The effectiveness of cognitive behavioral stress management training on mental health, social interaction and family function in adolescents of families with one Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive member*

Resident of child and adolescent psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Behavioral Science Research Center, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
Journal of research in medical sciences (Impact Factor: 0.65). 06/2011; 16(6):741-9.
Source: PubMed


This study evaluated stress management training to improve mental health, social interaction and family function among adolescents of families with one Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive member.
There were 34 adolescents (13-18 years old) with at least one family member living with HIV from whom finally 15 attended the study and participated in 8 weekly sessions of stress management training. The tests used in this study were: Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (self and parent report), General Health Questionnare-28 (GHQ-28) and Family Assessment Device (FAD), conducted before, after and three months after the intervention. The collected data were analyzed by repeated measure test using SPSS software (Version 18.0).
Adolescents with one HIV positive family member showed high level of emotional problem (40%) and conduct problem (33.3%). There was a significant difference between before, after and 3months after intervention based on GHQ-28 mean scores and FAD mean sores (p < 0.001). There was a significant difference between mean scores of peers' relationship based on SDQ (self report and parents report forms) before and after intervention, but there was no significant difference between mean scores of pro social behavior based on SDQ (self report and parents report forms) in all three stages (before, after and three months after intervention).
Stress management training is effective in improving mental health, family function and social interaction among adolescents living with parents infected with HIV/AIDS.

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    • "Rigorous intervention and evaluation design is needed in the field. Only a few known randomized controlled trials have been conducted to promote the well-being of children affected by HIV (Eloff et al., 2014; Keypour, Arman, & Maracy, 2011; Kulkarni, Kennedy, & Lewis, 2010; Kumakech et al., 2009; Li, Liang, Ji, Wu, & Xiao, 2014; Mueller et al., 2011; Murphy, Marelich, Graham, & Payne, 2015; Rotheram-Borus et al., 2006; Ssewamala et al., 2009). These studies were mainly conducted in the USA, China, or African countries. "
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    ABSTRACT: HIV-related parental illness and death have a profound and lasting impact on a child’s psychosocial well-being, potentially compromising the child’s future. In response to a paucity of theoretical and conceptual discussions regarding the development of resilience among children affected by parental HIV, we proposed a conceptual framework of psychological resilience among children affected by HIV, based on critical reviews of the existing theoretical and empirical literature. Three interactive social ecological factors were proposed to promote the resilience processes and attenuate the negative impact of parental HIV on children’s psychological development. Internal assets, such as cognitive capacity, motivation to adapt, coping skills, religion/spirituality, and personality, promote resilience processes. Family resources and community resources are two critical contextual factors that facilitate resilience process. Family resources contain smooth transition, functional caregivers, attachment relationship, and parenting discipline. Community resources contain teacher support, peer support, adult mentors, and effective school. The implications of the conceptual framework for future research and interventions among children affected by parental HIV were discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015
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    • "Interventions should aim to encourage healthy relationships through parent education, conflict and stress management, communicative training, and health promotion. For example, cognitive-behavioral stress management training has shown to benefit mental health, social interaction, and family functioning in adolescents with parental CMC (Keypour et al. 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: This article was inspired by Rolland's Family Systems-Illness (FSI) model, aiming to predict adolescent stress as a function of parental illness type. Ninety-nine parents with a chronic medical condition, 82 partners, and 158 adolescent children (51 % girls; mean age = 15.1 years) participated in this Dutch study. The Dutch Stress Questionnaire for Children was used to measure child report of stress. Ill parents completed the Beck Depression Inventory. Children filled in a scale of the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment measuring the quality of parent attachment. Both parents filled in the Parent-Child-Interaction Questionnaire-Revised. We conducted multilevel regression analyses including illness type, the ill parent's depressive symptoms, family functioning (quality of marital relationship, parent-child interaction, and parent attachment), and adolescents' gender and age. Four regression analyses were performed separately for each illness type as defined by disability (Model 1), and onset (Model 2), course (Model 3), and outcome of illness (Model 4). In all models, higher adolescent stress scores were linked to lower quality of parent-child interaction and parent attachment, and adolescents' female gender. The four models explained approximately 37 % of the variance in adolescent stress between individuals and 43-44 % of the variance in adolescent stress between families. Adolescent stress was not related to parental illness type. Our results partially supported the FSI model stating that family functioning is essential in point of child adjustment to parental illness. In the chronic stage of parental illness, adolescent stress does not seem to vary depending on illness type.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities
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    • "Previous studies have indicated that children were vulnerable for development disrup - tions when a parent became chronically ill and was under emotional distress ( Bauman et al . , 2002 ; Keypour , Arman , & Maracy , 2011 ) . In this study , we found that children ' s self - esteem , everyday stress , and delinquent behaviors were related to families with both HIV - infected parents . "
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The current study aims to explore the association of parents living with HIV (PLHs) and their children's self-esteem, everyday stress, and delinquent behaviors. DESIGN: The study samples included 79 families with 79 PLHs and 79 children. METHODS: Multiple regression analysis was used on baseline data collected in 2009 from a pilot study in Anhui Province, China. RESULTS: The results indicated that children from a family with both parents infected with HIV or children from families having multiple children were more likely to report a higher level of everyday stress. Male PLHs have significant influence on their children's everyday stress compared with female PLHs. Children reporting a lower level of parental care and lower self-esteem were significantly more likely to report a higher level of delinquent behaviors. In addition, we have found a strong positive correlation between families with multiple children and their children's delinquent behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that the severity of psychological and behavioral problems of children living in different HIV-affected families may be dependent not only on factors related to the children but also on factors related to their parents and families. Therefore, parental and family level factors should be considered when providing care and support to children living in HIV-affected families.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies
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