The Association Between Trichomonas Infection and Incarceration in HIV-Seropositive and At-Risk HIV-Seronegative Women

Division of General Internal Medicine and Primary Care, Harvard Medical School, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.
Sexually transmitted diseases (Impact Factor: 2.84). 12/2011; 38(12):1094-100. DOI: 10.1097/OLQ.0b013e31822ea147
Source: PubMed


The prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis is higher among incarcerated women than in the general community. We sought to determine whether a history of incarceration itself was independently associated with trichomoniasis.
The HIV Epidemiology Research Study is a prospective cohort study of 871 HIV-seropositive and 439 high-risk seronegative women in 4 urban centers (Bronx, NY; Detroit, MI; Providence, RI; Baltimore, MD). All participants enrolled between April 1993 and January 1995, with interviews and physical examinations conducted at baseline and at follow-up visits every 6 months up to 7 years.
Of 1310 subjects, 427 (33%) reported being incarcerated on at least one occasion. In addition, 724 (55%) were found to have a sexually transmitted infection on at least one occasion during the study; baseline rates were 21% for T. vaginalis, 4.3% for Chlamydia trachomatis, 0.6% for N. gonorrhea, and 8% for syphilis. Incarceration was associated with the detection of trichomonas infection (between-subject, odds ratio, 2.4; 95% confidence interval: 1.85-3.14; P < 0.01 and within-subject, odds ratio, 1.56; 95% confidence interval: 1.26-1.92; P < 0.01). The association with incarceration remained significant after adjusting for age, race, HIV status, enrollment risk group, number of sexual partners, marital status, education, bacterial vaginosis, vaginal candidiasis, drug use (crack, cocaine, heroin), alcohol use, health insurance, receipt of public assistance, employment status, visit number, and study site.
A history of incarceration was independently associated with the detection of trichomonas infection in a cohort of high-risk women. These data have implications for increased sexually transmitted infection prevention, screening, and treatment upon entry to jail as well as in the communities most affected by incarceration.

8 Reads
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Trichomonas vaginalis is the most prevalent curable sexually transmitted infection in the United States and may lead to preterm delivery, infertility, and increased HIV transmission. Incarcerated women may be at especially high risk for infection, although few studies have examined routine screening for Trichomonas infection in this population. Women older than 18 years entering the Rhode Island Department of Corrections between September 2009 and May 2011 were recruited to participate. All women submitted a self-collected vaginal swab for APTIMA transcription-mediated amplification testing. Each participant completed a survey addressing demographics, symptoms, sexual behavior, and substance use by audio computer-assisted self-interview. Data analysis was completed using multivariate logistic regression in SAS. Data for 387 women were analyzed. The mean age was 30 years, 60% were white, 18% were Hispanic, 10% were black, and 12% had other race/ethnicity. Forty-four percent reported vaginal symptoms, and 77% reported illicit drug and/or heavy alcohol use in the 30 days before incarceration. The prevalence of Trichomonas was 14% by APTIMA. The strongest predictors of infection included black race (odds ratio [OR], 5.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9-13.4; P < 0.01), more than 1 year since last Papanicolaou test (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.3-4.8; P < 0.01) and presence of vaginal symptoms (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.2-4.7; P = 0.02). Trichomonas infection is common in incarcerated women, especially among black women, women with vaginal symptoms, and those not receiving routine gynecologic care. Screening for Trichomonas infection in high-risk populations, particularly if using highly sensitive methods such as transcription-mediated amplification, may lead to increased detection and treatment.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Sexually transmitted diseases
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Remnant specimen from 1215 women screening for chlamydia/gonorrhea at 4 different venue types (sexually transmitted disease clinics, home-test kit users, juvenile and adult detention) in Los Angeles, California, were tested for Trichomonas vaginalis. Prevalence of T. vaginalis varied by screening population, and concurrent chlamydia or gonorrhea was independently associated with T. vaginalis.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Substance use is associated with HIV sexual risk behaviors, yet few studies have examined substance use patterns longitudinally. We evaluated the types and frequency of substances used over a six-month period among U.S. women at risk for HIV acquisition. Methods Women reporting unprotected sex with a man in the previous six months and at least one other personal or partner HIV risk characteristic enrolled in a multisite cohort study and completed interviews about substance use at study visits. Prevalence and frequency of substance use at the baseline and six-month visits were compared and correlates of decreased substance use at the six-month visit were assessed. Results Of 2,099 women enrolled, 1,882 had substance use data at baseline and six-months. Of these, 76.1% reported using at least one drug or binge drinking in the previous six months; 37.5% were frequent and 38.6% non-frequent substance users. Binge drinking was most frequently reported (63.3%), followed by cocaine (25.0%) and opioids (16.5%). Fifty-five percent of opiate users and 30% of cocaine users reported daily/almost daily use. At the six-month visit, 40.5% reported a decrease in frequency of use. Adjusting for income and type of drug used, poly-substance users were less likely to decrease frequency of use compared to those who only used one substance. Conclusion A substantial decrease in frequency of substance use over time was observed in this cohort. Poly-substance users were less likely to reduce frequency of use over time, suggesting that specific substance use interventions targeting these users are warranted.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Drug and alcohol dependence
Show more