ArticleLiterature Review

# Strawberries, Blueberries, and Cranberries in the Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Perspectives

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## Abstract

Emerging science supports therapeutic roles of strawberries, blueberries, and cranberries in metabolic syndrome, a prediabetic state characterized by several cardiovascular risk factors. Interventional studies reported by our group and others have demonstrated the following effects: strawberries lowering total and LDL-cholesterol, but not triglycerides, and decreasing surrogate biomarkers of atherosclerosis (malondialdehyde and adhesion molecules); blueberries lowering systolic and diastolic blood pressure and lipid oxidation and improving insulin resistance; and low-calorie cranberry juice selectively decreasing biomarkers of lipid oxidation (oxidized LDL) and inflammation (adhesion molecules) in metabolic syndrome. Mechanistic studies further explain these observations as up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity, reduction in renal oxidative damage, and inhibition of the activity of carbohydrate digestive enzymes or angiotensin-converting enzyme by these berries. These findings need confirmation in future studies with a focus on the effects of strawberry, blueberry, or cranberry intervention in clinical biomarkers and molecular mechanisms underlying the metabolic syndrome.

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... • Postprandial need of insulin can be reduced through the regular intake of strawberries, which in-turn lowers the risk of type II diabetes and metabolic syndrome [90,94] Anti-diabetic ...
... [90] Anti-metabolic syndrome activity Similar to cardiovascular disease and obesity, the metabolic syndrome also known as insulin resistance syndrome or syndrome X is a worldwide prevalent chronic aberration with multiple complications. [94] As the incidence of complications associated with this syndrome has risen day by day, there is a need to properly combat these complications through different ways: medicine, diet, and lifestyle modification. Now a day, the dietary approach to this syndrome has captured greater attention due to increasing awareness in the public regarding its positive effects. ...
... Among fruits, berries (in all forms) are important fruits to combat risk factors of metabolic syndrome such as hypertension, impaired fasting glucose, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular diseases. [94,157] Strawberry is one of the most important forms of berries and its consumption can lower blood glucose levels owing to its high anthocyanin content. [162] Moreover, strawberries can overcome the main features of metabolic syndrome such as hypertension and hyperglycemia by deactivating α-glucosidase which is a carbohydrate digestive enzyme, and α-amylase which is lipidrelated enzymes. ...
Article
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In millennia, berries have captured great attention owing to their broad spectrum of functional as well as therapeutic activities, which is due to presence of their bioactive compounds. All edible forms of berries show important nutritional properties leading to their therapeutic potential and are considered as safe functional foods. Recently, various researches for further exploration of berries concerning nutritional and bioactive profiles as well as potential health benefits are on the way. This review highlights the latest research on bioactive compounds of all edible forms of berries and their related nutritional activities in humans and animals against different diseases. The current article revealed that berries have an array of bioactive moieties including phenolics, anthocyanins and ellagitannins with strong antioxidant potential contributing to their anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and cardio-protective roles. The demand and consumption trend is increasing day by day, due to their therapeutic effects as mentioned above.
... The basic pathophysiology of obesity is an enlargement of fat cells and increased production of inflammatory adipokines as well as adhesion molecules, all of which promote obesity-induced metabolic disorders [3,20]. The animal studies and controlled trials showed an antiobesity effect of berries via a decrease in body fat and waist circumferences with concomitant antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, and antioxidative effects [3,4 & ,21]. ...
... Strawberry consumption also decreased the serum malondialdehyde (MDA) level [15]. In patients with metabolic syndrome and abdominal adiposity, supplementation with freeze-dried strawberry reduced total and LDL cholesterol, serum MDA, small LDL particles as well as adhesion molecules, and improved the features of metabolic syndrome and associated lipid oxidation and inflammation [3,6]. Upon consumption of freeze-dried strawberry beverage, patients with T2D showed a significant reduction in total cholesterol levels and total cholesterol to HDL-C ratio but not in triglycerides and HDL-C concentrations [40]. ...
... The main types of investigated berries included bilberries, lingonberries, blueberries, blackcurrants, blackberries, raspberries, cranberries, chokeberries, strawberries, and elderberries. Studies were performed in healthy patients but also in those with cardiovascular disease risk factors, fatty liver diseases, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia [3,4 & ,42 && ]. The data showed that the intake of berries significantly increased total serum antioxidant capacity, increased plasma SOD and CAT activity, and reduced MDA plasma level. ...
Article
Purpose of review: Berries belong to the best dietary sources of bioactive compounds, which exert a synergistic and cumulative effect on promotion of human health and prevention of diseases. The present review presents the most recent findings of animal and human studies regarding the health benefits of berries in terms of prevention and treatment of obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Recent findings: In the last years, there was a growing number of evidence from human epidemiological and interventional studies, which emphasized the role of berries in the management of metabolic diseases. Based on the results from recent clinical trials, it can be established that a berry diet rich in antioxidants and bioactive phytochemicals has beneficial effects on hepatic function, increase of insulin sensitivity and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, decrease of serum glucose and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and finally is inversely associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Summary: Numerous recent studies have shown that berries provide great benefits in preventing or mitigating metabolic disorders. The results of this review indicate that regular long-term consumption of different berries could potentially delay the progression of metabolic syndrome and comorbidities.
... The use of flavonoids or foods and beverages rich in flavonoids, was shown to reduce TG levels in human blood as well as MetS animal models. These include strawberries, cranberries and blueberries [34], kuersetin [35,36], green tea [37,38], naringenin [39], catechine [40] and gravinol [41]. However, no difference was found in the HDL level between KH and MS16 groups. ...
... Another compound recently discovered in the propolis extract from Melipona beecheii (stingless bee honey native to Central America) was found to contain triterpenes [65]. Oleanolic acid, a triterpenoid, exhibited a neuroprotective capability by restoring synaptic plasticity and memory deficit against Aβ [25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35] toxicity [66]. ...
Article
Background Evidence suggested the involvement of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the progression of neurodegenerative diseases through oxidative stress. Consumption of antioxidant compounds was found to be beneficial on brain-health by reducing brain oxidative stress level and improve cognitive performance in animal. Stingless bee honey or locally known as Kelulut honey (KH) exert high phenolic content and widely used as food supplement. Objectives In this study, we aim investigate the effects of KH on the brain of MetS-induced rats. Method: Forty male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups; 8 weeks (C8) and 16 weeks control groups (C16), groups that received high carbohydrate high fructose (HCHF) diet for 8 weeks (MS8) and 16 weeks (MS16), and a group that received HCHF for 16 weeks with KH supplemented for the last 35 days (KH). Results Serum fasting blood glucose decreased in the KH group compared to MS16 group. HDL levels were significantly decreased in MetS groups compared to control groups. Open field experiments showed KH group exhibits less anxious behavior compared to the MetS group. Probe trial of Morris water maze demonstrated significant memory retention of KH group compared to MS16 group. Nissl staining showed significant decrease in pyramidal hippocampal cell in the MS16 compared to KH group. Conclusion KH has the ability to normalise blood glucose and reduce serum triglyceride and LDL levels in MetS rats, while behavior studies complement its effect on anxiety and memory. This shows a promising role of KH in attenuating neurodegenerative diseases through the antioxidant activity of its polyphenolic content.
... We know of only a few fruits containing considerable amounts of both anthocyanins and iridoids: cranberries, lingonberries, and blueberries [17]. It is noteworthy that these fruits have shown a beneficial effect on lipids, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases in previous studies [1,48,39]. However, the effects of isolated anthocyanins and iridoids from these fruits, to our knowledge, have not been compared. ...
... These are: cranberries, lingonberries, and blueberries [17]. It is worth noting that these plants have been shown to have a beneficial effect on lipids, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases in previous studies [1,48,39]. However, the effects of isolated anthocyanins and iridoids from those plants, to our knowledge, have not been compared. ...
Article
Background and aims: Cardiovascular benefits of fruits are attributed mainly to their (poly)phenolic constituents, especially anthocyanins. The main aim of our study is to compare effects of iridoids and anthocyanins from one fruit on diet-induced atherosclerosis. The cornelian cherry is a native or cultivated plant that grows in many European countries, used in cuisine and folk medicine. In our previous study, we showed its constituents and proved that oral administration of lyophilized fruits to hypercholesterolemic rabbits had preventive effects on atherosclerosis through the activation of PPARα expression. In this study, we have compared the effects of the main constituents of the cornelian cherry:iridoid loganic acid and anthocyanins. Methods: Our experiment followed the model used in our previous study, in which rabbits were fed 1% cholesterol. Results: We showed that both loganic acid (20 mg/kg b.w.) and a mixture of anthocyanins (10 mg/kg b.w.) administered orally for 60 days had a positive impact on dyslipidemia caused by cholesterol-rich diet, although the effects of anthocyanins were more pronounced. Anthocyanins decreased total and LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides and increased HDL-cholesterol. Loganic acid showed similar effects, but only the triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol changes achieved statistical significance. Anthocyanins, and to a lesser extent loganic acid, significantly decreased intima thickness and intima/media ratio in the thoracic aorta. Both substances decrease ox-LDL in the plasma. Anthocyanins significantly increased expression of PPARγ and α in the liver. Loganic acid also increased their expression, but to a lesser extent. Conversely, loganic acid showed pronounced anti-inflammatory effects, decreasing TNF-α and IL-6 activity. Conclusions: Our results imply that both substances have a positive effect on factors contributing to the development of diet-induced atherosclerosis. Our results also indicate the potential health benefits of fruits containing anthocyanins and iridoids, and support the idea of creating composed phytopharmaceuticals containing both groups of substances.
... Flavonoids may improve dyslipidemias by modulating lipid absorption and lipogenesis [228]. Flavonoid-rich foods or beverages and/or purified flavonoids have been shown to lower plasma TG and/or total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol (or increase HDL cholesterol) in circulation in both humans with MS and rodent models [229][230][231][232][233][234][235]. ...
... In vitro studies on primary cultured rat hepatocytes showed that garlic extract inhibits FA and TG synthesis [79,245]. In addition, the study by Adoga [230,246] using Wistar rats fed a sucrose-rich diet with or without the addition of garlic showed that garlic reduces TG biosynthesis by reducing NADPH concentration in tissues, increasing the hydrolysis of these lipids, increasing pancreatic lipase activity, and deactivating enzymes involved in lipid synthesis, by interacting with the thiol groups of these enzymes. ...
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This review discusses the role of triglycerides (TGs) in the normal cardiovascular system as well as in the development and clinical manifestation of cardiovascular diseases. Regulation of TGs at the enzymatic and genetic level, in addition to their possible relevance as preclinical and clinical biomarkers, is discussed, culminating with a description of available and emerging treatments. Due to the high complexity of the subject and the vast amount of material in the literature, the objective of this review was not to exhaust the subject, but rather to compile the information to facilitate and improve the understanding of those interested in this topic. The main publications on the topic were sought out, especially those from the last 5 years. The data in the literature still give reason to believe that there is room for doubt regarding the use of TG as disease biomarkers; however, there is increasing evidence for the role of hypertriglyceridemia on the atherosclerotic inflammatory process, cardiovascular outcomes, and mortality.
... Different studies have proved that anthocyanin treatment can normalize blood glucose levels and inhibit glucose uptake in models of obesity and diabetes. In particular, strawberry treatment can help in managing hypertension and hyperglycemia, the main features of metabolic syn- drome, by constraining the activity of carbohydrate and lipid digestive enzymes, pancreatic lipase, and angiotensin I converting enzyme ( Basu and Lyons, 2012). When administered to healthy subjects, strawberries attenuated postprandial hyperglycemia ( Kurotobi et al., 2010), low- ered capillary and venous plasma glycemia and serum insulin concentrations (Törrönen et al., 2012), and atten- uated postprandial insulin response to bread with no effect on the glucose response ( Törrönen et al., 2013). ...
... When administered to healthy subjects, strawberries attenuated postprandial hyperglycemia ( Kurotobi et al., 2010), low- ered capillary and venous plasma glycemia and serum insulin concentrations (Törrönen et al., 2012), and atten- uated postprandial insulin response to bread with no effect on the glucose response ( Törrönen et al., 2013). Moreover, when strawberries are administered to sick people, they can reduce total and LDL cholesterol, serum malondialdehyde, small LDL particles, and adhesion mol- ecules in subjects with at least three features of metabolic syndrome ( Basu and Lyons, 2012), and can impair glucose metabolism and dyslipidemia in the presence of visceral obesity (Tushuizen et al., 2010). These results seem more typical of the presence of anthocyanins than of C41 05/01/2017 16:42:44 Page 895 ellagitannins, because berries with higher ellagitannins contents had no clear effect on the insulin response ( Törrönen et al., 2013). ...
... Blueberries have been demonstrated to have antioxidant, anti-obesity, and antidiabetic characteristics, as well as improving cardiovascular health [73,74]. Anthocyanins make up most of the mixtures in blueberries, with hydroxycinnamic destructive, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, folic destructive, nutrient C, and fiber making up the rest [75]. The concentrates from two cultivars of blueberries, "Centurion" and "Maru", have been displayed to decrease food admission by instigating satiety [76]. ...
Article
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Obesity and diabetes are the most demanding health problems today, and their prevalence, as well as comorbidities, is on the rise all over the world. As time goes on, both are becoming big issues that have a big impact on people’s lives. Diabetes is a metabolic and endocrine illness set apart by hyperglycemia and glucose narrow-mindedness because of insulin opposition. Heftiness is a typical, complex, and developing overall wellbeing worry that has for quite some time been connected to significant medical issues in individuals, all things considered. Because of the wide variety and low adverse effects, herbal products are an important hotspot for drug development. Synthetic compounds are not structurally diverse and lack drug-likeness properties. Thus, it is basic to keep on exploring herbal products as possible wellsprings of novel drugs. We conducted this review of the literature by searching Scopus, Science Direct, Elsevier, PubMed, and Web of Science databases. From 1990 until October 2021, research reports, review articles, and original research articles in English are presented. It provides top to bottom data and an examination of plant-inferred compounds that might be utilized against heftiness or potentially hostile to diabetes treatments. Our expanded comprehension of the systems of activity of phytogenic compounds, as an extra examination, could prompt the advancement of remedial methodologies for metabolic diseases. In clinical trials, a huge number of these food kinds or restorative plants, as well as their bioactive compounds, have been shown to be beneficial in the treatment of obesity.
... Briefly, their low caloric value pairs with an enriched content of dietary fibers and an array of polyphenolic secondary metabolites (e.g., flavonols, anthocyanins, phenolic acids) that greatly dictate BBs' antioxidant and anti-inflammatory profiles [31,[33][34][35]. Moreover, a wealth of experimental evidence openly points out the BBs-derived hypoglycemic and insulin-sensitizing effects [30,32,36,37]. However, the precise pathophysiologic mechanisms counteracted by BBs in early prediabetes progression are far from being disclosed. ...
Article
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The paramount importance of a healthy diet in the prevention of type 2 diabetes is now well recognized. Blueberries (BBs) have been described as attractive functional fruits for this purpose. This study aimed to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms pertaining to the protective impact of blueberry juice (BJ) on prediabetes. Using a hypercaloric diet-induced prediabetic rat model, we evaluated the effects of BJ on glucose, insulin, and lipid profiles; gut microbiota composition; intestinal barrier integrity; and metabolic endotoxemia, as well as on hepatic metabolic surrogates, including several related to mitochondria bioenergetics. BJ supplementation for 14 weeks counteracted diet-evoked metabolic deregulation, improving glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and hypertriglyceridemia, along with systemic and hepatic antioxidant properties, without a significant impact on the gut microbiota composition and related mechanisms. In addition, BJ treatment effectively alleviated hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial dysfunction observed in the prediabetic animals, as suggested by the amelioration of bioenergetics parameters and key targets of inflammation, insulin signaling, ketogenesis, and fatty acids oxidation. In conclusion, the beneficial metabolic impact of BJ in prediabetes may be mainly explained by the rescue of hepatic mitochondrial bioenergetics. These findings pave the way to support the use of BJ in prediabetes to prevent diabetes and its complications.
... Nevertheless, several studies identified in Tables 7 and 8 were conducted with EA extracts from strawberries (e.g. Kosmala et al., 2014;Ibrahim and El-Maksoud, 2015;Juśkiewicz et al., 2016) or with strawberry fruits (reviewed by Basu and Lyons, 2012;Giampieri et al., 2014Giampieri et al., , 2015Vendrame et al., 2016). As indicated in Table 8, several health benefits associated with EA are also associated with the consumption of strawberries. ...
Article
Ellagic acid (EA) is one of the plant phenolics associated with human health benefits. It derives from ellagitannins found in some nuts, seeds, and fruits, especially berries. Strawberries are considered a functional food and nutraceutical source, mainly because of their high concentration of EA and its precursors. This review presents the current state of knowledge regarding EA, focusing on its content in strawberry plants, stability during processing and storage of strawberry-based foods, production methods, and relevance to human health. As alternatives to acid-solvent extraction, fermentation-enzymatic bioprocesses hold great promises for more eco-efficient production of EA from plant materials. Strawberry fruits are generally rich in EA, with large variations depending on cultivar, growth conditions and maturity at harvest. High EA contents are also reported in strawberry achenes and leaves, and in wild strawberries. Strawberry postharvest storage, processing and subsequent storage can influence EA content. EA low concentration in strawberry juice and wine can be increased by incorporating pre-treated achenes. Widespread recognition of strawberries as functional foods is substantiated by evidence of EA biological effects, including antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antidiabetic, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, and prebiotic effects. The health benefits attributed to EA-rich foods are thought to involve various protective mechanisms at the cellular level. Dietary EA is converted by the intestinal microbiota to urolithins, which are better absorbed than EA and may contribute significantly to the health effects attributed to EA-rich foods. Based on the evidence available, strawberry EA shows strong promises for functional, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical applications. Future research should be directed at quantifying EA in different parts of the strawberry plant and in their byproducts; optimizing EA production from byproducts; understanding the biological actions of EA-derived metabolites in vivo, including the interactions between EA metabolites, other substances and food/biological matrices; characterizing the conditions and microorganisms involved in urolithin production; and developing delivery systems that enhance EA functionality and bioactivity. Food Quality and Safety, 1(4), 2017, 227–252.
... Nevertheless, several studies identified in Tables 7 and 8 were conducted with EA extracts from strawberries (e.g. Kosmala et al., 2014;Ibrahim and El-Maksoud, 2015;Juśkiewicz et al., 2016) or with strawberry fruits (reviewed by Basu and Lyons, 2012;Giampieri et al., 2014Giampieri et al., , 2015Vendrame et al., 2016). As indicated in Table 8, several health benefits associated with EA are also associated with the consumption of strawberries. ...
Article
Ellagic acid (EA) is one of the plant phenolics associated with human health benefits. It derives from ellagitannins found in some nuts, seeds, and fruits, especially berries. Strawberries are considered a functional food and nutraceutical source, mainly because of their high concentration of EA and its precursors. This review presents the current state of knowledge regarding EA, focusing on its content in strawberry plants, stability during processing and storage of strawberry-based foods, production methods, and relevance to human health. As alternatives to acid-solvent extraction, fermentation-enzymatic bioprocesses hold great promises for more eco-efficient production of EA from plant materials. Strawberry fruits are generally rich in EA, with large variations depending on cultivar, growth conditions and maturity at harvest. High EA contents are also reported in strawberry achenes and leaves, and in wild strawberries. Strawberry postharvest storage, processing and subsequent storage can influence EA content. EA low concentration in strawberry juice and wine can be increased by incorporating pre-treated achenes. Widespread recognition of strawberries as functional foods is substantiated by evidence of EA biological effects, including antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antidiabetic, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, and prebiotic effects. The health benefits attributed to EA-rich foods are thought to involve various protective mechanisms at the cellular level. Dietary EA is converted by the intestinal microbiota to urolithins, which are better absorbed than EA and may contribute significantly to the health effects attributed to EA-rich foods. Based on the evidence available, strawberry EA shows strong promises for functional, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical applications. Future research should be directed at quantifying EA in different parts of the strawberry plant and in their byproducts; optimizing EA production from byproducts; understanding the biological actions of EA-derived metabolites in vivo, including the interactions between EA metabolites, other substances and food/biological matrices; characterizing the conditions and microorganisms involved in urolithin production; and developing delivery systems that enhance EA functionality and bioactivity.
... Strawberry flavonoids are potent antioxidants agents, as well. They seem to be able to lower TC and LDL-C, but not TG, and decrease surrogate biomarkers of atherosclerosis (malondialdehyde and adhesion molecules) [33]. In particular, freeze-dried strawberry powder (FSP) is a concentrated source of polyphenolic flavonoids, fiber and phytosterols. ...
Article
Background: Polyphenols are a family of natural antioxidants that in recent years have been studied and tested for their potential benefits towards cardiovascular diseases. Objective: The aim of this review is to focus the attention on the presumed lipid-lowering and atheroprotective effects of polyphenols, administered either as individual molecules (nutritional supplements) and as functional foods, on the basis of the evidence coming from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and their meta-analyses. Method: A search strategy was conducted to identify studies in PubMed (January 1980 to September 2016); in particular, we have included human clinical trials, reviews and meta-analyses when they offered suitable insights and elucidations regarding the action of polyphenols on lipid profile and cardiovascular disease risk. Results: Literature data on polyphenols suggest that they potentially could exert an effect on lipid profile, especially by reducing the oxidation of LDL-C. Polyphenols from cocoa, grape, green tea, berries and soy are the ones that have shown more clinically relevant effect. However, quantitative data on cholesterol reduction are still unclear and often conflicting. Conclusion: Polyphenols, if taken in adequate dosages, can exert in some cases a positive effect on the prevention of cardiovascular risk and lipid oxidation, despite an unclear effect on lipid levels.
... Similarly, it can also be used as an antiulcer agent as it inhibits the adhesion of Helicobacter pylori in gastric mucus [11]. CRX has also been shown to modulate dyslipidaemia, hyperglycaemia and oxidative stress in metabolic syndromes [12]. Recently, effect of cranberry's polyphenols on the promotion of gut mucus layer morphologies and some metabolically important gut bacteria (e.g. ...
Article
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Purpose: Cranberries are a rich source of polyphenolic antioxidants. Purified sugars or artificial sweeteners are being added to cranberry-based food products to mask tartness. Refined sugar and artificial sweeteners intake modulate gut microbiota and result in metabolic complications. We evaluated effects of isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMOs; sweet tasting non-digestible oligosaccharides) with cranberry extract (CRX) on high fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic alterations in mice. Methods: Male Swiss albino mice were fed normal chow or HFD (58% fat kcal), and were administered either CRX (200 mg/kg) alone or in combination with IMOs (1 g/kg). Cecal short-chain fatty acids, abundances of selected (1) butyrate producing, (2) metabolically beneficial, and (3) selective lipopolysaccharides producing gram negative gut bacteria were studied. Further, gut-related histological, biochemical, genomic changes along with circulating pro-/anti-inflammatory markers and systemic obesity-associated metabolic changes were studied. Results: Co-supplementation of CRX and IMOs significantly improved cecal SCFAs, especially butyrate levels, selected butyrate-producing bacteria (clostridial cluster XIVa bacteria) and butyrate kinase expression in HFD-fed mice. The combination also significantly improved gut beneficial bacterial abundance, gut histology and related changes (colon mucin production, gut permeability) as compared to individual agents. It also prevented HFD-induced systemic and tissue inflammation, glucose intolerance and systemic obesity-associated metabolic changes in adipose tissue and liver. The combination of CRX and IMOs appeared more effective in the prevention of HFD-induced gut derangements. Conclusion: Combination of CRX and IMOs could be advantageous for normalization of metabolic alterations seen in diet-induced obesity via beneficial modulation of gastrointestinal health.
... freeze-dried cranberry powder diet has been reported to alleviate inflammatory response and lipid oxidation, which is useful to individuals with the metabolic syndrome [17,18]. ...
Article
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It is increasingly perceived that dietary components have been linked with the prevention of intestinal cancer. Cranberry is a rich source of phenolic constituents and non-digestible fermentable dietary fiber, which shows anti-proliferation effect in colorectal cancer cells. Herein, we investigated the efficacy of long-term cranberry diet on intestinal adenoma formation in Apcmin/+ mice. Apcmin/+ mice were fed a basal diet or a diet containing 20% (w/w) freeze-dried whole cranberry powder for 12 weeks, and the number and size of tumors were recorded after sacrifice. Our results showed that cranberry strongly prevented the growth of intestinal tumors by 33.1%. Decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis were observed in tumors of cranberry-fed mice. Cranberry diet reduced the expression profile of colonic inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-1β and TNF-α) accompanied with increased levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10). Moreover, the number of colonic goblet cells and MUC2 production were increased, and the intestinal barrier function was also improved. In addition, cranberry diet increased caecal short chain fatty acids concentrations, and down-regulated epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway. These data firstly show the efficacy and associated mechanisms of cranberry diet on intestinal tumor growth in Apcmin/+ mice, suggesting its chemopreventive potential against intestinal cancer.
... However, over the time, interventional studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect on health through the reduction of systolic and diastolic pressure and lipid oxidation, as well as the improved insulin resistance, due to blueberries consumption. Nevertheless, further confirmatory studies are recommended [45]. ...
Article
Background: The ever-growing concern about achieving quality of life and longevity leads scientists to the search of natural wellness resources. Also, prevention of diseases through food is considered as the driving force of the organism. The beneficial effects of superfoods, such as blueberries, on human health are expected to be proved, putting these effects under the microscope. Objective: Evaluating the effect of blueberries consumption in humans, in order to draw relevant conclusions for their beneficial effect and thus develop food policies and launch target in future searches. Methods: Comprehensive review of published studies of the last decade, using keyword combinations which are derived from the available database. Results: Based on the cited studies, that blueberries consumption reduces degenerative damage caused by free radicals, increases the natural killer cells and inflammatory cytokines, and provides evidence for cellular antioxidant defense against DNA damage, playing also an important role in the anti-cancer nutritional preventive treatment. Moreover, the blueberries consumption protects the elderly from neurodegenerative diseases, which are associated with oxidative stress and aging, improves gait performance, vascular function and insulin sensitivity. It also benefits school-age children’s cognitive function. The blueberries consumption also positively influences certain bifidobacterial populations, affects the recovery of visual acuity and operates as a complementary therapeutic factor to reduce the severity of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Conclusion: The consumption of blueberries is a supplementary function to prevent and cure chronic inflammatory diseases, providing an admirable medical therapy support in order to reduce degenerative damage. However, further studies conducted on larger populations are strongly recommended.
... Evidence from clinical and pre-clinical models supports the vascular benefits of anthocyanins, one class of flavonoids widely available in berries. [8][9][10][11][12] Anthocyanins are glycosides which are comprised of the anthocyanidin aglycone and a sugar moiety. Blueberries are an excellent source of anthocyanins that include galactosides, glucosides, and arabinosides of cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, peonidin, and petunidin. ...
Article
Scope: Lipotoxicity-induced endothelial dysfunction is an important vascular complication associated with diabetes. Clinical studies support the vascular benefits of blueberry anthocyanins, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that metabolites of blueberry anthocyanins attenuate lipotoxicity-induced endothelial dysfunction. Methods and results: Human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were treated for 6 h with either: (i) the parent anthocyanins (malvidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-glucoside); or (ii) the blueberry metabolites (hydroxyhippuric acid, hippuric acid, benzoic acid-4-sulfate, isovanillic acid-3-sulfate, and vanillic acid-4-sulfate), at concentrations known to circulate in humans following blueberry consumption. For the last 5 h HAECs were treated with palmitate or vehicle. HAECs treated with palmitate displayed elevated reactive oxygen species generation, increased mRNA expression of Nox4, chemokines, adhesion molecules, and IκBα, exaggerated monocyte binding, and suppressed nitric oxide production. Of note, the damaging effects of palmitate were ameliorated in HAECs treated with blueberry metabolites but not parent anthocyanins. Further, important translational relevance of these results was provided by our observation that palmitate-induced endothelial dysfunction was lessened in arterial segments that incubated concurrently with blueberry metabolites. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that the vascular benefits of blueberry anthocyanins are mediated by their metabolites. Blueberries might complement existing therapies to improve vascular complications. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... A variety of berries and small fruits are linked to positive modulation of human health, especially with respect to metabolic syndrome. There is a strong body of evidence supporting the beneficial effects of berries with regard to regulating inflammation, LDL-cholesterol, insulin resistance and lipid metabolism [15][16][17][18]. These bioactivities are typically attributed to the complex phenolic makeup of berries, including anthocyanins and other flavonoids as well as proanthocyanidins [5,18]. ...
Article
BACKGROUND: Skunk currant is widely dispersed across North America and a feature of some traditional North American indigenous diets. Whereas many wild and cultivated berries have attracting interest related to their antioxidant phenolic metabolites and putative health benefits in humans, very few data are available concerning skunk currant phytochemistry. OBJECTIVE: Provide the first metabolic profile of skunk currant fruits with a focus on phenolic and polyphenolic compounds, owing to their emerging implications in human health. METHODS: Skunk currants were harvested in Nunavik, Québec. Flavonols, flavan-3-ols, and phenolic acids were characterized using a targeted approach with reverse-phase ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Ellagitannins and anthocyanins were measured using reverse-phase HPLC following acid hydrolysis and employing diode array detection. Proanthocyanidins and sugars were detected with normal-phase HPLC. RESULTS: A total of 11 phenolic acids and 11 flavonoids, including three cyanidins and three quercetin glycosides were identified. Both condensed (proanthocyanidins) and hydrolysable (ellagitannins) tannins were also detected at 162mg and 75mg per 100g extract, respectively. The cumulative amount of detected phenolic and polyphenolic metabolites totaled 622.6mg/100g extract (63.4mg/100g berry FW). CONCLUSIONS: Skunk currant is a source of many bioactive phenolic and polyphenolic compounds. Appearing richer in phenolics than some cultivated varieties, the wild northern varieties of North America warrant additional study.
... Four randomized, parallel design human trials have reported that consumption of blueberries may beneficially affect insulin sensitivity and other early biomarkers of cardiovascular disease, such as blood pressure, endothelial function, and oxidative stress [6][7][8][9]. A systematic review has further concluded that there is a lack of clinical trials evaluating blueberry consumption in humans at risk for disease [10]. The prevalence of individuals at risk for type 2 diabetes is increasing in the population; thus, it is important to determine whether anthocyanin-rich foods can positively alter early biomarkers of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. ...
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Background Wild blueberries have a high content of polyphenols, but there is limited data evaluating their health benefits in adults at risk for type 2 diabetes. The objective of the study was to investigate whether consumption of 100% wild blueberry juice improves cardiometabolic biomarkers associated with type 2 diabetes risk. MethodsA single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design trial was conducted in which adults (women, n = 19, ages 39–64 y) at risk for type 2 diabetes consumed 240 mL of wild blueberry juice or a placebo beverage as part of their free-living diet for 7 days. Blood was collected to determine various biomarkers such as fasting plasma glucose, fasting serum insulin, surrogate markers of insulin sensitivity, triglycerides, inflammation (interleukin-6, interleukin-10, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, serum amyloid A), adhesion molecules (soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1), oxidative stress (LDL-oxidation, total 8-isoprostanes), and nitric oxide. Endothelial function and blood pressure were also assessed. ResultsWild blueberry juice consumption for 7 days produced no significant changes in glucose, insulin, insulin sensitivity, triglycerides, inflammatory markers, adhesion molecules, oxidative stress, endothelial function or blood pressure. However, wild blueberry juice consumption showed a trend for lowering systolic blood pressure: 120.8 ± 2.2 mmHg in the placebo group vs 116.0 ± 2.2 mmHg in the blueberry juice group (P = 0.088). Serum concentrations of nitrates and nitrites, an index of nitric oxide production, increased from 2.9 ± 0.4 μM after placebo drink to 4.1 ± 0.4 μM after drinking wild blueberry juice (P = 0.039). Conclusions Short-term consumption of wild blueberry juice may promote cardioprotective effects, by improving systolic blood pressure, possibly through nitric oxide production, in adults at risk for type 2 diabetes. This outcome warrants longer-term human studies of blueberries, including defined amounts of either the whole fruit or juice, to clarify whether polyphenol-rich foods can be efficacious for improving cardiometabolic biomarkers in adults at risk for type 2 diabetes. Trial registrationNCT02139878, clinicaltrials.gov; date of registration: May 4, 2014.
... It has also been shown that strawberry con- sumption-in doses ranging from 10 to 500 g and periods of supplementation ranging from 1 to 3 months-decreases vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, 49 glycated hemoglobin levels, 48 and total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) chole- sterol 41,49,50 regardless of the physiological status, age, and gender of the individuals implicated in the studies. It also increases the lag-phase duration before the copper-induced formation of lipid oxi- dation products 19 and the LDL mean particle size in plasma, 42 thus improving some atherosclerotic risk factors. ...
Article
It is generally accepted that a fruit and vegetable-enriched diet is favorable for human health. The consumption of strawberries, in particular, has been related to the maintenance of well-being and the prevention of several chronic diseases, owing to the high contents of antioxidants and phytochemicals present in the fruit. Several biological effects have been explained through the total antioxidant capacity exerted by these bioactive compounds, but recently more intricate mechanisms have begun to be examined. In this context, it has been reported that strawberry phenolics are able to exert anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, antiproliferative, and antiatherosclerotic activities, acting on specific molecular pathways related to antioxidant defenses, metabolism, survival, and proliferation. The overall aim of this work is to discuss and update the cellular and molecular mechanisms recently proposed to clarify the effects of strawberry phenolics on human health, with particular attention to the most common chronic diseases, such as metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.
... In addition, in different animal models of diabetes and obesity, strawberry intake has shown to limit glucose uptake and transport, normalizing its blood levels ( Tö rrö nen et al., 2012) and to reduce plasma CRP, a protein associated with increased adiposity and augmented risk for developing CVD ( Parelman et al., 2012). Finally, in humans (healthy and obese subjects, subjects with type 2 diabetes and subjects with metabolic syndrome) strawberry consumption was effective in decreasing plasma CRP, VCAM-1 and LDL-cholesterol levels ( Edirisinghe et al., 2011;Moazen et al., 2013;Basu et al., 2010;Basu and Lyons, 2012;Alvarez-Suarez et al., 2014), in reducing glycated haemoglobin levels ( Moazen et al., 2013) and in improving platelet function, by decreasing central clustered platelets and making them less receptive to activation stimuli ( Alvarez-Suarez et al., 2014), thus improving many atherosclerotic risk factors. ...
... The antioxidant compositions are mainly represented by polyphenols including anthocyanins and phenolic acids (Szajdek and Borowska, 2008). Owing to these components, berries have beneficial effects on issues such as viral adhesion and infectivity inhibition (Weiss et al., 2005), antiproliferative and antioxidant activity (Qiao et al., 2015), hypoglycemic activity and lipid oxidation biomarkers reduction (Basu and Lyons, 2012;Lila, 2011). ...
... Wild blueberries contain a class of phenolic compounds, known as anthocyanins, which have been studied to provide beneficial antioxidant activity in the body. Consumption of blueberries may improve the response to oxidative stress and attenuate symptoms of the MetS (Basu et al., 2012). Anthocyanins have been shown to decrease the risk of CVD, contain anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic activity, as well as improve symptoms of obesity and insulin resistance (He et al., 2010;Stull et al., 2010). ...
Article
The goal of this study is to investigate the effect of a wild blueberry diet on pathology of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) by examining the morphological and biochemical properties of the liver and aortic tissue in the obese Zucker rat (OZR), a valid model of the MetS. At 8-weeks of age, 16 Obese Zucker ras (OZR) and 16 lean Zucker rats (LZR) littermates were placed on either an 8% w/w wild blueberry (WB)-enriched isocaloric diet or an isocaloric control (C) diet for a duration of 8-weeks. At 16-weeks of age, the tissues of interest were harvested for the study. The morphological features for hepatic steatosis and glycogen were assessed utilizing a unique series of stains and were analyzed through image analysis and a histopathological review by a pathologist. The accumulation of hepatic triglyceride (TG) was also evaluated for the assessed. For the assessment of morphological features of the thoracic aorta, a series of unique stains were utilized and further analyzed through the use of image analysis to detect collagen and connective tissue, the thickness of the tunica media, the number of nuclei, and the presence of glycosaminoglycans. A significant increase in hepatic steatosis was found in the OZR compared to the LZR after image analysis and histopathological evaluation of the Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stain, the Oil Red O (ORO) stain, and hepatic TG concentration. Although non-significant, image analysis of the hepatic triglycerides using the ORO stain found a trend for a decrease in hepatic TG content in the OZR-WB group compared to the OZR-C. Image analysis of the Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) stain revealed a significant increase in hepatic glycogen in the OZR compared to the LZR. Although non-significant, the LZR-WB and OZR-WB tended to have a greater amount of glycogen than the LZR-C and OZR-C groups respectively. Regarding the morphology of the aortic tissues, there were no significant differences found due to rodent model or due to diet after evaluating for connective tissue, medial width, number of nuclei, and glycosaminoglycans. The LZR-WB and OZR-WB groups tended to have less medial width, and a lower percentage of glycosaminoglycans compared to the LZR-C and the OZR-C respectively. Additionally, although non-significant, there was a trend for elevated number of nuclei in the OZR-WB group compared to all other groups. In conclusion, consuming wild blueberries has the potential to alter the morphology of hepatic and aortic tissues and confirms that the OZR continues to act as a reliable model of the MetS.
... This research did not evaluate individual bioactivities of the blackberry compounds responsible for the observed effects. However, based in the scientific literature available it could be proposed that anthocyanins and ellagitannins similar to the one of the blackberries used in this study have an inhibitory activity against digestive enzymes (Basu & Lyons, 2012;Johnson, Lucius, Meyer, & Gonzalez de Mejia, 2011;Matsui et al., 2001;McDougall, Dobson, Smith, Blake, & Stewart, 2005;Xiao, Kai, Yamamoto, & Chen, 2013). Specifically for cyanidin-3-glucoside and for the galloyl structure of the ellagitannins, an inhibition of intestinal α-glucosidases and pancreatic α-amilase has been reported (Akkarachiyasit, Charoenlertkul, Yibchok-anun, & Adisakwattana, 2010;Xiao et al., 2013). ...
Article
Abnormal glucose metabolism, hyperlipidaemia profiles and high levels of radical oxygen species (ROS) are classic features of diabetes. This study evaluates the effect of the consumption of two different blackberry beverages at 25 and 12.5% given orally for 40 days to rats with streptozotocin induced diabetes. The lower dose of blackberry (12.5%) non-statistically decreased glycaemia (−10.4%), triacylglycerols (−4.6%) and cholesterol (−21.0%). These differences were not statistically significant. The higher dose of blackberry (25%) significantly decreased glucose (−48.6%), triacylglycerols (−43.5%) and cholesterol (−28.6%). The higher dose of blackberry (25%) improved plasma antioxidant capacity, reduced the levels of lipid peroxidation in plasma (−19%) and in kidney (−23%). Blackberry intake did not improve catalase, suggesting that attenuation of oxidative stress via scavenging activities rather than improving the activities of antioxidant enzymes. These results provide promising data for this blackberry as a dietary adjuvant to the pharmacological management of diabetes.
... Our animal work shows that feeding blueberries to rats lowers systolic blood pressure [41,42] and 2 human randomized clinical trials showed trends to lowering blood pressures [14,37]. A systematic review published in 2012 concluded that there is a paucity of clinical trials evaluating blueberry consumption in humans at risk for disease [43]. Some researchers have shown that blueberries fed to humans lowers blood pressures [12], while others have not [17]. ...
Article
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Berry consumption has beneficial effects on blood pressure. Intestinal microbiota transform berry phytochemicals into more bioactive forms. Thus, we performed a systematic review of randomized clinical trials to determine whether berry polyphenols in foods, extracts or supplements have effects on both the profile of gut microbiota and systolic and diastolic blood pressure in humans. PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and CAB Abstracts (EBSCOhost) were searched for randomized clinical trials in humans published from 1 January 2011 to 29 October 2021. Search results were imported into Covidence for screening and data extraction by two blinded reviewers, who also performed bias assessment independently. The literature search identified 216 publications; after duplicates were removed, 168 publications were screened with 12 full-text publications assessed for eligibility. Ultimately three randomized clinical trials in humans met the eligibility criteria. One randomized clinical trial showed a low risk of bias while the other two randomized clinical trials included low, high or unclear risk of bias. Together the randomized clinical trials showed that berry consumption (Aronia berry, strawberries, raspberries, cloudberries and bilberries) for 8–12 weeks had no significant effect on both blood pressure and the gut microbiota. More randomized clinical trials are needed to determine the effects of berry consumption on the profile of gut microbiota and blood pressure in humans.
... The antioxidant compositions are mainly represented by polyphenols including anthocyanins and phenolic acids (Szajdek and Borowska, 2008). Owing to these components, berries have beneficial effects on issues such as viral adhesion and infectivity inhibition (Weiss et al., 2005), antiproliferative and antioxidant activity (Qiao et al., 2015), hypoglycemic activity and lipid oxidation biomarkers reduction (Basu and Lyons, 2012;Lila, 2011). ...
Article
Introduction – It is well known that berries have beneficial effects on health, owing to their content of phenolic molecules, such as anthocyanin, quercetin and phenolic acid, as well as their content of vitamins, minerals and fiber. There is a gradually increasing body of evidence suggesting that these bioactive molecules have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticarcinogenic, antimutagenic and neuroprotective effects. Owing to their antioxidant effects, berry consumption brings positive effects against cardiovascular diseases, obesity, ageing and neurodegenerative diseases. Specific objectives – This paper was aimed to highlight natural compounds and health effects of the berries; some mechanisms explored by experimental studies, and to outline human intervention trial. Thus, this review could be useful to develop consumption recommendations and following research in health outcomes.
... Metabolic syndrome has been defined as a combination of components that include abdominal obesity, atherogenic dyslipidaemia, raised blood pressure, insulin resistance or glucose intol- erance, pro-inflammatory state, and pro-thrombotic state that comprise a significant risk factor for developing CVD and type 2 diabetes ( Grundy et al., 2004). Due to the overlap of risk factors, there has been extensive research directed at the effects of berry intake on this combination of conditions ( Basu and Lyons, 2012), and these have been covered in the following sections. The role of dietary polyphenols in the prevention of CVDs, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome has been extensively reviewed elsewhere (Chong et al., 2010;Yang and Kortesniemi, 2015;Gormaz et al., 2016), and anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic, and vasodilatory effects have been attributed to consumption of polyphenols present in fruits and vegetables. ...
Chapter
Historically, the consumption of berries has been associated with a variety of health benefits. Many traditional or folk medicines have used berries in remedies for a range of health issues. In addition, substantial scientific evidence has accrued over the past 20 years, highlighting that components from berries have measurable beneficial effects on health. Berries are best known for their accumulation of antioxidant components (mainly associated with polyphenols, carotenoids, and vitamin C) and have amongst the highest antioxidant capacity of commonly eaten foods; however, recent evidence also suggests that a wider variety of phytochemical components present in berries may also contribute towards beneficial effects on health. This article provides an overview of current scientific evidence derived from animal, human, and epidemiologic studies regarding the effects of consuming berries or important phytochemical components of berries on various neurodegenerative and non‐communicable diseases and discusses the underlying mechanisms involved.
... The biological activities of berries have been mainly attributed to their high content of a diverse range of flavonoids (anthocyanins, flavonols, and flavanols), tannins (proanthocyanidins, ellagitannins, and gallotannins), phenolic acids (hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives), and lignans. In particular, cranberries are known for their effect on urinary tract infections, while blueberries (a proanthocyanidin-rich fruit) and strawberries (an ellagitannin-rich fruit) are actively studied for their impact on neuronal function and behavior [8,152,154,159]. ...
Article
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Grapes and berries are two types of widely consumed fruits characterized by a high content in different phytochemicals. However, their accurate dietary assessment is particularly arduous, because of the already wide recognized bias associated with self-reporting methods, combined with the large range of species and cultivars and the fact that these fruits are popularly consumed not only in fresh and frozen forms but also as processed and derived products, including dried and canned fruits, beverages, jams, and jellies. Reporting precise type and/or quantity of grape and berries in FFQ or diaries can obviously be affected by errors. Recently, biomarkers of food intake (BFIs) rose as a promising tool to provide accurate information indicating consumption of certain food items. Protocols for performing systematic reviews in this field, as well as for assessing the validity of candidate BFIs have been developed within the Food Biomarker Alliance (FoodBAll) Project. This paper aims to evaluate the putative BIFs for blueberries, strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, cranberries, blackcurrant, and grapes. Candidate BFIs for grapes were resveratrol metabolites and tartaric acid. The metabolites considered as putative BFI for berries consumption were mostly anthocyanins derivatives together with several metabolites of ellagitannins and some aroma compounds. However, identification of BFIs for single berry types encountered more difficulties. In the absence of highly specific metabolites reported to date, we suggested some multi-metabolite panels that may be further investigated as putative biomarkers for some berry fruits.
... Among dietary berries, commonly consumed berries such as blueberries, cranberries, and strawberries, have shown distinct benefits in adults with metabolic syndrome [19]. Our group has previously reported the effects of functional foods such as green tea, blueberries, and strawberries on improving antioxidant profiles and biomarkers of endothelial function in adults with diabetes risk [20][21][22]. ...
Article
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Strawberries, a popularly consumed berry fruit, are rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant effects. In this study, we examined the effects of two dietary achievable doses of strawberries on the antioxidant status and biomarkers of endothelial function in adults with features of metabolic syndrome and a confirmed low baseline of fruit and vegetable intake. In a 14-week randomized controlled crossover study, participants were assigned to one of three groups for four weeks separated by a one-week washout period: control powder, one serving (low dose: 13 g strawberry powder/day), or 2.5 servings (high dose: 32 g strawberry powder/day). Blood samples and health data were collected at baseline and at the end of each four-week phase of intervention. Thirty-three participants completed all three phases of the trial. Significant increases were observed in serum antioxidant capacity and superoxide dismutase activity as well as decreases in lipid peroxidation after both low and high dose strawberry phases when compared with the control phase. Significant decreases were also observed in soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α with the high dose strawberry phase. These data confirm that consuming strawberries for four weeks significantly improves antioxidant status, endothelial function, and inflammation in adults with cardiometabolic risks.
... Cranberry is an important source of phytochemicals, especially polyphenols, and high polyphenol content is related to ameliorated dyslipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, and oxidative stress in individuals with the metabolic syndrome. 42 The potential health effects are related to the modulation of the gut microbiota, indeed cranberry extract administration, decreased diet-induced weight gain, and improved insulin sensitivity in HFHSDfed C57BL/6J mice; these effects are related to a shift in the gut microbiota due to increased relative abundance of Akkermansia. 43 Camu Camu (Myrciaria dubia) is another fruit rich in flavonoids such as ellagic acid, ellagitannins, and proanthocyanidins. ...
Article
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The human intestine contains an intricate ecological community of bacteria, referred as the gut microbiota, which plays a pivotal role in the host homeostasis. Multiple factors could interfere with this delicate balance, thus causing a disruption of the microbiota equilibrium, the so called dysbiosis. Gut microbiota dysbiosis is involved in gastrointestinal and extra‐intestinal metabolic diseases, as obesity and diabetes. Polyphenols, present in a broad range of plant foods, are known to have numerous health benefits; however, their beneficial effect on pre‐existing dysbiosis is less clear. Indeed, in most of the conducted animal studies the administration of polyphenols or foods rich in polyphenols occurred simultaneously with the induction of the pathology to be examined, then analyzing the preventive action of the polyphenols on the onset of dysbiosis, while very low studies analyzed the modulatory activity of polyphenols on the pre‐existing dysbiosis. For this reason, the present review aims to update the current information about the modulation of the pre‐established gut microbiota dysbiosis by dietary phenolic compounds in a broad range of disorders in both animal studies and human trials, distinguishing the preventive or treatment approaches in animal studies. The described studies highlight that dietary polyphenols, exerting prebiotic‐like effects, can modulate the pre‐existing dysbiosis stimulating the growth of beneficial bacteria and inhibiting pathogenic bacteria in both animal models and humans. Anyway, most of the conducted studies are related to obesity and metabolic syndrome, and so further studies are needed to understand this polyphenols' ability in relation to other pathologies.
... Cignarella et al. [116] tested a dried hydroalcoholic extract of V. myrtillus leaves showing a lipid-lowering activity with decrease of 39% of the triglycerides in the blood of dyslipidemic animals. Similarly, V. corymbosum berries decreased blood cholesterol levels, thus reducing cardiovascular risk and promoting atherosclerosis prevention [117,118]. In addition, consumption of cranberry anthocyanins improved lipid profiles, increasing HDL and decreasing LDL in rats, hamsters fed a high-fat diet and hypercholesterolemic swine [119][120][121]. ...
Article
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The genus Vaccinium L. (Ericaceae) includes more than 450 species, which mainly grow in cooler areas of the northern hemisphere. Vaccinium species have been used in traditional medicine of different cultures and the berries are widely consumed as food. Indeed, Vaccinium supplement-based herbal medicine and functional food, mainly from V. myrtillus and V. macrocarpon, are used in Europe and North America. Biological studies support traditional uses since, for many Vaccinium components, important biological functions have been described, including antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and endothelium protective activities. Vaccinium components, such as polyphenols, anthocyanins and flavonoids, are widely recognized as modulators of cellular pathways involved in pathological conditions, thus indicating that Vaccinium may be an important source of bioactive molecules. This review aims to better describe the bioactivity of Vaccinium species, focusing on anti-inflammatory and endothelial protective cellular pathways, modulated by their components, to better understand their importance for public health.
... Among several CVD risks widely observed in the global population, metabolic syndrome [10] with elevated blood lipids such as total and LDL cholesterol [11,12] remains prominent. Dietary berries have been demonstrated to reduce these risks in clinical trials [13,14]. However, the reported findings are inconsistent, and experimental heterogeneity among doses and forms of different berries, study duration, outcomes reported, and participant characteristics make concrete recommendations challenging. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background and aims: Dietary berries, such as strawberries, are rich in bioactive compounds and have been shown to lower cardiometabolic risk. We examined the effects of two dietary achievable doses of strawberries on glycemic control and lipid profiles in obese adults with elevated serum LDL cholesterol (LDL-C). Methods: In this 14-week randomized controlled crossover study, participants were assigned to one of the three arms for four weeks separated by a one-week washout period: control powder, one serving (low dose: 13 g strawberry powder/day), or two-and-a -half servings (high dose: 32 g strawberry powder/day). Participants were instructed to follow their usual diet and lifestyle while refraining from consuming other berries and related products throughout the study interval. Blood samples, anthropometric measures, blood pressure, and dietary and physical activity data were collected at baseline and at the end of each four-week phase of intervention. Results: In total, 33 participants completed all three phases of the trial [(mean ± SD): Age: 53 ± 13 y; BMI: 33 ± 3.0 kg/m2). Findings revealed significant reductions in fasting insulin (p = 0.0002) and homeostatic model of assessment of insulin resistance (p = 0.0003) following the high dose strawberry phase when compared to the low dose strawberry and control phases. Glucose and conventional lipid profiles did not differ among the phases. Nuclear magnetic resonance-determined particle concentrations of total VLDL and chylomicrons, small VLDL, and total and small LDL were significantly decreased after the high dose strawberry phase, compared to control and low dose phases (all p < 0.0001). Among the biomarkers of inflammation and adipokines measured, only serum PAI-1 showed a decrease after the high dose strawberry phase (p = 0.002). Conclusions: These data suggest that consuming strawberries at two-and-a-half servings for four weeks significantly improves insulin resistance, lipid particle profiles, and serum PAI-1 in obese adults with elevated serum LDL-C.
... There are a number of excellent review articles on the impact of cranberry consumption and metabolic health (Basu & Lyons, 2012;Kowalska & Olejnik, 2016;Thimoteo, Scavuzzi, Colado Simão, & Dichi, 2017). ...
Article
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Cranberry fruits are rich in polyphenols, comprising small‐molecule flavonols, anthocyanins, and oligomeric A‐type proanthocyanidins. It is becoming increasingly clear that the gut microbiota plays a crucial role in maintaining the metabolic health of the human host, and the cranberry polyphenols‐gut microbiota interactions result in the production of an array of metabolites along with the compositional change of microbiota. Cranberry polyphenols‐induced these changes may be associated with improved host health and disease prevention. However, it is unclear to what extent microbiota‐derived metabolites are absorbed into the systemic circulation and exert pharmacological effects. Because the composition of gut microbiota influences the host energy metabolism and have systemic effects on lipid homeostasis, intake of cranberry rich diet may be beneficial in preventing metabolic syndrome associated with chronic diseases. Exploring connections between alterations in gut microbiome composition, and host metabolic health after chronic exposure to cranberry products is critical for understanding the potential health benefits of cranberry fruits.
... [12][13][14] Colombia is rich in fruits and vegetables. An example is Vaccinium meridionale Swartz or agraz, a purple fruit of the Vaccinium family, of which 400 different species have been registered, rich in polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant properties, 15,16 which have been profiled as potential candidates to reduce oxidative stress [17][18][19] and the pro-inflammatory state seen in MS. 20 Studies in other countries, evaluating the effects of blueberry (Vaccinium ashei and Vaccinium corymbosum) consumption in humans with MS and obesity, observed decreases in insulin resistance and biomarkers of lipid peroxidation and inflammation. 21,22 Likewise, studies conducted with the Colombian agraz showed positive effects in markers of inflammation and lipid function in women with this syndrome. ...
Article
The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a constellation of related factors that increases the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. Vaccinium meridionale Swartz contains polyphenols that could modulate some components of MS. Epidemiological and intervention studies have shown differences between men and women in MS components and antioxidant capacity. The objective of this study is to compare between men and women with MS the effects of agraz consumption on insulin resistance, antioxidant capacity, and markers of oxidation and inflammation. Men and women diagnosed with MS according to the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria were recruited in a double-blind, crossover study of 12 weeks. Participants were assigned to consume agraz nectar or placebo over 4 weeks. After 4 weeks of washout, they were switched to the alternative treatment. At the end of each period, the components of the MS, insulin resistance, antioxidant capacity, and some oxidative (oxidized low-density lipoprotein [oxLDL]; thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) and inflammatory (high-sensitive C-reactive protein [hs-CRP]) markers were evaluated. After consuming agraz, there was a tendency to increase the levels of antioxidants and to reduce the levels of hs-CRP in both genders. In addition, women who increased their serum phenols after consuming agraz had a significant reduction in insulin resistance, which was different from the results in men. Regarding men, those who increased their serum antioxidant capacity after consuming agraz had a better effect on the reduction of oxLDL levels that was significant compared to women. There are important differences between genders in the effects of agraz consumption in adults with MS.
... Whereas berries are known as a good source of potassium or fiber, recent studies suggest that berry fruits are a rich source of many phytochemicals that have a broad spectrum of bioactivity and a positive impact on general health. Several berry fruits, including blackberries, blueberries, cranberries, raspberries, and strawberries, have recently received attention as a result of their effects in vitro and their associations with lowered risks for some chronic diseases, which were found in recent observational research [11,12]. As a perennial herb, ginseng develops flowers and fruits that bloom in its third and fourth year. ...
... Furthermore, in a recent study, it has been reported that an 8week feeding trial with low-caloric cranberry juice (27% juice, 480 mL/day) caused a significant increase in plasma antioxidant capacity, measured by 2,2'-azino-bis(3ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assay and decreased plasma oxidized LDL in a human clinical trial (Basu et al. 2011). Furthermore, Basu and colleagues have found that 8 weeks supplementation (~350 g) of fresh blueberries caused a significant reduction in oxidized LDL in humans (Basu and Lyons 2012). Furthermore, in another animal model of SHR, 8% wild blueberry supplementation had significant improvement against vasoconstriction and endothelial dysfunction (Kristo et al. 2010). ...
Thesis
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is ranked as one of top leading causes of death in most industrialized countries. Recent research suggests that fruit vinegar beverages (FVB) possess beneficial effects such as antihypertensive properties, reduction of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols (TAG). FVB made using apple, blueberry, cranberry and tomato were evaluated for their sensory, antioxidant, antihypertensive and lipid lowering properties. All four treatments demonstrated very high in vitro antioxidant and antihypertensive properties. These FVB were further evaluated for their hypolipidemic and antihypertensive properties using a spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) model with diet-induced hyperlipidemia. All four FVB significantly reduced serum TAG, elevated the high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol compared to the control. Further, all four FVB demonstrated a reduction in the diastolic blood pressure after four weeks of supplementation. Overall, the FVB exhibited lipid lowering effects and antihypertensive properties in vivo. Confirmation of the beneficial effects of FVB using a clinical trial is needed.
... 5,6 Anthocyanins are natural antioxidant compounds that have been implicated in the tolerance to cold, UV−B radiation, drought, and biotic stress in plants. 8,9 Functional foods with higher flavonoid and antioxidant content are being increasingly demanded by health-aware consumers since scientific reports confirm multiple beneficial effects against cardiovascular disease, 10 cancer, 11,12 metabolic syndrome, 13 and dementia. 14 Metabolic profiling is an approach that aims to quantify all metabolites within a sample. ...
Article
Corn seeds contain natural pigments and antioxidants, such as the molecular variants of flavonoids and carotenoids. The aleurone and pericarp tissue from pigmented genotypes were extracted for metabolic fingerprinting and evaluated using UV-VIS and mass spectrometry (MS). MS ionomic fingerprints classified samples according to genetic background and kernel color. The MS/MS fragmentation pattern (daughter and neutral loss methods) allowed the tentative identification of 18 anthocyanins with glycosyl, malonyl and succinyl moieties, including 535 m/z for cyanidin-3-O-(6″-malonyl-glucoside) and 621 m/z for cyanidin-3-O-(3″,6″-dimalonyl-glucoside). We also detected 663 m/z for pelargonidin-3-O-(disuccinyl-glucoside) and 633 m/z for peonidin-3-O-(disuccinyl-glucoside). Cyanidin-based anthocyanins were the most abundant in dark purple colored kernels while pelargonidins predominated in the red-pink kernels of the “Elote occidental” landrace. Grains of “Conico negro” had a simultaneous pigmentation of aleurone and pericarp, while Vitamaize had purple pigmentation only in the aleurone layer. Most landraces had a white endosperm while Vitamaize had a yellow endosperm and a dark seed coat. We conclude that Vitamaize grains contain both carotenes and cyanidins and therefore it is proposed as a non-transgenic agronomically improved variety of tropical purple maize: a good source for organic superfoods.
... Превосходный источник природных антиоксидантов, обладающих многими лекарственными действиями [14,67]. ...
Article
Ягоды – один из важнейших источников антиоксидантов в питании человека. В кратком обзоре приведены сведения о содержании природных полифенолов – антиоксидантов в наиболее распространенных ягодах: клубника, клюква, брусника, черника, облепиха, калина, жимолость, вишня, голубика, черная смородина, арония. Обсуждаются состав и антиоксидантная активность ягод, которая определяется содержанием полифенолов-­антиоксидантов. Приведены последние данные о публикациях с результатами исследований по влиянию регулярного потребления ягод на здоровье человека
... People with metabolic syndrome (MetS), a group of interrelated risk factors, are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (Grundy et al., 2005). Ot has been demonstrated that abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia, elevated oxidative stress, and inflammation, which are the prominent features of MetS, can be effectively modified with dietary interventions involving polyphenol-rich foods and beverages such as berries (Basu & Lyons, 2012;Lopera et al., 2013;Nile & Park, 2014). Studies have demonstrated that consumption of ...
Article
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Abstract Colombian berry (agraz) has demonstrated a high antioxidant content in vitro. In the present study, it was elaborated and characterized an agraz nectar, designed a placebo with similar physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of the agraz nectar, but without polyphenols; and evaluated their antioxidant capacity both in vitro and in vivo in adults with cardiovascular risk factors. The polyphenolic concentration of the agraz nectar and its antioxidant capacity was superior than other reported for this fruit. A high content of total cyanidins was observed in the freeze-dried agraz, but not delphinin was detected by HPLC. For the intervention study, sixty-six subjects, with at least three cardiometabolic risk factors, consumed agraz nectar or placebo daily during 4 weeks each, separated by a 4-week washout period. Total phenol concentration and antioxidant capacity in the participants’ serum were not statistically different after consuming agraz nectar and placebo. However, women increased significantly their serum DPPH scavenging capacity after consuming agraz nectar, compared to placebo. This is one of the first studies showing data about the effects of this colombian berry on the antioxidant capacity in people with metabolic syndrome.
... Many studies have reported that consumption of blueberries (in natural, dried, extracts or juice) were associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance in rodents and humans [18,19]. Particularly, blueberry has been found to inhibit lipogenesis, improve insulin sensitivity in muscle and adipose, and thus reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes [20][21][22][23]. Recent studies revealed that blueberry attenuated endothelial inflammation in diabetes, indicating its benefits in improving vascular complications associated with diabetes [24,25]. ...
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Background Blueberry is rich in bioactive substances and possesses powerful antioxidant potential, which can protect against oxidant-induced and inflammatory cell damage and cytotoxicity. The aim of this study was to determine how blueberry affects glucose metabolism and pancreatic β-cell proliferation in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Methods Wild type male mice at age of 4 weeks received two different kinds of diets: high-fat diet (HFD) containing 60% fat or modified HFD supplemented with 4% (wt:wt) freeze-dried whole blueberry powder (HFD + B) for 14 weeks. A separate experiment was performed in mice fed with low-fat diet (LFD) containing 10% fat or modified LFD + B supplemented with 4% (wt:wt) freeze-dried whole blueberry powder. The metabolic parameters including blood glucose and insulin levels, glucose and insulin tolerances were measured. Results Blueberry-supplemented diet significantly increased insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in HFD + B mice compared to HFD mice. However, no difference was observed in blood glucose and insulin sensitivity between LFD + B and LFD mice. In addition, blueberry increased β-cell survival and prevented HFD-induced β-cell expansion. The most important finding was the observation of presence of small scattered islets in blueberry treated obese mice, which may reflect a potential role of blueberry in regenerating pancreatic β-cells. Conclusions Blueberry-supplemented diet can prevent obesity-induced insulin resistance by improving insulin sensitivity and protecting pancreatic β-cells. Blueberry supplementation has the potential to protect and improve health conditions for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes patients. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s12986-019-0363-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
... Substantial literature (Amiot, Riva, & Vinet, 2016;Basu & Lyons, 2012;Basu et al., 2009Basu et al., , 2010Basu et al., , 2011Stull et al., 2015;Vendrame et al., 2016) exists suggesting consumption of anthocyanin-rich dietary interventions are beneficial for mitigating the development of symptoms associated with MetS. Montmorency tart cherries (MTC) is one such intervention not only abundant in anthocyanins, but also other phenolics, resulting in being one of the most potent dietary anti-oxidant interventions when consumed in habitual portion sizes (Ou, Bosak, Brickner, Iezzoni, & Seymour, 2012). ...
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... A Korean cross-sectional study (243 healthy non-diabetic participants) observed that higher fruit intake was associated with increased HDL-cholesterol, and lower waist circumference, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, and insulin resistance, which are important attributes associated with reducing the risk of metabolic syndrome [244]. Two intervention studies show that whole berries are among the most effective fruit types in lowering hypertension, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and lipid oxidation related to metabolic syndrome risk [245,246]. A NHANES analysis (2001-2008) observed that avocado consumers had significantly smaller waist circumference, higher HDL-C and 50% lower risk for metabolic syndrome compared to non-consumers [247]. ...
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Juice is the most common form in which cranberries are consumed; however there is limited information on the changes of polyphenolic content of the berries during juice processing. This study investigated the effects of three different pretreatments (grinding plus blanching; only grinding; only blanching) for cranberry juice processing on the concentrations of anthocyanins, flavonols, and procyanidins throughout processing. Flavonols and procyanidins were retained in the juice to a greater extent than anthocyanins, and pressing resulted in the most significant losses in polyphenolics due to removal of the seeds and skins. Flavonol aglycones were formed during processing as a result of heat treatment. Drying of cranberry pomace resulted in increased extraction of flavonols and procyanidin oligomers but lower extraction of polymeric procyanidins. The results indicate that cranberry polyphenolics are relatively stable during processing compared to other berries; however, more work is needed to determine their fate during storage of juices.
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The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between oxidized phospholipids on apolipoprotein B-100 particles (OxPL/ApoB), lipoprotein(a) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-producing oxidized phospholipid (OxLDL) biomarkers and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. In 52 HD patients, we measured OxPL/apoB by antibody E06, IgG/IgM autoantibody titers to copper-oxidized LDL (Cu-OxLDL) and malondialdehyde (MDA)-LDL, IgG/IgM apolipoprotein B-100-immune complexes (IC/apoB), C-reactive protein (CRP) and lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)). In all patients, the presence of CVD was assessed. OxPL/ApoB, IC IgG/IgM, MDA-LDL Ig G/IgM, Cu-OxLDL IgG/IgM and Lp(a) levels were similar in patients with and without CVD. At multiple logistic regression analysis, the association between age and CVD was independent (OR=1.078; 95% confidence interval, 1.005-1.157; p=0.03). In HD patients, OxPL/apoB, lipoprotein(a) and OxLDL biomarkers are not associated with CVD.
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Individuals with metabolically benign obesity (obesity unaccompanied by hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes) are not at elevated 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to normal weight individuals. It remains unclear whether these obese individuals or normal weight individuals with clustering of cardiometabolic factors display heightened immune activity. Therefore, we characterized levels of acute-phase reactants (C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), white blood cell (WBC) count), adhesion molecules (E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1), and coagulation products (fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1)) among four body size phenotypes (normal weight with 0/1 vs.≥2 metabolic syndrome components/diabetes and overweight/obesity with 0/1 vs. 2 metabolic syndrome components/diabetes) in cross-sectional analyses of 1,889 postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS) nested case-control stroke study. Higher levels of all three inflammatory marker categories were found among women with overweight/obesity or 2 metabolic syndrome components or diabetes. Compared to normal weight women with 0 or 1 metabolic syndrome components, normal weight women with 2 metabolic syndrome components or diabetes were more likely to have 3 inflammatory markers in the top quartile (multivariate odds ratio (OR) 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3-3.0), as were overweight/obese women with 0 or 1 metabolic syndrome components (OR 2.3; 95% CI: 1.5-3.5). Overweight/obese women with 2 metabolic syndrome components or diabetes had the highest OR (OR 4.2; 95% CI: 2.9-5.9). Despite findings that metabolically benign obese individuals are not at increased 10-year risk of CVD compared to normal weight individuals, the current results suggest that overweight/obese women without clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors still possess abnormal levels of inflammatory markers.
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The effect of a wild blueberry-enriched diet on vasoconstriction and vasorelaxation was examined in the adult, 20-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) after 8 weeks of a control (C) or an 8% wild blueberry (WB) diet. Nitric oxide (NO)- and cyclooxygenase (COX)-mediated aortic responses were examined ex vivo with the agonists L-phenylephrine (Phe) and acetylcholine (Ach), in the absence or presence of the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-NG-monomethyl arginine (L-NMMA) or the COX inhibitor mefenamic acid (MFA). The vasoconstriction elicited by Phe was reduced in the WB group, attributed to the NO pathway, favoring a lower vascular tone under basal conditions. Acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation in the WB group was possibly mediated through the COX, but not the NO pathway. These findings document the potential of wild blueberries to modify major pathways of vasomotor control and improve the vascular tone in the adult SHR with endothelial dysfunction.