviewees revealed that they hungered to be known and yet kept secrets from their partner. Many described working hard at knowing their partner well, and yet there were also things about their partner and their partner's past that they wanted not to know. This book's qualitative, phenomenological approach builds on and adds to the largely quantitative social psychological, communications and family field literature to offer a new and accessible insight into the experience of intimacy.
Article
We examined how character strengths and family importance influenced Mexican American college students’ life satisfaction. Using multiple regression analysis, findings indicated that optimism, grit, and gratitude were significant predictors of life satisfaction. We provide a discussion regarding the importance of these findings as well as recommendations for future research.
Chapter
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Character strengths are often referred to as the backbone of positive psychology. Mindfulness has, at its essence, character strengths (e.g., self-regulation and curiosity) and numerous correlates and outcomes relating to character strengths (e.g., kindness, perspective, creativity) are associated with mindfulness practices. Mindfulness-based strengths practice (MBSP), a manualized approach that integrates these practice areas, emphasizes how each practice can mutually enhance the other. Character strengths can be woven into mindfulness practices in order to combat meditation barriers (e.g., mind wandering; scheduling problems; body discomfort) that participants report when attempting to maintain a mindfulness practice. In turn, mindfulness practice helps individuals to be more tuned in to social situations and to inner phenomena to assist in optimal character strengths expression. Popular character strengths practices such as strengths-spotting, developing signature strengths, and targeting specific strengths are supported by the open and accepting nature of mindfulness approaches. At the same time, individuals can become more engaged and adept at mindful living practices such as mindfulness in relationships, mindful listening, mindful eating, and mindful walking by deploying their strengths. This chapter will review the MBSP program as well as the links between mindfulness, character strengths use, and positive outcomes. While the science of MBSP is young, preliminary research and case examples from MBSP programs with participants across multiple countries show promise and are presented.
Article
Recent studies have revealed that curiosity—seeking new information and experiences—can improve psychological and social functioning. However, the social nature of curiosity remains poorly understood. We tested whether curious people show better psychological adaptation because (1) they have less rejection sensitivity, and (2) they are less susceptible to daily social rejection experiences. These two hypotheses were supported by a cross-sectional study (N = 500, 20–39 years old). We found that rejection sensitivity partially mediates the relationship between curiosity and psychological adaptation (life satisfaction and depression). Furthermore, curiosity moderated the relationships between perceived daily social rejection experiences and life satisfaction: Curious people are buffered against such aversive effects, relative to less curious people. Our findings suggest one possible explanation for why curious people experience better psychological functioning: They appear to be less affected by social rejection.
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Several have challenged the idea that the act of educating is a neutral endeavour. Following this line of thought, this article intends to examine a common concept often taken for granted: curiosity. The aim of this article is to explore the notion of curiosity in an early-childhood-education-and-care (ECEC) context in Norway in order to provide new perspectives on how value aspects of curiosity are communicated in official documents. Four ECEC documents from different organisational levels will be analysed. Informed by qualitative content analysis with a concept-driven strategy, this document analysis seeks to explore connections between the notion of curiosity and prominent value fields in ECEC, such as competence, democracy and care. Analysis of the documents suggests that curiosity is a value-loaded notion here, one which often has a competence-related value and which is frequently understood as a tool for gaining knowledge, especially in natural science and mathematics. Other value aspects, such as nurturing democracy, are represented to a minor degree. At the same time, the documents do not include possible ethical aspects of curiosity, such as connections to interpersonal caring, nor do they mention any existential or intrinsic value. In the final discussion, the article therefore explores these possible alternatives.
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How curiosity affects other employees—the social side of curiosity at work—is understudied but meaningful given that social learning theory suggests that when leaders display curiosity, it signals to followers that the environment is safe for taking risks associated with being inquisitive at work. At the same time, because displays of curiosity are communal in nature, social role theory and the communality-bonus effect combine to indicate that curiosity’s effects should be stronger for followers of male leaders versus followers of female leaders. Here, we integrate these social theories to explain how and when leader displays of curiosity will increase follower perceptions of psychological safety and subsequent voice. We test and find support for these predictions across four samples of leader-follower dyads, thereby broadening our understanding of the social implications of curiosity at work, demonstrating how curiosity contributes to leader effectiveness, and highlighting how gender shapes the effects of curiosity.
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This research paper aims to explore the utility of measuring cultural intelligence in affinity to measure thinking styles, personality and curiosity. Cultural intelligence is the extremity of the hour as it is for most important for individuals and organizations because the world is diverse and contemporary organizations recognize the value of bridging cultures for both personal and organizational success. The Cultural Intelligence Test, NEO Five-Factor Inventory, Thinking Styles Inventory and Curiosity and Exploration Inventory were administered on students from different states of India and students from other countries. Findings of the study suggest that it is meaningful to investigate cultural intelligence in relation to examining thinking styles, personality and curiosity. In addition results stated that Legislative thinking style (aspect among 13 thinking styles), Curiosity and agreeableness (dimensions of personality) are the potent predictors of cultural intelligence. Keywords: Cultural intelligence, Thinking style, Personality and Curiosity
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Objective: Guided by a functional account of awe, we aimed to test the hypothesis that people who often feel awe are also more curious (Studies 1 and 2), and that this relationship in turn related to academic outcomes (Study 3). Method: In Study 1 (n = 1,005), we used a self-report approach to test the relationship between dispositional awe and curiosity. In Study 2 (n = 100), we used a peer-report approach to test if participants' dispositional awe related to how curious they were rated by their friends. In Study 3, in a sample of 447 high school adolescents we tested if dispositional awe predicted academic outcomes via curiosity. Results: We found that dispositional awe was positively related to people's self-rated curiosity (Study 1) and how curious they were rated by their friends (Study 2). In Study 3, we found that dispositional awe was related to academic outcomes via curiosity. Conclusions: We conclude that among the seven positive emotion dispositions tested, awe was related to unique variance in curiosity, and this link in turn predicted academic outcomes. This work further characterizes awe as an epistemic emotion and suggests that activities that inspire awe may improve academic outcomes.
Thesis
Diversity training has grown over the last twenty years and has recently surged in the wake of the global protests for racial justice and equality sparked by the 2020 murder of George Floyd in Minneapolis. The U.S. Census Bureau has projected that non-Hispanic Whites will no longer be the majority racial group by the year 2044. The emerging majority will be composed of Asians, Blacks, Latinx, and other races. To prepare for this multicultural shift and help increase connectivity between groups, especially in the current COVID-19 era of working from home and Black Lives Matter, companies are investing heavily in diversity training. Diversity training aspires to help workers learn about and appreciate differences as a pathway to more egalitarian behaviors and practices, and diversity also aids in the economic success of the business. Yet current diversity training effects can encompass the opposite. For example, social dominance challenges, power and status needs, in-group and out-group divisions, fragility, negativity, and mixed results in terms of bias reduction, behavior change, and equality in the workplace. This paper will explore how applied positive psychology may help to ameliorate these negative effects and therefore increase the odds of meaningful long-term change.
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Athletes require knowledge of self-regulatory processes and skills to enact them successfully if they are to mitigate the potentially maladaptive effects of stress on functioning (e.g., psychological health, performance). Existing stress regulation interventions typically adopt a “one size fits all” approach in which individuals are taught specific skills thought to be effective for all people and all types of stressors. We test an alternative, yet complementary approach in which athletes engage proactively with stressor experiences via self-immersed or self-distanced reflections as a means by which to maximise the individualisation of stress regulation efforts. We will conduct a single blind, parallel group, cluster randomised controlled trial encompassed by a 2 (condition: self-distanced, self-immersed) x 2 (time: baseline and post-intervention) mixed factorial design with approximately 200 elite athletes to test these perspectives empirically. Psychological well-being and ill-being are the primary outcomes of interest, with coping insight expected the mediate the effect of stressor reflections, and curiosity and stress mindsets hypothesised to moderate the effects of stressor reflections.
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This study aims to examine the linkages between students' multi-dimensional experiential motives and intention to use online games. The study uses convenience sampling technique for sample selection of 210 respondents. Their participation was purely voluntary. Social affiliation was found as the most influential factor in the objective to play online games among students. However, enjoyment insignificantly related with the purpose to play online games. This research contributes significantly to the online gaming industry, and marketers in boosting their profit within undergraduate by know which aspect they look into when having an intention on online gaming. The proposed framework can be the basis for further research to investigate again the intention to play online games.
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Publisher Summary This chapter discusses the openness which cannot be understood as the culture that is acquired through education or good breeding, not as intellect or any other cognitive ability. Openness must be viewed in both structural and motivational terms. Openness is seen in the breadth, depth, and permeability of consciousness and in the recurrent need to enlarge and examine experience. Openness also suggests a passive or uncritical receptivity, which is clearly inappropriate. Open people actively seek out experience and are apt to be particularly reflective and thoughtful about the ideas they encounter. A structural account of openness may be necessary, but it does not seem to be sufficient. Open people are not the passive recipients of a barrage of experiences they are unable to screen out; they actively seek out new and varied experiences. Openness involves motivation, needs for variety cognition sentience, and understanding. The heritability of openness might be explained by the heritability of intelligence. Psychologists have spent more time and effort studying intelligence, than any other trait by adopting the term “Intellect.” Personality psychologists could claim this vast literature as their own. Openness could be construed as intelligence itself or as the reflection of intelligence in the personality sphere.
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A theoretical framework is proposed for examining the interpersonal processes involved in the support of a relationship partner's goal strivings, personal growth, and exploratory behavior, and for examining consequences of receiving either responsive or unresponsive support in this domain. These processes were examined using both observational and experimental methods. In Phase 1, couples were videotaped as they discussed personal goals for the future. In Phase 2, support behavior was experimentally manipulated to examine immediate effects on the recipient. Results indicated that responsive (nonintrusive) support of a relationship partner's goal strivings and explorations have important implications for the recipient's happiness, self-esteem, and perceived likelihood of achieving specific goals. The importance of research examining this type of support is discussed.
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Individual differences related to emotions are typically represented as emotion traits. Although important, these descriptive models often do not address the psychological dynamics that underlie the trait. Appraisal theories of emotion assume that individual differences in emotions can be traced to differences in patterns of appraisal, but this hypothesis has largely gone untested. The present research explored whether individual differences in the emotion of interest, known as trait curiosity, consist of patterns of appraisal. After completing several measures of trait curiosity, participants read complex poems (Experiment 1) or viewed simple and complex pictures (Experiment 2) and then gave ratings of interest and interest's appraisal components. The effect of trait curiosity on interest was fully mediated by appraisals. Multilevel analyses suggested that curious people differ in the amount of appraisal rather than in the kinds of appraisals relevant to interest. Appraisal theories can offer a process-oriented explanation of emotion traits that bridges state and trait emotional experience.
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The Concept of CuriosityA Framework for Factors that Support CuriosityElaborating the Framework for Curiosity Supportive FactorsCuriosity InterventionsConclusion
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Though relatively young, the field of relationships science has an impressive body of research devoted to understanding a range of relational processes including attachment, communality, intimacy, and interdependence. However, relatively little research has examined the motivational underpinnings of these processes. Self-determination theory (SDT) offers a broad perspective on the mechanisms through which relational processes are related to personal well-being and relational functioning and the circumstances under which seemingly positive relational processes particularly result in benefits to relationships and the individuals of which they are comprised. The purpose of this review is to summarise the existing research applying SDT to relational processes and to suggest future avenues for research that will extend both relationships science and SDT. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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recently, we have begun to explore . . . [the] process of emotional contagion / people's conscious analyses give them a great deal of information about their social encounters / [people] can also focus their attention on their moment-to-moment emotional reactions to others, during their social encounters / this stream of reactions comes to them via their fleeting observations of others' faces, voices, postures, and instrumental behaviors / further, as they nonconsciously and automatically mimic their companions' fleeting expressions of emotion, people also may come to feel as their partners feel / by attending to the stream of tiny moment-to-moment reactions, people can gain a great deal of information on their own and their partners' emotional landscapes begin by defining emotion and emotional contagion and discussing several mechanisms that we believe might account for this phenomenon / review the evidence from a variety of disciplines that "primitive emotional contagion" exists / examine the role of individual differences in emotional contagion / outline some of the broad research questions researchers might profitably investigate (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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propose a model of the intimacy process the process begins when one person expresses personally revealing feelings of information to another it continues when the listener responds supportively and empathically for an interaction to become intimate the discloser must feel understood, validated, and cared for psychodynamic building blocks / building blocks from communication and exchange research / lay and psychometric conceptions of intimacy (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Research on curiosity has undergone 2 waves of intense activity. The 1st, in the 1960s, focused mainly on curiosity's psychological underpinnings. The 2nd, in the 1970s and 1980s, was characterized by attempts to measure curiosity and assess its dimensionality. This article reviews these contributions with a concentration on the 1st wave. It is argued that theoretical accounts of curiosity proposed during the 1st period fell short in 2 areas: They did not offer an adequate explanation for why people voluntarily seek out curiosity, and they failed to delineate situational determinants of curiosity. Furthermore, these accounts did not draw attention to, and thus did not explain, certain salient characteristics of curiosity: its intensity, transience, association with impulsivity, and tendency to disappoint when satisfied. A new account of curiosity is offered that attempts to address these shortcomings. The new account interprets curiosity as a form of cognitively induced deprivation that arises from the perception of a gap in knowledge or understanding. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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According to adaptation theory, individuals react to events, but quickly adapt back to baseline levels of subjective well-being. To test this idea, the authors use data from a 15-year longitudinal study of over 30 000 individuals to examine the effects of marital transitions on life satisfaction. On average, individuals reacted to events and then adapted back towards baseline levels. However, there were substantial individual differences in this tendency. Individuals who initially reacted strongly were still far from baseline years later, and many people exhibited trajectories that were in the opposite direction to that predicted by adaptation theory. Thus, marital transitions can be associated with long-lasting changes in satisfaction, but these changes can be overlooked when only average trends are examined.
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A theoretical framework is outlined in which the key construct is the need for(nonspecific) cognitive closure. The need for closure is a desire for definite knowledge on some issue. It represents a dimension of stable individual differences as well as a situationally evocable state. The need for closure has widely ramifying consequences for social-cognitive phenomena at the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and group levels of analysis. Those consequences derive from 2 general tendencies, those of urgency and permanence. The urgency tendency represents an individual's inclination to attain closure as soon as possible, and the permanence tendency represents an individual's inclination to maintain it for as long as possible. Empirical evidence for present theory attests to diverse need for closure effects on fundamental social psychological phenomena, including impression formation, stereotyping, attribution, persuasion, group decision making, and language use in intergroup contexts.
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Human emotions
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Psychologists have always been intrigued in interest, and modern research on interest can be found in nearly every area of the field: researchers studying emotions, cognition, development, education, aesthetics, personality, motivation, and vocations have developed intriguing ideas about what interest is and how it works. This book presents an integrated picture of how interest has been studied in all of the wide-ranging areas of psychology. Using modern theories of cognition and emotion as an integrative framework, it examines the nature of interest, what makes things interesting, the role of interest in personality, and the development of people's idiosyncratic interests, hobbies, and avocations. The examination reveals deep similarities between seemingly different fields of psychology and illustrates the profound importance of interest, curiosity, and intrinsic motivation for understanding why people do what they do. A comprehensive work devoted to interest, this book reviews the history of psychological thought on interest, presents classic and modern research, and suggests fruitful directions for future work.
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Emotions have ubiquitous effects in human affairs. Vivian Gornick, in Fierce Attachments,^ recounts a typ-ical exchange with her mother. Gor-nick always begins these encounters with high hopes. "Somehow," de-spite her best intentions, the conver-sations always spiral downward: Today is promising, tremendously prom-ising I go to meet my mother. I'm flying. Flying! I want to give her some of this shiningness bursting in me, siphon into her my immense happiness at being alive. Just because she is my oldest inti-mate and at this moment I love every-body, even her. "Oh, Ma! What a day I've had," I say. "Tell me," she says. "Do you have the rent this month?" "Ma, listen ..." I say. "That review you wrote for the Times," she says. "Ifs for sure they'll pay you?" "Ma, stop it. Let me tell you what I've been feeling," I say. "Why aren't you wearing something warmer?" she cries. "It's nearly winter." The space inside begins to shimmer. The walls collapse inward. I feel breath-less. Swallow slowly, I say to myself, slowly. To my mother I say, "You do know how to say the right thing at the right time. Ifs remarkable, this gift of yours. It quite takes my breath away." But she doesn't get it. She doesn't loiow I'm being ironic. Nor does she Elaine Hatfield is a Professor of Psychology and Richard L. Rapson is a Professor of History at the Uni-versity of Hawaii. John T. Ca-cioppo is a Professor of Psychology at the Ohio State University. Ad-dress correspondence to Elaine Hatfield, 2430 Campus Rd., Honolulu, HI 96822; BITNET: psych@uhunix; INTERNET: psych@uhunix.uhcc.hawaii.edu. know she's wiping me out. She doesn't know I take her anxiety personally, feel annihilated by her depression. How can she know this? She doesn't even know I'm there. Were I to tell her that it's death to me, her not knowing I'm there, she would stare at me out of her eyes crowd-ing up with puzzled desolation, this young girl of seventy-seven, and she would cry angrily, "You don't under-stand! You have never understood!" (pp. 103-104)
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Curiosity, interest, and intrinsic motivation are critical to the development of competence, knowl- edge, and expertise. Without a mechanism of intrinsic motivation, people would rarely explore new things, learn for its own sake, or engage with uncertain tasks despite feelings of confusion and anxiety. This article explores two sides of interest: momentary feelings (the emotion of inter- est) and enduring traits (the character strength of curiosity). Recent theories in emotion psychol- ogy can explain why and when people experience feelings of interest; recent research has illuminated the role of curiosity in cultivating knowledge, meaning in life, close relationships, and physical and mental resilience. The problem for future research - and for social and personality psychology more generally - is how to bridge the dynamics of everyday experience with stable, lifespan aspects of personality.
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We examined the roles of curiosity, social anxiety, and positive affect (PA) and neg- ative affect (NA) in the development of interpersonal closeness. A reciprocal self-disclosure task was used wherein participants and trained confederates asked and answered questions escalating in personal and emotional depth (mimicking closeness-development). Relationships between curiosity and relationship out- comes were examined using regression analyses. Controlling for trait measures of social anxiety, PA, and NA, trait curiosity predicted greater partner ratings of attrac- tion and closeness. Social anxiety moderated the relationship between trait curios- ity and self-ratings of attraction such that curiosity was associated with greater attraction among those low in social anxiety compared to those high in social anxi- ety. In contrast, trait PA was related to greater self-ratings of attraction but had no relationship with partners' ratings. Trait curiosity predicted positive relationship outcomes as a function of state curiosity generated during the interaction, even after controlling for state PA.
Article
The extent to which two measures of epistemic curiosity (EC), the Epistemic Curiosity Scale (ECS; Litman & Spielberger, 2003) and the curiosity as a Feeling-of-Deprivation Scale (CFDS; Litman & Jimerson, 2004), differentiated between interest (I) and deprivation (D) type curiosity was examined in four studies. In studies 1 (N=725) and 2 (N=658), exploratory factor analyses of the ECS and CFDS subscales yielded two factors; the first (I-type) involved pleasure associated with discovering new ideas, while the second (D-type) emphasized spending time and effort to acquire a specific answer or solution. In study 3 (N=762), confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that a 2-factor model comprised of the I- and D-type curiosity items identified in study 2 had the best fit. In study 4 (N=515), correlations between revised I- and D-type measures and different learning goals were evaluated. As hypothesized, the I-EC scale correlated with mastery-oriented learning, whereas the D-EC scale was related to failure-avoidance and success-orientation. The results suggest that I-EC is concerned with stimulating positive affect, diversive exploration, learning something completely new and mastery-oriented learning; D-EC involves the reduction of uncertainty, specific exploration, acquiring information that is missing from an existing knowledge-set and performance-oriented learning.
Article
Two studies examined how the social context may contribute to interest in performing an achievement task. Based on Sansone and Harackiewicz' (1996) model, we predicted that individuals high in interpersonal orientation would be more likely to approach achievement tasks with interpersonal goals. They would be in greater match with the activity when performance takes place in a social context and as a result have greater interest in the activity than when working alone. The first study used Deci and Ryan's (1985b) motivational orientation scale to assess characteristic differences in how individuals who differed in interpersonal orientation would approach problem-solving that involved another person. In Study 2, individuals who differed in interpersonal orientation performed an achievement task in one of three contexts: alone, alongside another person (a confederate) but with independent achievement goals, or with another person (a confederate) with a common achievement goal. Results suggested that individuals high in interpersonal orientation found the activity more interesting and were more likely to engage in similar activities in the future when they worked on the task in the presence of the confederate, with no differences between the two confederate-present conditions. They were also more likely to approach the activity with a tendency to include the other person in the process (both on- and off-task), and their interest was positively predicted by the other person's behaviors. Individuals low in interpersonal orientation had a more mixed set of results. Implications for theoretical models of intrinsic motivation as well as gender applications are discussed.
Article
A practical methodology is presented for creating closeness in an experimental context. Whether or not an individual is in a relationship, particular pairings of individuals in the relationship, and circumstances of relationship development become manipulated variables. Over a 45-min period subject pairs carry out self-disclosure and relationship-building tasks that gradually escalate in intensity. Study 1 found greater postinteraction closeness with these tasks versus comparable small-talk tasks. Studies 2 and 3 found no significant closeness effects, inspite of adequate power, for (a) whether pairs were matched for nondisagreement on important attitudes, (b) whether pairs were led to expect mutual liking, or (c) whether getting close was made an explicit goal. These studies also illustrated applications for addressing theoretical issues, yielding provocative tentative findings relating to attachment style and introversion/extraversion.
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The person-situation debate is coming to an end because both sides of the debate have turned out to be right. With respect to momentary behaviors, the situation side is right: Traits do not predict, describe, or influence behavior very strongly; the typical individual's behavior is highly variable; and a process approach is needed to explain that variability. With respect to trends (e.g., a person's typical way of acting), however, the person side of the debate is right: Traits predict and describe behavior very well over long stretches of time, behavior is highly stable, and a trait approach is needed to explain differences between people. Thus, proponents of both sides are right and should continue to conduct fruitful research, and both viewpoints are necessary for a full understanding of personality. The next exciting steps in personality psychology will include integrating these two approaches in the same research paradigm.
Article
Psychology calls itself the science of behavior, and the American Psychological Association's current "Decade of Behavior" was intended to increase awareness and appreciation of this aspect of the science. Yet some psychological subdisciplines have never directly studied behavior, and studies on behavior are dwindling rapidly in other subdisciplines. We discuss the eclipse of behavior in personality and social psychology, in which direct observation of behavior has been increasingly supplanted by introspective self-reports, hypothetical scenarios, and questionnaire ratings. We advocate a renewed commitment to including direct observation of behavior whenever possible and in at least a healthy minority of research projects. © 2007 Association for Psychological Science.
Article
In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study investigated 3 broad classes of individual-differences variables (job-search motives, competencies, and constraints) as predictors of job-search intensity among 292 unemployed job seekers. Also assessed was the relationship between job-search intensity and reemployment success in a longitudinal context. Results show significant relationships between the predictors employment commitment, financial hardship, job-search self-efficacy, and motivation control and the outcome job-search intensity. Support was not found for a relationship between perceived job-search constraints and job-search intensity. Motivation control was highlighted as the only lagged predictor of job-search intensity over time for those who were continuously unemployed. Job-search intensity predicted Time 2 reemployment status for the sample as a whole, but not reemployment quality for those who found jobs over the study's duration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Describes the development of the Relationship Closeness Inventory (RCI), which draws on the conceptualization of closeness as high interdependence between two people's activities proposed by Kelley et al. (1983). The current "closest" relationship of individuals ( N = 241) drawn from the college student population served as the basis for RCI development, with the closest relationship found to encompass several relationship types, including romantic, friend, and family relationships. The development and psychometric properties of the three RCI subscales (Frequency, Diversity, Strength), their scoring, and their combination to form an overall index of closeness are described. The RCI's test–retest reliability is reported and the association between RCI score and the longevity of the relationship is discussed. RCI scores for individuals' closest relationships are contrasted to those of not-close relationships, to a subjective closeness index, and to several measures of relationship affect, including Rubin's (1973) Liking and Loving scales. Finally, the ability of the RCI to predict relationship break up is contrasted to that of the Subjective Closeness Index, an index of the emotional tone of the relationship, and to relationship longevity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In 2 studies, the Inclusion of Other in the Self (IOS) Scale, a single-item, pictorial measure of closeness, demonstrated alternate-form and test–retest reliability; convergent validity with the Relationship Closeness Inventory (E. Berscheid et al, 1989), the R. J. Sternberg (1988) Intimacy Scale, and other measures; discriminant validity; minimal social desirability correlations; and predictive validity for whether romantic relationships were intact 3 mo later. Also identified and cross-validated were (1) a 2-factor closeness model (Feeling Close and Behaving Close) and (2) longevity–closeness correlations that were small for women vs moderately positive for men. Five supplementary studies showed convergent and construct validity with marital satisfaction and commitment and with a reaction-time (RT)-based cognitive measure of closeness in married couples; and with intimacy and attraction measures in stranger dyads following laboratory closeness-generating tasks. In 3 final studies most Ss interpreted IOS Scale diagrams as depicting interconnectedness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
AN ATTEMPT TO ARRIVE AT A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF REINFORCEMENT BY STUDYING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AROUSAL AND REINFORCEMENT. EFFECTS OF AROUSAL LEVEL AND THE INTERACTION OF AROUSAL LEVEL AND AROUSAL POTENTIAL ARE DISCUSSED USING FINDINGS FROM HUMAN AND ANIMAL, VERBAL LEARNING, AND NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL STUDIES. PSYCHOPHYSICAL, ECOLOGICAL, AND COLLATIVE STIMULUS PROPERTIES ARE FOUND TO "AFFECT REWARD VALUE AND, MORE GENERALLY, REINFORCEMENT VALUE IN SIMILAR WAYS." AROUSAL REDUCTION IS REJECTED AS NECESSARY FOR PRODUCING REINFORCEMENT. (322 REF.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Book
This completely rewritten classic text features many new examples, insights, and topics including mediational, categorical, and multilevel models. Substantially reorganized, this edition provides a briefer, more streamlined examination of data analysis. Noted for its model comparison approach and unified framework based on the general linear model, the book provides readers with a greater understanding of a variety of statistical procedures. This consistent framework, including consistent vocabulary and notation, is used throughout to develop fewer but more powerful model building techniques. The authors show how all analysis of variance and multiple regression can be accomplished within this framework. The model comparison approach provides several benefits: It strengthens the intuitive understanding of the material, thereby increasing the ability to successfully analyze data in the future; It provides more control in the analysis of data so that readers can apply the techniques to a broader spectrum of questions; It reduces the number of statistical techniques that must be memorized; It teaches readers how to become data analysts instead of statisticians. The book opens with an overview of data analysis. All the necessary concepts for statistical inference used throughout the book are introduced in Chapters 2 through 4. The remainder of the book builds on these models. Chapters 5-7 focus on regression analysis, followed by analysis of variance (ANOVA), mediational analyses, nonindependent or correlated errors, including multilevel modeling, and outliers and error violations. The book is appreciated by all for its detailed treatment of ANOVA, multiple regression, nonindependent observations, interactive and nonlinear models of data, and its guidance for treating outliers and other problematic aspects of data analysis. Intended for advanced undergraduate or graduate courses on data analysis, statistics, and/or quantitative methods taught in psychology, education, or other behavioral and social science departments, this book also appeals to researchers who analyze data. A protected website featuring additional examples and problems with datasets, lecture notes, PowerPoint presentations, and class-tested exam questions is available to adopters. This material uses SAS but can easily be adapted to other programs. A working knowledge of basic algebra and any multiple regression program is assumed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examines thinking and research relevant to the self-expansion model of motivation and cognition in close relationships. It begins with an explanation of the key elements of the model, followed by a comment on the utility of a model of this kind in terms of the role of metaphor in science. The chapter then considers 2 key processes suggested by the model, discussing the theoretical foundation and research relevant to each. These 2 processes are, first, that relationship satisfaction is increased through the association of the relationship with self-expansion and, second, that the relationship means cognitively that each partner has included the other in his or her self. Implications of the model for 3 other relationship-relevant issues (selectivity in attraction, motivations for unrequited love, and the effects on the self of falling in love) are considered. Concludes with a brief consideration of other relationship-relevant ramifications of the model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Two prospective, longitudinal studies examined the consequences of falling in love, focusing on predictions developed in the context of A. Aron and E. N. Aron's (1986, in press) self-expansion model of motivation and cognition in close relationships. In each study a sample with a high expected incidence of falling in love (first- and second-year undergraduates in the fall term) was tested 5 times over 10 weeks. At each testing participants indicated whether they had fallen in love and either made open-ended lists of self-descriptive terms (Study 1; N = 329) or completed standard self-efficacy and self-esteem measures (Study 2; N = 529). As predicted, after falling in love there was greater change and increased diversity of self-concept domains (Study 1) and increased self-efficacy and self-esteem (Study 2). Partial correlation analyses suggested that results in both studies were not due to mood change. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Many important research hypotheses concern conditional relations in which the ef- fect of one predictor varies with the value of another. Such relations are commonly evaluated as multiplicative interactions and can be tested in both fixed- and ran- dom-effects regression. Often, these interactive effects must be further probed to fully explicate the nature of the conditional relation. The most common method for probing interactions is to test simple slopes at specific levels of the predictors. A more general method is the Johnson-Neyman (J-N) technique. This technique is not widely used, however, because it is currently limited to categorical by continuous in- teractions in fixed-effects regression and has yet to be extended to the broader class of random-effects regression models. The goal of our article is to generalize the J-N technique to allow for tests of a variety of interactions that arise in both fixed- and random-effects regression. We review existing methods for probing interactions, ex- plicate the analytic expressions needed to expand these tests to a wider set of condi- tions, and demonstrate the advantages of the J-N technique relative to simple slopes with three empirical examples.
Article
There has been substantial interest in mindfulness as an approach to reduce cognitive vulnerability to stress and emotional distress in recent years. However, thus far mindfulness has not been defined operationally. This paper describes the results of recent meetings held to establish a consensus on mindfulness and to develop conjointly a testable operational definition. We propose a two-component model of mindfulness and specify each component in terms of specific behaviors, experiential manifestations, and implicated psychological processes. We then address issues regarding temporal stability and situational specificity and speculate on the conceptual and operational distinctiveness of mindfulness. We conclude this paper by discussing implications for instrument development and briefly describing our own approach to measurement.
Article
Data collected from both members of a dyad provide abundant opportunities as well as data analytic challenges. The Actor–Partner Interdependence Model (APIM; Kashy & Kenny, 2000) was developed as a conceptual framework for collecting and analyzing dyadic data, primarily by stressing the importance of considering the interdependence that exists between dyad members. The goal of this paper is to detail how the APIM can be implemented in dyadic research, and how its effects can be estimated using hierarchical linear modeling, including PROC MIXED in SAS and HLM (version 5.04; Raudenbush, Bryk, Cheong, & Congdon, 2001). The paper describes the APIM and illustrates how the data set must be structured to use the data analytic methods proposed. It also presents the syntax needed to estimate the model, indicates how several types of interactions can be tested, and describes how the output can be interpreted.
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