Article

Antihypertensive and Cardioprotective Effects of Pumpkin Seed Oil

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Abstract

Pumpkin seed oil is a natural product commonly used in folk medicine for treatment of prostatic hypertrophy. In the present study, the effects of treatment with pumpkin seed oil on hypertension induced by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) (50 mg /kg/day) in rats were studied and compared with those of the calcium channel blocker amlodipine. Pumpkin seed oil (40 or 100 mg/kg), amlodipine (0.9 mg/kg), or vehicle (control) was given once daily orally for 6 weeks. Arterial blood pressure (BP), heart rate, electrocardiogram (ECG) changes, levels of serum nitric oxide (NO) (the concentrations of nitrite/nitrate), plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), blood glutathione, and erythrocytic superoxide dismutase activity were measured. Histopathological examination of heart and aorta was conducted as well. L-NAME administration resulted in a significant increase in BP starting from the second week. Pumpkin seed oil or amlodipine treatment significantly reduced the elevation in BP by L-NAME and normalized the L-NAME-induced ECG changes-namely, prolongation of the RR interval, increased P wave duration, and ST elevation. Both treatments significantly decreased the elevated levels of MDA and reversed the decreased levels of NO metabolites to near normal values compared with the L-NAME-treated group. Amlodipine also significantly increased blood glutathione content compared with normal (but not L-NAME-treated) rats. Pumpkin seed oil as well as amlodipine treatment protected against pathological alterations in heart and aorta induced by L-NAME. In conclusion, this study has shown that pumpkin seed oil exhibits an antihypertensive and cardioprotective effects through a mechanism that may involve generation of NO.

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... Studies by Bharti et al have provided pharmacological evidence of tocopherol fraction of raw seeds of Cucurbita pepo L. as possessing an anti-hyperglycemic property mediated via the interactions of its various components with multiple signaling targets that play crucial roles in diabetes mellitus (DM) 26 . In addition, El-Mosallamy et al have demonstrated the effect of pumpkin seed extract on blood pressure induced by nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) 27 . In this study, rats treated with 50 mg/kg/day L-NAME with or without calcium channel blocker, amlodipine and pumpkin seed oil and their effects on the pathological alterations in the heart and aorta induced by L-NAME were evaluated 27 . ...
... In addition, El-Mosallamy et al have demonstrated the effect of pumpkin seed extract on blood pressure induced by nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) 27 . In this study, rats treated with 50 mg/kg/day L-NAME with or without calcium channel blocker, amlodipine and pumpkin seed oil and their effects on the pathological alterations in the heart and aorta induced by L-NAME were evaluated 27 . Authors demonstrated that both pumpkin seed oil and amlodipine treatments protected the rats from L-NAME induced defects in the heart and aorta through the mechanism that could involve the generation of NO suggesting that pumpkin seed oil exhibits an antihypertensive and cardioprotective effects 27 . ...
... In this study, rats treated with 50 mg/kg/day L-NAME with or without calcium channel blocker, amlodipine and pumpkin seed oil and their effects on the pathological alterations in the heart and aorta induced by L-NAME were evaluated 27 . Authors demonstrated that both pumpkin seed oil and amlodipine treatments protected the rats from L-NAME induced defects in the heart and aorta through the mechanism that could involve the generation of NO suggesting that pumpkin seed oil exhibits an antihypertensive and cardioprotective effects 27 . ...
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Pumpkin seed oil has long been considered as an ingredient for its nutritional and medicinal values for the prevention of various ailments, especially for prostate diseases. In addition, several studies have suggested the crucial roles and effectiveness of pumpkin seed oil in the treatment of diabetes, anxiety and even cancer. Pumpkin seed oil is being used in several countries worldwide including North America, Mexico, India and China. This review highlights the characterization, properties and use of pumpkin seed oil from various pumpkin species against several diseases pathophysiologies. We strongly believe that this review will provide overall insights to the chemists, biologists and researchers on the roles of pumpkin seed oil extracts that possess promising biological activities.
... Egyptian researchers showed antihypertensive properties of pumpkin seed oil (El-Mosallamy et al., 2012 ). Researchers caused hypertension in rats by inhibiting nitric oxide synthase (an enzyme which is responsible for generating blood pressure regulating nitric oxide). ...
... These hypertensive rats were then administered with pumpkin seed oil or the antihypertensive medication amlodipine daily for 6 weeks. Results of the study showed that pumpkin seeds oil was as effective as amlodipine in reversing elevated blood pressure in rats by restoring nitric oxide levels close to normal (El-Mosallamy et al., 2012 ). Pumpkin seeds contain tryptophan which might be responsible for exerting blood-pressure lowering effect but the mechanism by which it exerts the effect is not known . ...
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Pumpkin belonging to the family Cucurbitaceae, is a perennial plant and is consumed traditionally in a variety of foods such as fresh or cooked vegetables, as well as being stored frozen or canned. Throughout the world, pumpkin has been grown for the purpose of consumption as vegetable or as medicine. Pumpkin seeds are in great demand for their pharmacological effects. Pumpkin seed oil also confers many health benefits. Undoubtedly, pumpkin seeds are quite beneficial but still the untapped potential of these seeds is yet to be explored. The present review article aims at summarizing the various health benefits of pumpkin seeds along with their nutritional composition.
... Pumpkin has been widely used for its medicinal properties, since fruit pulp and seeds have been attributed with antidiabetic effects due to its high content in nonpectin polysaccharides, pectins, hypoglycaemic proteins, tocopherols and oils [314,315]. Similar results have been reported by Wang et al. [316] and Sedigheh et al. [317] who suggested that polysaccharides obtained from C. moschata fruit pulp have a high potency against diabetes mellitus in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Moreover, the oral administration of a mixture of pumpkin and flax seeds ameliorated diabetic nephropathy in alloxan-induced diabetic rats [318]. ...
... The high content of seeds in unsaturated fatty acids, antioxidants and fibers justifies its anti-atherogenic effects, especially when administered as a mixture with flax seeds [326]. Seed oil is attributed with anti-hypertensive effects and its oral administration resulted in a decrease of arterial blood pressure and protected against histopathological alteration of aorta and heart in l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME) induced hypertensive rats [315]. Phenolic phytochemicals in various pumpkin cultivars fruit have been also associated with antihypertension activities, where according to Kwon et al. traditional foods contain pumpkin fruit have shown significant inhibitory activity against angiotensin I-converting enzyme [327]. ...
... After that animals were sacrificed for heart dissection to detect collagen type I and III gene expression and for histopathological study. Nitric oxide was determined in serum according to the method of El-Mosallamy et al. [12]. ...
... In the present study L-NAME induced a time-dependent significant elevation of systolic blood pressure, significant decrease of pulse rate, significant decrease in serum nitric oxide metabolites and significant increase in collagen I and III genes expression in the hearts along with the highest histopathological grade (3) for interstitial fibrosis among all studied groups. The data of the present study are in accordance with the findings of Gonzalez et al. [13] who found in addition decrease in cGMP content of the arterial wall, and with El-kharashi et al. [14] and El-Mosallamy et al. [12]. ...
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Comparative study of cardio protective effect of aliskiren, telmisartan, and torsemide was carried out on L-nitro arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) induced hypertension in rats. The three drugs were given daily for 8 weeks simultaneously with L-NAME, with a control group for each drug and L-NAME. The degree of protection was assessed by measurement of systolic blood pressure and heart rate of animals every two weeks. At the end of the experimental period blood sampling was carried out for estimation of the level of NO2 - /NO3-. After which animals were sacrificed for heart dissection to detect collagen type I and III gene expression. Histopathological study was done to evaluate the extension of collagen deposits. The study revealed that the three drugs decreased blood pressure significantly compared to L-NAME. There was no significant difference between aliskiren and telmisartan in all measurements, but there was significant decrease in measurements of both aliskiren and telmisartan treated groups compared to torsemide starting from 4th week. There were insignificant changes in pulse rate values between the three L-NAME treated groups through the experiment. The three drugs significantly increased NO compared to L-NAME. Collagen I and III gene expression were significantly decreased by the three drugs but the highest percentage of inhibition was with telmisartan compared to L-NAME. Comparing the percentage inhibition of cardiac fibrosis, there was insignificant difference between telmisartan and torsemide treated groups while both were superior to aliskiren. In conclusion, further experimental studies are required to elucidate the potential cardioprotective mechanisms of aliskiren, telmisartan and torsemide, and assess their efficacy in treatment of heart failure.
... The amplified pulse was recorded during automatic inflation and deflation of the cuff. Systolic BP (cuff deflation pressure) was defined as the point at which the cuff pressure corresponds to the restoration of the first caudal artery pulse (15). ...
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Objectives: The prevalence of chronic kidney disease in diabetics is progressively increasing with an increased risk of fatal complications. Materials and methods: Sixty male albino rats were used in the study, and type 2 diabetes mellitus were induced. Diabetic rats were divided randomly into 5 groups, the control diabetic group and 4 treated groups were treated with metformin (group3), dulaglutide (group 4), metformin & cilostazol (group 5), and the last group was treated with dulaglutide & cilostazol (group 6). At the end of the experiment, the weight of rats and systolic blood pressure were estimated. After overnight fasting, the serum levels of blood glucose, lipid profile, and kidney function were measured. After scarification, gene expression of eNOS and NFKB in kidney tissue were estimated and kidney tissues were examined for histopathology. Results: Diabetic rats showed a significant increase in body weight, blood pressure, serum blood glucose, lipid profile, and impaired kidney function. Metformin and dulaglutide are associated with a significant decrease in blood pressure, blood glucose level, serum lipid profile, and improved kidney function. These changes are associated with a significant increase in anti-oxidative markers, and decreased inflammatory and fibrotic markers, especially with the addition of cilostazol. Conclusion: Metformin and dulaglutide have been shown to ameliorate kidney damage in diabetics by stimulating the anti-oxidant defense system, normalizing kidney functional parameters, and improving histopathological changes. The addition of cilostazol to metformin or dulaglutide increased some of their anti-oxidants and anti-inflammatory properties.
... It also showed reduction in risk of heart attacks as oil have high magnesium content. Studies showed that supplements of pumpkin seeds have more efficiency of blocking calcium channel as compared to amlodipine drug [39]. Gossell-Williams et al. 2006 investigated that in ovariectomized rats, pumpkin seed oil supplements prevents the elevation of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and observed the negative influence on the plasma lipid profile associated with low estrogen concentration [21]. ...
Article
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For the cure of diseases, herbal remedies are used on an individual basis or together with standard medicines in numerous medical studies. Due to many medicinal properties and the presence of natural edible substances. Pumpkin is considered as an edible plant and has various medicinal properties. It has several phyto-constituents such as alkaloids, flavanoids, palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids. Several studies describes the medicinal properties such as anti-diabetic, cardioprotective, anti- depressive, antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory of Pumkin seeds and seed oil. Here, this article is presented with the purpose to discuss about the pumpkin seeds properties that can impart further research developments with this plant for human health benefits. Keywodrs: Pumpkin, Herbal medicine, Male Reproductive Health, Anti-carcinogens, Nephroprotective
... In this case, hypertension was induced by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride. Pumpkin seed oil was administrated orally at doses of 40 or 100 mg/kg of body weight (Table 1) [57]. The positive effect on pumpkin seeds oil on markers of cardiovascular diseases has been demonstrated also by Ramadan et al. [58]. ...
Article
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Cardiovascular (CV) system dysfunction can result in the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), a key cause of death around the world. For many people, the most common treatment choices are still based on various plants used in traditional and folk medicine. Interestingly, many of these plants demonstrate various biological activities and pro-health properties; as such, there has been growing scientific interest in their use as medicines, including treatments for CVDs. Due to their varied biological properties, including anti-inflammatory and anticancer potential, the members of the Asteraceae and Cucurbitaceae have long been used in traditional medicine. These properties are believed to derive from the chemical composition of the plants, which includes various flavonoids, phenolic acids, and terpenes. Although many of their pro-health properties have been well described, their effect on the cardiovascular system and CVDs remains unclear. The present work reviews the current literature about the effects of preparations of vegetables of the Asteraceae and Cucurbitaceae families on the cardiovascular system and CVDs. Various species from the two families demonstrate antioxidant and antiplatelet activities in vitro and in vivo, which play key roles in the prophylaxis and treatment of CVDs. Additionally, some species have been evaluated for their anticoagulant activity. This review also describes the biological properties of these vegetables and discusses their anti-hyperlipidemic action, and their potential for obesity prevention and body weight control.
... In vivo assays in mice with chronic inhibition of nitric oxide and in vitro assays [57] Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 7 Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine In vivo assay in spontaneously hypertensive rats and ex vivo assay evaluating the cellular redox state [63] Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 9 In vivo assay in spontaneously hypertensive rats [83] 10 ...
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Background: Systemic arterial hypertension is one of the most common cardiovascular risks, corresponding to 45% of deaths involving CVDs. The use of natural products, such as medicinal plants, belongs to a millennial part of human therapeutics history and has been employed as an alternative anti-hypertensive treatment. Objective: The present review aims to prospect some natural products already experimentally assayed against arterial hypertension through scientific virtual libraries and patent documents over the past 20 years. Search strategy. This is a systematic review of the adoption of the PRISMA protocol and a survey of the scientific literature that synthesizes the results from published articles between 2001 and 2020 concerning the use of medicinal plants in the management of hypertension, including which parts of the plant or organism are used, as well as the mechanisms of action underlying the anti-hypertensive effect. Furthermore, a technological prospection was also carried out in patent offices from different countries in order to check technologies based on natural products claimed for the treatment or prevention of hypertension. Inclusion criteria. Scientific articles where a natural product had been experimentally assayed for anti-hypertensive activity (part of plants, plant extracts, and products derived from other organisms) were included. Data extraction and analysis. The selected abstracts of the articles and patent documents were submitted to a rigorous reading process. Those articles and patents that were not related to anti-hypertensive effects and claimed potential applications were excluded from the search. Results: Eighty specimens of biological species that showed anti-hypertensive activity were recovered, with 01 representative from the kingdom Fungi and 02 from the kingdom Protista, with emphasis on the families Asteraceae and Lamiaceae, with 6 representatives each. Leaves and aerial parts were the most used parts of the plants for the extraction of anti-hypertensive products, with maceration being the most used extraction method. Regarding phytochemical analyses, the most described classes of biomolecules in the reviewed works were alkaloids, terpenes, coumarins, flavonoids, and peptides, with the reduction of oxidative stress and the release of NO among the mechanisms of action most involved in this process. Regarding the number of patent filings, China was the country that stood out as the main one, with 813 registrations. Conclusion: The anti-hypertensive activity of natural products is still little explored in Western countries. Besides, China and India have shown more results in this area than other countries, confirming the strong influence of traditional medicine in these countries.
... It is a dichromatic, viscous oil with intense antioxidant activity (Stevenson et al., 2007). The health benefits of PSO are well known in prostate inflammation (Al-Okbi et al., 2017), hypertension progression (El-Mosallamy et al., 2012), bladder and urethral pressure, urinary disorders, and as hypoglycemic agent (Nishimura et al., 2014). ...
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A large amount of wastes and by-products are generated during the vegetables and fruits production and food industry. These wastes create increasing disposal and severe environmental problems or discarded with a loss of valuable biomass and nutrients. However, these wastes contain bioactive compounds of great potential and value-added compounds. These wastes or by-products can be incorporated as food additives and/or used as nutraceuticals. Therefore, the valorization of agro wastes or by-products from the food industry significantly contributing to a sustainable food chain from an environmental and economic point of view. Pumpkin is a gourd-like fruit of the genus Cucurbita (family Cucurbitaceae), indigenous to the tropical and sub-tropical countries. Worldwide, three common pumpkin species are grown, namely Cucurbita pepo, Cucurbita maxima, and Cucurbita moschata, which economically represent the most important species. Globally, China, India, Ukraine, Egypt, and the United States are the major pumpkin-producing countries. Pumpkins are a rich source of important natural bioactive compounds such as carotenoids, tocopherols, phytosterols, phenolics, antidiabetic polysaccharides, minerals, vitamins, antifungal proteins, essential and nonessential amino acids, pectin, and fibers. Besides, the pumpkin seed oil is rich in unsaturated fatty acids (omega-6 and omega-9). The bioactive compounds found in pumpkin exhibit a wide range of biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardio protective, antiaging, antimicrobial anticancer, and prebiotic activities. The wastes from pumpkin fruits and biomass from seed oil production retained great amounts of these bioactive compounds, representing a potential for their use as a nutraceutical or dietary supplement. The present chapter describes the economic values, chemical composition, bioactive compounds, health benefits, and pumpkin fruits’ biological activity. In addition, the current status of the use, recovery, food, and non-food applications of pumpkin processing by-products, including peels, pulp, and seeds. The technologies employed to obtain and isolate the highly value-added components from these by-products will also be discussed.Keywords Cucurbita SeedSeed cakePeelPulpNutritional valueBio-wastesValorization
... On the same hand, unlike in animals concomitantly treated with either captopril or the extract, increases in the magnitude of the QRS complex and in the duration of the QT and QRS intervals were observed in hypertensive control rats. In a previous report, L-NAMEtreated rats displayed increases in RR interval and in the duration of the P wave, as well as an elevation in STsegment, resulting in bradycardia [42,43]. Our findings are in agreement with this report, as prolongation of QT interval may indicate ventricular arrhythmia and QRS interval lengthening a slowing down of the frequency of heart contractions [44][45][46]. ...
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Background: Adansonia digitata is a plant used against cardiovascular disorders in African folk medicine. We assessed the effects of the aqueous extract of its stem bark on the development of hypertension in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats. Methods: The animals were administered L-NAME once daily for 3 weeks (25 mg/kg, i.p.), concomitantly with aqueous extract of A. digitata stem bark (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) or captopril (20 mg/kg, p.o.). Then, hemodynamic and electrocardiographic parameters, oxidative stress markers, and the lipid profile were assessed in the blood and heart, aorta, and kidney homogenates, and histopathological analyses were performed. Results: L-NAME-induced hypertensive control animals, but not the animals concomitantly treated with A. digitata extract, displayed increases in the mean arterial blood pressure (21.64% difference, p < 0.001, vs. dose 200 mg/kg), systolic arterial blood pressure (21.33%, p < 0.001), and the diastolic arterial blood pressure (21.84%, p < 0.001). In addition, hypertensive control animals displayed (i) increases in serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, and creatinine levels, malondialdehyde and transaminase activities, and atherogenic index; (ii) decreases in serum HDL, catalase, reduced glutathione, and nitric oxide; and (iii) aorta wall thickening, inflammatory cell infiltration, and cell loss in the cardiac muscle and renal tissues. As captopril, the extract prevented hypertension-like changes in lipid profile, cardiac, hepatic, and renal affection indicators, and oxidative stress markers. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the extract of A. digitata has antihypertensive and antioxidant effects in L-NAME-induced hypertension rat models. These effects partly justify the traditional medicine use against cardiovascular disorders.
... In animal models, PSO's combinational administration with arginine, alleviated oxidative injury and restored fatty liver (Al-Okbi et al., 2014) and induced increases in HDL with a 47% and 78% reduction in TC and LDL respectively (Abuelgassim & Al-Showayman, 2012;Alsina et al., 2016). PSO's stanol content lowered LDL without reduction in vitamin A (Gylling et al., 2010) and showed antihypertensive potential induced by nitric oxide deficiency (El-Mosallamy et al., 2012). ...
Article
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Pumpkin seed oil (PSO) is high in unsaturated fatty acids and plant sterols, which have numerous cardiovascular benefits. The study explores the hypothesis by investigating effects of consumption of 1000 mg of PSO on total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure ((BP). PSO has high oxidative stability and contains favorable essential fatty acids profile along with sterols and tocopherols. One hundred and twenty-seven participants 39 to 63 years old, with varying degree of one or multiple medical conditions including dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes and obesity were randomly selected and assigned among case and control groups. Both groups were biochemically, anthropometrically and clinically assessed pre and post intervention. Group 1 (cases) (n=63) was administered 1000 mg of PSO along with recommendations for healthy diet and lifestyle whereas Group 2 (controls) (n=64), was only provided with dietary and lifestyle changes. Analysis of cases baseline and endpoint data revealed advantageous effect of intervention. Cases data showed a significant reduction in endpoint LDL and DBP values along with a likewise significant increase in HDL cholesterol. Experiment results revealed PSO possessed hypolipidemic and anti-hypertensive activity as it lowered DBP and LDL and increased HDL levels.
... Pumpkin seed oil saved also from pathological modulations in aorta and heart caused by l-NAME. Therefore, pumpkin seed oil was reported to have an antihypertensive and cardioprotective impacts via a mechanism that may involve production of nitric oxide [49]. ...
... The proteins present in the pumpkin seeds were found to prohibit melanoma proliferation (Xie, 2004). The anti-nutrients present in pumpkin seeds have been used for relaxing the blood vessels and aids in lowering the blood pressure (El-Mosallamy, Sleem, Abdel-Salam, Shaffie, & Kenawy, 2012;Zdunczyk, Minakowski, Frejnagel, & Flis, 1999). From the preclinical studies, it has been reported that minimum concentration of pumpkin seeds inhibits the growth of parasitic worms (Díaz, Lloja, & Carbajal, 2004) and it has been used by the Native American tribes to eliminate intestinal worms (Li et al., 2012). ...
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Cucurbita maxima, is a therapeutic plant spread all over the world. The seed of C. maxima constitutes a large amount of alkaloids, phenolic compounds, Vitamin E, and other secondary metabolites. The experiment was performed in four setups (Control, Only H2O2, H2O2 + 25 mg of alkaloid, H2O2 + 50 mg of alkaloids). The enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were determined to analyze the antioxidant effect of partially purified alkaloids. The results showed that partially purified alkaloids from C. maxima seed reacts effectively on the erythrocytes and leukocytes antioxidant enzyme system when compared to the hydrogen peroxide group. The present results indicate that the alkaloids present in this plant can be used as a natural antioxidant for the pharmacological purposes. Practical applications The C. maxima seed constitutes rich source of alkaloids, phenolic compounds, Vitamin E, and other secondary metabolites. The results obtained revealed that the purified alkaloids from C. maxima seed acts as natural antioxidants, which enhanced the potential to scavenge H2O2 and aids in protecting the RBC and WBC cells. The presence of 27 alkaloids of which seven major alkaloids possessing higher medicinal properties like antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti‐inflammatory, antitumor, anti‐aging, anti‐diabetic, anticancer, anti‐malarial, analgesic, nematicide, pesticide, and hemolytic activity were determined from the GC‐MS analysis of the extract. Alkaloids acts as major constituent in phytotheraphy and has wide range of clinical application in humans and animals. In conclusion, alkaloids from C. maxima seed may have several properties that leading to the opening of new avenues in the natural product for the therapeutic purpose.
... El-Mosallamy et al., 30 demonstrated that L-NAME rats exhibited increase in RR interval, longer duration of the P wave and ST-segment elevation. However, in our results, the treatment with L-NAME induced an increase in QT, QTc and JT intervals at 15 weeks. ...
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Background: Hypertensive condition can lead to abnormalities in heart structure and electrical activity. The electrocardiogram (ECG) is a recording of the electrical activity of the heart and widely used to diagnose and detect heart problem. Objective: We conducted a comparative ECG analysis between two hypertension models (L-NAME and SHR) and their controls (Wistar and Wistar-Kyoto) at six and 15th week of age. Methods: Blood pressure was measured at the end of the 15th week, and electrocardiography was performed at six and 15 weeks of age in anaesthetized rats. Data normality was confirmed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test followed by unpaired Student’s t-test and the Mann-Whitney for parametric and non-parametric data, respectively. Results are expressed as mean ± SD. The accepted level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: L-NAME exhibited prolongation of JT and QT intervals and SHR showed a decrease in heart rate when compared to Wistar-Kyoto and L-NAME. Wistar-Kyoto exhibited short PR interval with increased QRS complex, and only QT prolongation at 15 weeks compared to Wistar. Conclusions: All the hypertension models used in this study featured an increase in blood pressure. However, while SHR showed cardiac dysfunction, L-NAME exhibited changes in ventricular performance. These results may guide future studies on different types and models of hypertension. (Int J Cardiovasc Sci. 2019; [online]. ahead print, PP.0-0)
... These results further revealed that finding adrenergic blockers and calcium blockers from natural sources is a promising avenue of research in new drug discovery and development. [190] Pumpkin seed oil in vivo [191] Ranunculus japoniucus in vivo [192] Tiangou Jiangya in vitro [193] Viola odorata in vivo [194] Pure compounds β-adrenergic receptor inhibitor Nelumbo nucifera Higenamine 4'-O-β-D-glucoside in vitro [195] ...
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Primary hypertension describes abnormally-high systolic/diastolic blood pressure in a resting condition caused by various genetic or environmental risk factors. Remarkably, severe complications, such as ischemic cardiovascular disease, stroke, and chronic renal disease have led to primary hypertension becoming a huge burden for almost one-third of the total population. Medication is the major regimen for treating primary hypertension; however, recent medications may have adverse effects that attenuate energy levels. Hence, the search for new hypotensive agents from folk or traditional medicine may be fruitful in the discovery and development of new drugs. This review assembles recent findings for natural antihypertensive agents, extracts, or decoctions published in PubMed, and provides insights into the search for new hypotensive compounds based on blood-pressure regulating mechanisms, including the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the sympathetic/adrenergic receptor/calcium channel system.
... Additionally, the high magnesium (mg) content in pumpkin seeds oil is credited to lessening the risks of coronary heart attack. The pumpkin seeds as dietary supplement has exposed the same effects to the calcium channel blocker as a drug amlodipine El-Mosallamy et al. [21]. ...
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The pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita sp.) from Cucurbitaceae family are usually considered as industrial waste products and thrown out. In some area's seeds are utilized as uncooked, cooked or roasted, although simply for the domestic purpose. As they are rich in protein, fibers, minerals like iron, zinc, calcium, magnesium, manganese, copper and sodium, PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids), phytosterol and vitamins, they might be considered important for the food industries. As the seeds are considered as byproduct of the pumpkin fruit, they are cheaper in cost and their utilization is different food products may lead to enhance their nutritional value at lower cost. Health promoting impacts of pumpkin seeds on the level of blood glucose, cholesterol, immunity, liver functioning, gallbladder, disabilities of leaning, prostate gland, depression, inflammation, cancer management and inhibition of parasites are established. The modification of these agro-industrial waste products into valuable elements is probably a huge footstep towards the direction of the universal efforts in food sustainability; hence, the further researches and studies should be planned to explore importance and beneficial effects of pumpkins and their seeds.
... A controlled clinical trial on the effect of flaxseed supplements on blood pressure (BP) showed a significant reduction in systolic BP and diastolic BP following supplementation with various flaxseed products (Ursoniu et al. 2016). Oil was extracted from pumpkin seeds which was used in traditional medicine and was evaluated for antihypertensive and cardioprotective activities (El-Mosallamy et al. 2012). Antihypertensive and cardioprotective effects of the pumpkin seed oil were observed which may be demonstrated through a mechanism that involves generation of NO. ...
Chapter
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Seed oils have enormous potential applications in different industries. They have been increasingly demonstrated to be a viable and renewable source of healthy dietary fatty acids and other bio-active compounds. Seed oils exhibit great multiplicity in their fatty acids, tocopherols, phospholipids, sphingolipids, and sterols compositions depending on the plant species. Essential fatty acids, such as omega-3 and omega-6 PUFAs are derived from seed oils, and extensive investigations on their potential use as an alternative to petroleum products in different industries are also being carried out. This chapter examines the sources of seed oils, their methods of extraction, and characterization along with their bioactivity. The botanical sources of some important seed oils along with their reported bio-active constituents are listed out. It was observed that different methods of extractions and the extraction conditions have influence on the yield and quality of oils. Various methods to monitor the quality and profiling of the seed oil and the beneficial and health-promoting activities of phytochemicals along with their cosmetic applications are also highlighted.
... Hypotension mainly occurs due to low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation. Positive hypotensive effects of pumpkin seed were reported in relaxing vessels on chemical-induced hypertension in rats (El-Mosallamy et al., 2012) by decreasing the elevated levels of malondialdehyde with increase of NO and metabolites to normalcy. The results showed the protective effect against pathological alterations in the heart and aorta along with the reduced risks of heart attacks by reason of high magnesium content. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to review the nutritional and food value of pumpkin Cucurbita , along with different health benefits. Cucurbita (pumpkin) is an herbaceous vine, member of Cucurbitaceae family. It is an edible, heat-sensitive plant, which has an abundant amount of active compounds such as carotenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, polyphenols, tannins, tocopherols, phytosterols and cucurbitacin, accounted for numerous health benefits, namely, antidiabetic, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, hypotensive, hyper protective activities. Design/methodology/approach Major well-known bibliometric information sources such as Web of Science, Scopus, Mendeley and Google Scholar were searched with keywords such as nutrition value of Cucurbita , Cucurbita utilization, bioactive compounds of pumpkin, health benefits, processing, food formulations and current scenarios were chosen to obtain a large range of papers to be analyzed. A final inventory of 105 scientific sources was made after sorting and classifying them according to different criteria based on topic, academic field, country of origin and year of publication. Findings The comprehensive review of different literature, data sources and research papers seeks to find and discuss various nutritional benefits of pumpkin. It contains all necessary macro- and micro-nutrients, amino acids, vitamins, antioxidants and bioactive compounds with a relatively low amount of antinutrients. The recent upsurge in consumer interest for health-promoting products has opened up new vistas for plant products containing bioactive compounds in different food formulations. Originality/value This paper contains information regarding the chemical composition, nutritive value, phytochemical studies, pharmacological properties, bio-accessibility, food and industrial applications of pumpkin. Worldwide, pumpkin is used as food additive in various food products such as candy, weaning mix, corn grits, kheer, jam, crackers, bread, etc. Effect of different processing methods such as high temperature, pH, blanching, oven drying, freeze-drying to retain or minimize its losses in case of color, texture, flavor, and the carotenoids are of concern. The review paper highlights the nutritional, therapeutic, potential and processing attributes.
... Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate of all animals were indirectly measured weekly from the tail of pretrained conscious rats by the tail cuff technique as described earlier by Fregly, (1961) and El-Mosallamy et al., (2012). This was performed using the non-invasive blood pressure monitor (model ML 125 NIBP, ADinstruments Pty. Ltd., Sydney, Australia). ...
Article
Augmentation of angiotensin II (Ang II) signaling with the subsequent overproduction of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been documented to be involved in the development of diabetic cardiovascular complications. This study aimed to assess the potential impact of angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptors blockage, with valsartan or losartan, on the progression of the cardiovascular complications associated with diabetes in comparison with the classical antidiabetic drug, metformin. Animals were randomly assigned to one normal group, one group of untreated streptozotocin (STZ) (45 mg/kg)-induced type I diabetic rats, and five groups of STZ diabetic rats that received different daily oral treatments over a 6-week period as follows: metformin (100 mg/kg), valsartan (7 and 14 mg/kg), and losartan (5 and 10 mg/kg). Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured weekly. At the end of the study, blood samples were withdrawn for the estimation of the oxidative stress biomarkers, and histopathological assessments of aorta were conducted as well. The STZ-induced diabetic rats exhibited blood pressure elevation, heart rate reductions, disturbances in the oxidative stress biomarkers, as well as aortic histopathological aberration compared with normal control group. Metformin administration resulted in a non-significant tendency to ameliorate the elevated blood pressure with no effect on the heart rate and partially reversed the disrupted oxidative stress biomarkers. However, treatment with valsartan or losartan abolished the development of hypertension in diabetic rats with no effect on the associated bradycardia and successfully attenuated the generation of ROS as compared to the diabetic rats. Treatment with metformin, valsartan, and losartan showed ameliorative effects on the aortic histopathological aberrations observed in diabetic rats. In STZ diabetic rats, our data suggest that the beneficial effects afforded by blockage of the AT1 receptor with valsartan or losartan treatments could be in part mediated through a mechanism that may involve inhibition of ROS production.
... Similarly, hemp seeds have a high level of antihypertensive activity because L-arginine, the precursor of NO, exists in abundance (Girgih et al., 2014). Pumpkin seeds are also known to lower BP because of their abundant L-arginine, which inhibits the production of MDA in a hypertension model induced by N(x)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride and facilitates NO production (El-Mosallamy et al., 2012). In addition, the finding that NO production was most active in the 3-mixed juice treatment group was consistent with the vitamin C and E contents. ...
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Commonly consumed fruit juices possess low inhibitory activity of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE), which plays central role in elevation of blood pressure. The ACE inhibitory activity of fruit–seed mixed juice may be improved via synergistic interactions. In this study, the investigated synergistic, additive, and antagonistic effects of fruit–seed combination on ACE inhibition were investigated. Thirteen fruits and 15 seeds including legumes, nuts, and cereals were combined in pairs; pear-hemp seed-pumpkin seed juice (3-mixed juice) displayed the highest ACE inhibition resulting from synergistic interactions. Additionally, nitric oxide production in human endothelial cells was promoted by 3-mixed juice. Three-mixed juice showed antioxidant activities such as DNA protective, DPPH radical scavenging, and reducing effects. These results suggested that combinations of different food categories are beneficial for improving biological functions such as vascular health. Three-mixed juice, which shows high ACE inhibitory activity, may be useful as an anti-hypertensive agent and for treating hypertension.
... Cucurbitaceae, also called cucurbits, are herbaceous climbers or woody lianas grouped together in a plant family consisting of about 95 genera and 950-80 species (2 idant, pumpkin seeds were shown to have protective activity against cardiovascular diseases and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, by improving plasma lipid profile, lowering blood pressure and attenuating arthrosclerosis development (24)(25)(26). Bioactive macromolecules, such as Tocopherol, Trigonelline, Nicotinic acid and D-chiro-inositol, found in pumpkin seeds, possess hypoglycemic properties and could assist in maintaining glycemic control (27,28). Because of their high β-sitosterol content, pumpkin seeds (C. ...
Article
Food allergy to pumpkin seed is considered very rare, and only some isolated case reports have so far been published. We report here a case of food anaphylaxis to pumpkin seed in an eightyear- old boy, who tolerated all other edible seeds, peanut and tree nuts, as well as pulp of different kinds of pumpkins and other fruits of the Cucurbitaceae family. From this observation, a review of the botanical, historical, medicinal and allergenic aspects of pumpkin and its seeds is proposed. With the advent of diets rich in omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, edible seeds like pumpkin seed have been incorporated in the modern diet. Their incremental use in the food-processing industry might contribute to an increase in food allergy to pumpkin seed in the future.
... These hormones increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and prevent fat deposits in the arteries. This will reduce the incidence of myocardial infarction [12]. Based on literature pumpkin has beneficial effects on lipid profile, atherogenicity, and kidney function in hypercholesterolemic rats [13]. ...
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Background Prevention and treatment of obesity is a way to reduce cardiovascular disease, diabetes and depression. Pumpkin as a favorable plant has different properties notably antioxidant, lipid-lowering and anti-diabetic potential. The aim of this study was to assess the anti-obesity effects of pumpkin in diet-induced obese rats. Methods Thirty adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups (n=6) of healthy control, dietary fatty control rats, and three experimental dietary fatty rats that received hydro-alcoholic extract of pumpkin once daily at doses 100 and 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. At the end of 6 weeks, lipid profile, atherogenicity, liver enzymes, and oxidative stress status were measured. Results Pumpkin in a dose-dependent manner dramatically decreased triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein, and liver enzymes while high-density lipoprotein was markedly increased in treated groups. Pumpkin also increased glutathione level in comparison with obese control group. Conclusions Pumpkin ameliorated oxidative stress and dyslipidemia in obese rats, leading to decrease cardiovascular disease risk in obesity.
... Pumpkin is a popular vegetable consumed worldwide and its global production was estimated to be over 20 million tons in 2007. The vegetable has various pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, antihypertensive, treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia, antifungal, antimutagenic, antiproliferative, hypolipidemic, antibacterial, and anti-bladder stone [6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13]. In addi-Background Diabetes mellitus is a chronic endocrine disorder that is associated with significant mortality and morbidity due to microvascular and macrovascular complications. ...
Article
Background Diabetes mellitus is a chronic endocrine disorder that is associated with significant mortality and morbidity due to microvascular and macrovascular complications. Diabetes complications accompanied with oxidative stress and carbonyl stress in different organs of human body because of the increased generation of free radicals and impaired antioxidant defense systems. In the meantime, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive carbonyl species (RCS) have key mediatory roles in the development and progression of diabetes complications. Therapeutic strategies have recently focused on preventing such diabetes-related abnormalities using different natural and chemical compounds. Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) is one of the most important vegetables in the world with a broad-range of pharmacological activities such as antihyperglycemic effect. Methods In the present study, the cytoprotective effects of aqueous extract of C. moschata fruit on hepatocyte cytotoxicity induced by cumene hydroperoxide (oxidative stress model) or glyoxal (carbonylation model) were investigated using freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. Results The extract of C. moschata (50 μg/ml) excellently prevented oxidative and carbonyl stress markers, including hepatocyte lysis, ROS production, lipid peroxidation, glutathione depletion, mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, lysosomal damage, and cellular proteolysis. In addition, protein carbonylation was prevented by C. moschata in glyoxal-induced carbonyl stress. Conclusion It can be concluded that C. moschata has cytoprotective effects in oxidative stress and carbonyl stress models and this valuable vegetable can be considered as a suitable herbal product for the prevention of toxic subsequent of oxidative stress and carbonyl stress seen in chronic hyperglycemia.
... Podawanie oleju skutecznie obniżyło ciśnienie krwi spowodowane działaniem substancji chemicznej oraz znormalizowało zmiany elektrokardiogramu. Wyniki badań wskazują na ochronny wpływ oleju z nasion dyni wobec zmian patologicznych serca i aorty (mechanizm związany jest z powstawaniem tlenku azotu) [28]. Obowiązujące zalecenia żywieniowe podają, że 5-8% zapotrzebowania energetycznego powinno być pokryte przez KT n-6, a 1-2% przez kwasy z rodziny n-3. ...
Article
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Olej z nasion dyni pozyskiwany jest najczęściej metodą tłoczenia na zimno, natomiast innowacyjną techniką jest ekstrakcja tego produktu w stanie nadkrytycznym z wykorzystaniem ditlenku węgla. Obydwie metody zapewniają pozyskanie i zachowanie składników naturalnie występujących w pestkach dyni. Olej z nasion dyni wyróżniają specyficzne walory sensoryczne: barwa od jasnozielonej z domieszką pomarańczowej do ciemnozielonej z intensywnym czerwonym zabarwieniem oraz łagodny, owocowy, a czasami orzechowy smak i aromat. W składzie oleju z nasion dyni na uwagę zasługuje różnorodność występujących składników, m.in.: nienasyconych kwasów tłuszczowych (kwas linolowy C18:2 9c 12c stanowi średnio 46% zawartości), fitosteroli (sitosterolu), skwalenu, kwasów fenolowych (w największych ilościach występują kwasy: syryngowy, ferulowy, kawowy), tokoferoli oraz barwników roślinnych. Związki te wykazują szereg korzystnych efektów dla zdrowia człowieka. Nienasycone kwasy tłuszczowe przyczyniają się do zapewnienia właściwego profilu lipidowego w organizmie człowieka, wpływają na obniżenie ciśnienia krwi. Fitosterole stanowią czynnik przeciwdziałający hipercholesterolemii, wykazują również działanie przeciwnowotworowe i antyoksydacyjne. Cennym prozdrowotnym składnikiem oleju z nasion dyni są także kwasy fenolowe, uczestniczące m.in. w neutralizacji wolnych rodników oraz zapobiegające fotooksydatywnym uszkodzeniom skóry. Ponadto, zarówno tokochromanole, skwalen, jak i barwniki roślinne występujące w oleju z nasion dyni wykazują działanie antyoksydacyjne. Podsumowując olej z nasion dyni w swoim składzie zawiera liczne substancje bioaktywne wykazujące potencjalne zastosowanie w profilaktyce chorób cywilizacyjnych.
... Oral administration of pumpkin seed oil (40-100 mg/kg) for 6 weeks was followed by haematological and histological profiling. The treatment reduced blood pressure, and MDA level [41]. Pumpkin seed oil when substituted for saturated dietary oil, led to the amelioration of metabolic and cardiovascular disease [42]. ...
Article
Cucurbitaceae family members such as pumpkin and watermelon have seeds that are discarded as the by-products of food processing. However, they have been discovered to contain a rich repertoire of nutrients such as proteins, unsaturated fatty acids, phenolic acids, carotenoids, tocopherol, phytosterol, squalene etc. Biological assays have proven the seed extracts to exert antioxidative, hypoglycemic, anticancer, antihypertensive, cardioprotective, antilipemic, gynoprotective, and anthelmintic properties. Further, the seeds do not contain any major anti-nutrients. Phytoestrogens like β-sitosterol occur, which might be acting as agonists or antagonists of estrogen and testosterone, given their validated role in gyenic and prostate health. Few instances of intestinal bezoar, and allergy, following pumpkin seeds consumption have emerged. After the risk-benefit analysis though exhaustive literature search, it can be suggested that these seeds are underutilized and they can be used to formulate a myriad of nutraceuticals.
... 82 Compared with amlodipine (0.9 mg/kg), Cucurbita pepo seed oil (40 or 100 mg/kg) has exhibited antihypertensive effects on rats with hypertension induced by nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor in 6 weeks. 83 Ecballium elaterium (EE) fruit juice showed analgesic activity in animal models. 84 Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Citrullus colocynthis root and stem aqueous extracts have been evaluated by carrageenan-induced paw edema test in rats and acetic acid writhing assay in mice. ...
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Hemorrhoids is one of the most common gastrointestinal diseases. There are several therapeutic options associated with some complications. Therefore, researchers look for traditional medicines as a potential resource for introduction of new natural drugs. The current study reports an evidence-based review of herbal remedies for hemorrhoids in traditional Persian medicine. A comprehensive survey about hemorrhoids on the most important manuscripts of traditional Persian medicine was done. Then, scientific data banks were searched for possible related properties of each herb in the conventional medicine. We reported some historical aspects of traditional Persian medicine view on classification, examination, and predisposing factors of hemorrhoids. In addition, we have reported 105 medicinal plants belonging to 51 families. More than half of the reported herbs exhibited anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. Although lack of human studies regarding the mentioned herbs is noted, positive results from experimental findings can be considered for new drug discovery supported by traditional and medieval experiences.
... The systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured using the tail plethysmometer ML125 NIBP (AD Instruments, Australia), which consists of a tail cuff coupled to a tail pressure transducer which is connected to a data acquisition system (PowerLab, LabChart ® 6.0, AD Instruments, Sydney, Australia). The procedures were performed according to El-Mosallamy et al. (2012) with modifications. Female Wistar rats were previously adapted to the restraint conditions during two weeks, in order to reduce the influence of stress induced by manipulation of the animal. ...
Article
Lippia origanoides H.B.K. (Verbenaceae) is a medicinal plant used in traditional medical practices for treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases. Based on previous reports regarding cardiovascu-lar effects induced by L. origanoides, this work aims to develop a standardized extract from L. origanoides aerial parts (Lo-HAE) and evaluate its hypotensive effect on mean arterial pressure in rats. Eight extraction systems were prepared by varying the ethanol/water ratio, sonication and time of extraction. The chromatographic profile and the determination of the flavonoid naringenin were performed by Ultra-fast Liquid Chromatography (UFLC) with UV detection at 290 nm. The extraction method for Lo-HAE was standardized considering the best extraction yield under 1:1 (v/v) ethanol/water ratio. Naringenin is the major compound of Lo-HAE, and then it was confirmed as the promising biomarker for Lo-HAE control assessment. For pharmacological studies, the acute oral toxicological assessment of Lo-HAE in female Wistar rats was performed. The Lo-HAE-induced hypotensive effect was evaluated by direct measure of pulse pressure after intravenous administration (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg), as well as indirect measure of blood pressure after oral administration (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg) in female Wistar rats. A marked decrease of mean arterial pressure was observed for Lo-HAE after both administration routes. In addition , no sign of either clinical or behavioral alterations was observed, as well as on the rats' body weight. The Lo-HAE demonstrates safe pharmacological potential for development of herbal medicines in the treatment of hypertension.
... Pumpkin seed oil supplementation lowers blood pressure and improves lipid profile in animal studies [8]. In fact, hypertensive rats supplemented with pumpkin seed oil received health benefits, with their blood pressure and NO metabolites, comparable to the antihypertensive drug amlopidine (a calcium channel blocker) [30]. In another animal model of hypertensive rats, pumpkin seed oil, followed by administration of the calcium antagonist felodipine or the ACE inhibitor captopril, produced significant hypotensive effects [31]. ...
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Background: Nutraceuticals and functional foods are increasingly being used to help manage hypertension. Treatment with either pumpkin or onion can significantly lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure in animal studies. Traditionally, pumpkin has been used to support healthy blood pressure, glucose tolerance and lipid levels. Onion contains high levels of flavonoids, including quercetin, which decreases blood pressure and promotes restoration of healthy endothelial function. However, human trials on these food sources are limited, and the combined effects of pumpkin and onion have not been examined yet. Objective: We performed an open-label clinical study to evaluate the effects of a proprietary onion-pumpkin extract (OPtain120) on systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Methods: Healthy adults with systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in the elevated range of 140-159 and 80-90 mmHg, respectively, were enrolled in this study. Subjects consumed one capsule of onion-pumpkin extract twice daily for 12 weeks. Daily Home Blood Pressure Measurement (HBPM) was taken upon waking and before bed. Office Blood Pressure Measurement (OBPM) was taken in-clinic at Week 0, 6, and 12. Results: 52 subjects were screened and 12 were enrolled in the study, with a total of 10 subjects completing the study. Systolic HBPM taken before bed demonstrated a statistically significant reduction from baseline (147.23 mmHg) to Week 12 (138.14 mmHg), representing a reduction of 9.09 mmHg (6.17%, p=0.021). Diastolic HBPM taken before bed demonstrated a decrease of 4.06 mmHg (4.46%, p=0.085), a significant reduction from baseline (91.07 mmHg) at Week 12 (87.02 mmHg). Non-statistically significant reductions were seen in the early morning Systolic (3.14%) and Diastolic (2.57%) HBPM and in the Systolic (1.36%) OBPM. Conclusion: OPtain120 was safely consumed over a 12-week period. OPtain120 appears to be effective in lowering Systolic Blood Pressure at bedtime in healthy individuals with slightly elevated blood pressure. This study suggests that onion-pumpkin extract may aid individuals who manage their cardiovascular risk factors with diet and lifestyle.
... Pumpkin seeds play an important role in relaxing vessels and lowering blood pressure. El-Mosallamy et al. [22] determined the effects of pumpkin seed oil treatment on chemical-induced hypertension in rats. The oil (40–100 mg/kg), was given once daily for 6 weeks. ...
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The seeds of pumpkin (Cucurbita sp.) are gen- erally considered to be agro-industrial wastes and dis- carded. In some parts of the world, the seeds are consumed raw, roasted or cooked, but only at the domestic scale. With the discovery of their richness in protein, fibres, minerals, polyunsaturated fatty acids and phytosterols, they are being regarded valuable for the food industry. The attention of food technologists has resulted in their foray into the commercial food sector. Food companies are experimenting with their incorporation into a slew of savouries and con- sumers are showing interest in them. Also, their beneficial effects on blood glucose level, immunity, cholesterol, liver, prostate gland, bladder, depression, learning disabilities and parasite inhibition are being validated. The conversion of these agro-wastes into value-added ingredients is likely to be a big step towards the global sustainability efforts; thus, it deserves more investigation. This review furnishes an updated account of this emerging nutraceutical.
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Edible oils are one of the important products that have lately come to light for their beneficial and nutritional properties. As a result, scientists and the oil industry are always working to demonstrate the health-giving benefits of both fruit and vegetable seed oils. Fruits are popular for their fleshy parts. However, the seeds are often discarded since they are thought worthless. This research looked at the bioactive components found in Cucurbitaceae (Cucurbita spp., Cucumis melo L., Citrullus lanatus) seed oils extracted using various extraction procedures on Cucurbitaceae seeds from various species and geographical places throughout the globe. The outcomes of the study show that Cucurbitaceae seed oils are a good source of nutrients and may be classified as health-promoting compounds. The discoveries have also cleared the way for the use of these seed oil resources in the production of a broad variety of therapeutic products.
Article
Today the need to obtain nutritious foods from new sources and lower in waste food processing industry has created a high interest. Modification of agro industrial waste products into valuable elements is probably a huge footstep towards the direction of food sustainability. The seeds of pumpkin (Cucurbita sp.) are generally considered to be agro-industrial wastes and discarded. But pumpkin seeds are densely packed with useful nutrients and nutraceuticals such as amino acids, phytosterols, unsaturated fatty acids, phenolic compounds, tocopherols, cucurbitacins and valuable minerals. All these bioactive compounds are important to a healthy life and well-being. The present study aims at reviewing the various researches done in the past on the uses of the pumkin seed for the treatment of digestion problems, diarrhoea, colic, dyspepsia etc. Various researcher investigated that the used of pumpkin seed are beneficial for some diseases such as diabetes, alzheimer, anti cancer, hypercholesterolemic and hypertension patients. Pumpkin seeds have wide application, as antimicrobial, antioxidant, insecticidal, encapsulation, antifungal. As from all the studies, that done and concluded that pumpkin seed have been used as functional food for humans by combining with unit operations of food processing for treatment of various ailments.
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Background In spite of attractive nutraceutical functions, herbal products for oral use have many drawbacks, including poor oral-absorption and storage stability, leading to limited usability and efficacy. Considerable attention has been drawn to formulation studies on herbal materials for improvement of biopharmaceutical and nutraceutical properties. The aim of this review is to provide an illustrative overview of industrial and academic formulation researches on herbal materials for overcoming their problems. Methods The literature search was conducted for recent findings in the development of herbal formulations with enhanced nutraceutical effects. Results A number of formulations have been applied to herbal materials, includes emulsions, self-emulsifying drug delivery systems, liposomes, solid nanostructured particles, solid dispersions, and cyclodextrin-complexation. These formulation strategies can provide improved dissolution properties and oral absorption, a wide safety margin, better handling, and/or enhanced storage stability, possibly resulting in higher product values. Whereas nutraceutical properties have a higher priority, the selection of a suitable formulation would also be necessary for each herbal extract, considering manufacturability, safety concerns, and usability. Herbal medicines still include many unknowns for daily use, and evidence on some nutraceutical properties is insufficient; therefore, they should continue to be researched in more detail. Conclusion Strategic use of formulation approaches might provide a bright future for self-medication with herbal products.
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Arterial hypertension affects ≈ 1 billion people worldwide. It is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and responsible for millions of deaths each year. Hypertension mediates damage of target organs including the heart. In addition to eliciting left ventricular hypertrophy, dysfunction and heart failure, hypertension also causes left atrial remodeling that may culminate in atrial contractile dysfunction and atrial fibrillation. Here, we will summarize data on the various aspects of left atrial remodeling in (essential) hypertension gathered from studies on patients with hypertension and from spontaneously hypertensive rats, an animal model that closely mimics cardiac remodeling in human hypertension. Analyzing the timeline of remodeling processes, i.e., distinguishing between alterations occurring in prehypertension, in early hypertension and during advanced hypertensive heart disease, we will derive the potential mechanisms underlying left atrial remodeling in (essential) hypertension. Finally, we will discuss the consequences of these remodeling processes for atrial and ventricular function. The data imply that left atrial remodeling is multifactorial, starts early in hypertension and is an important contributor to the progression of hypertensive heart disease, including the development of atrial fibrillation and heart failure.
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The growing interest in foods that can be beneficial to human health is bringing into focus some products that have been used locally for centuries but have recently gained worldwide attention. One of these foods is pumpkin seed oil, which has been used in culinary and traditional medicine, but recent data also show its use in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. In addition, some sources refer to it as a potential functional food, mainly because it is obtained from pumpkin seeds, which contain many functional components. However, the production process of the oil may affect the content of these components and consequently the biological activity of the oil. In this review, we have focused on summarizing scientific data that explore the potential of pumpkin seed oil as a functional food ingredient. We provide a comprehensive overview of pumpkin seed oil chemical composition, phytochemical content, biological activity, and safety, as well as the overview of production processes and contemporary use. The main phytochemicals in pumpkin seed oil with health-related properties are polyphenols, phytoestrogens, and fatty acids, but carotenoids, squalene, tocopherols, and minerals may also contribute to health benefits. Most studies have been conducted in vitro and support the claim that pumpkin seed oil has antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Clinical studies have shown that pumpkin seed oil may be beneficial in the treatment of cardiovascular problems of menopausal women and ailments associated with imbalance of sex hormones.
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The Cucurbitaceae family's pumpkin seeds are often viewed as industrial waste and discarded. In many regions of the world, seeds are eaten raw, boiled, or roasted, but only for personal consumption. Because they are high in protein, fiber, minerals, and vitamins, they may be considered essential for the food industry. Because the seeds are a byproduct of the pumpkin fruit, they are less expensive, and their inclusion in a variety of foods may result in higher nutritious content at a lower cost. Pumpkin seeds have been found to be beneficial to one's health. More research and study on the transformation of these agro industrial waste products into valuable materials is most likely a huge step in the right direction for worldwide efforts in food sustainability.
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Background and Purpose: Irochel is a polyherbal formulation, comprises ethanolic extracts of Emblica officinalis, Cucurbita pepo L, Triticum aestivum, Fagonia cretica, Momordica charantia, and Tribulus terristris. It is prepared for the management of iron overload in transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients in which non-transfusion binds iron-produced reactive oxygen species ROS that causes severe damages to the organs leads to death. Research Study: In this study, phytochemical, antioxidant-DPPH assay, cytotoxicity, acute, and subacute toxicity in Wistar rats according to OECD guidelines 423 and 407, respectively, was carried out. The pharmaceutical analysis was conducted following standard protocols. Results: The results exhibited that each herb has a rich amount of phytochemical constituents. The DPPH assay showed IC 50 values for Irochel and Gallic Acid 106.6 ± 4.28 [uM] and 21.8 ± 1.03 [uM], respectively. The LC 50 124.327 μg/ml was obtained in cytotoxicity. In acute toxicity (14 days) and subacute toxicity (28 days) studies, the results revealed no treatment-related toxic manifestations, or mortality. Therefore, LD 50 was found > 5000 mg/kg. However, there was some hematological and biochemical variations observed at 3 different doses of 2000, 300, and 50 mg/kg bw. Conclusion: Thus, Irochel has significant antioxidant activity and it is a safe drug for human use.
Chapter
Agri-food processing industries generate substantial amounts of wastes and/or by-products, which are now a well-established resource of nutraceutically valued compounds. Exploring these wastes/by-products to fabricate economically valued products will not only contribute toward minimizing the environmental pollution-related issues, but can also contribute to higher economic gains for the agri-food-based industries. Globally, it is witnessed that processing of fruits or vegetables belonging to the genera of Cucumis (melon), Cucurbita (pumpkin), and Citrullus (watermelon) leads to the accumulation of enormous volume wastes and/or by-products occurring mainly as pomace (skin, pulp, seeds, and stems). Available reports have indicated that the discarded seeds of the above-mentioned genera are a reliable source of bioactive phytochemicals including essential fatty acids (polyunsaturated fatty acids), antioxidant-rich polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids, carotenoids, and other components exhibiting bioactivities like those of dietary fiber, proteins, amino acids, minerals, etc. Hence, being an inexpensive raw material, the discarded seeds hold high promise for effective valorization. These discarded seeds can be utilized as a valuable functional ingredient with potential applications in the food, feed, pharmaceutical, and cosmeceuticals industries. In addition, efficient valorization of these seeds through an environmental-friendly sustainable process can solve critical problems related to the management of wastes and/or by-products from this industry. In this chapter, the authors discuss the nutraceutical values of seeds [from the genera Cucumis (melon), Cucurbita (pumpkin), and Citrullus (watermelon)], which hold high economic importance because of their worldwide production. In addition, prospective applications that can provide rich economic gains to the relative industry, sustainability challenges to efficient valorization, and future research gaps are also highlighted.
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A novel β-glucosidase was purified from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seed by anion exchange chromatography and gel permeation chromatography, and its molecular mass was determined to be 42.8 kDa by gel permeation chromatography. The heterodimeric structure consisting of two subunits, free from disulfide bonds, was determined by native-PAGE analysis followed by zymography. The enzyme was maximally active at pH 4.0 and 70°C, and Vmax, Km, and kcat values were 0.078 units mg⁻¹ protein, 2.22 mM, and 13.29 min⁻¹, respectively, employing p-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside as the substrate. The high content of glycine determined by amino acid analysis implies that the enzyme possesses flexible conformations and interacts with cell membranes and walls in nature. Circular dichroism studies revealed that the high stability of the enzyme within the pH range of 2.0–10.0 is due to its reversible pH-responsive characteristics for α-helix–antiparallel β-sheet interconversion.
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The review aims to focus on the processing and economic challenges of these oil industries (lack of organized cultivation, collection, processing, research, and market linking) and fetch the attention towards the application of green technology. The present article provides a systematic view to open a new sphere of understanding for unconventional oilseeds with its geographical distribution, chemical composition, health benefits, and research. Further, new sources of unconventional oil (cottonseed, rice bran, sal seed, mango kernel, etc.) may impart an alternative source of edible oil, which can fulfill the country’s edible oil deficit with economic contribution. In inference, the combined evidence supports the assertion that unconventional sources of oils may provide an alternatives of major seed oils.
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Pumpkin has been extensively cultivated for centuries for its edible fruit and seeds. Its seeds contain substantial amounts of oil, which belong to the oleic-linoleic type of oil. It is commonly used as a salad oil in Austria, Hungary, and Slovenia. Pumpkin seed oil is a rich source of biologically active compounds. Hence, it is regarded as a “specialty oil.” The most important bioactive compounds of pumpkin seed oil are α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, α-tocotrienol, and γ-tocotrienol. Along with tocopherols, zeaxanthin, lutein, and α- and β-carotene contribute to the oil’s superior antioxidant activity. Unlike in other plant seed oils, Δ-7-sterols mainly occur in pumpkin seed oil. Additionally, phenolics, namely syringic, ferulic, caffeic, p-coumaric, vanillic, and protocatechuic acid, were also identified. Due to the significant health benefits of cold pressed pumpkin seed oil, the popularity of this oil has increased rapidly over the past few years. In this chapter, the cultivation and physicochemical properties of cold pressed oils obtained from different pumpkin varieties and their health promoting effects will be discussed.
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A wide variety of plant species provide edible seeds. Seeds are the dominant source of human calories and protein. The most important and popular seed food sources are cereals, followed by legumes and nuts. Their nutritional content of fiber, protein, and monounsaturated/polyunsaturated fats make them extremely nutritious. They are important additions to our daily food consumption. When consumed as part of a healthy diet, seeds can help reduce blood sugar, cholesterol, and blood pressure.
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Plants and animals are sources of various bioactive compounds that exhibit a broad spectrum of health-promoting effects. Scientists continue studies on the chemical composition of many products in search of foods with high nutritional value. The pumpkin (Cucurbita sp.) is unquestionably a source of valuable nutrients. This vegetable is well-known all over the world and it is appreciated due to its high content of carotenoids, but it is still not much used in the processing industry. The aim of present study was to compare the flesh of 15 pumpkin varieties belonging to the Cucurbita pepo and C. moschata species in terms of the bioactive compound content (carotenoids, phenolic acids, flavonols, minerals and vitamins) and to demonstrate whether the variety has an effect on the chemical composition. To date, no such extensive research has been carried out in this area. The research revealed that the pumpkin pulp had high content of carotenoids. In nearly all cases lutein was the most abundant carotenoid. Numerous phenolic acids and flavonols were also identified. All the cultivars contained gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and rutin. The pumpkin pulp also contained alpha- and gamma-tocopherol. No beta- or delta-tocopherol was found. Potassium, calcium, and sodium were the most abundant minerals. The research also proved that the profile of bioactive compounds in the pumpkin pulp was considerably diversified and depended on the species and cultivar
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Citron seed oil (CSO) has been reported to have high antioxidant activity. However, the composition and other biologically activities of CSO have not been reported. In this study, we confirmed the fatty acid composition of CSO, which may be beneficial to vascular disease and obesity.
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Healthcare professionals, including doctors, pharmacists and nurses, are often confronted with patients who use over-the-counter (OTC) herbal medicinal products and food supplements. While taking responsibility for one’s own health and treatment options is encouraged, many patients use these products based on limited (and sometimes inaccurate) information from non-scientific sources, such as the popular press and internet. There is a clear need to offer balanced, well-informed advice to patients, yet a number of studies have shown that, generally, conventionally trained health practitioners consider their knowledge about herbal medicinal products and supplements to be weak. Phytopharmacy fills this knowledge gap, and is intended for use by the busy pharmacist, nurse, or doctor, as well as the ‘expert patient’ and students of pharmacy and herbal medicine. It presents clear, practical and concise monographs on over a hundred popular herbal medicines and plant-based food supplements. Information provided in each monograph includes: • Indications • Summary and appraisal of clinical and pre-clinical evidence • Potential interactions • Contraindications • Possible adverse effects An overview of the current regulatory framework is also outlined, notably the EU Traditional Herbal Medicinal Products Directive. This stipulates that only licensed products or registered traditional herbal medicinal products (THRs), which have assured quality and safety, can now legally be sold OTC. Monographs are included of most of the major herbal ingredients found in THRs, and also some plant-based food supplements, which while not strictly medicines, may also have the potential to exert a physiological effect.
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Cucurbita pepo subsp. pepo var. Styriaca is a phylogenetically young member of the Cucurbita spp. since the mutation leading to dark green seeds with stunted outer hulls arose only in the 19th century. This mutation defined the so-called Styrian oil pumpkin and facilitated the production of Styrian pumpkin seed oil. It is a regional specialty oil in the south-eastern part of Europe. In this article, we describe the production and economic value of this edible oil as well as its composition on a molecular basis, including fatty acids, vitamins, phytosterols, minerals, polyphenols, and the compounds responsible for its pigments, taste and flavor. We also describe contaminants of Styrian pumpkin seed oil and the most relevant field pests of the Styrian oil pumpkin plant. Finally, we review the putative beneficial health effects of Styrian oil pumpkin seeds and of their products.
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The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of onion (Allium cepa) peel hydroalcoholic extract (OPE) on rat hypertension induced by high-fructose diet and aorta contractility. The OPE was prepared by maceration method using 70% ethanol. The thoracic aorta from male adult rat (Wistar) was dissected and suspended in Krebs-Henseleit solution under 1 g resting tension. Tissue preparation was contracted by KCl (80 mM) or phenylephrine (Phe, 1 microM) and then the extract was applied cumulatively (0.0625-2 mg mL(-1)). Hypertension was induced in negative control and three groups of rats by adding fructose (10% WN/V) in drinking water for 6 weeks but control group received tap water. Hypertensive groups received saline or OPE at 200, 400 and 800 mg kg(-1) daily for last 3 weeks by gavage. Results showed that OPE reduces aorta contractions induced by KCl or Phe in a concentration-dependent manner (p < 0.001). Removing aorta endothelium did not attenuate the OPE activity. Inhibition of nitric oxide, cGMP and prostaglandin synthesis by L-NAME (100 microM), methylene blue (10 microM) and indomethacin (10 microM), respectively, did not attenuate OPE activity. Atropine abolished ACh-induced relaxation in Phe precontracted aorta but not the OPE-induced relaxation. Although the extract did not change heart rate but after 3 weeks reduced the hypertension induced by fructose (p < 0.001). Present results indicated that OPE reduces aortic contractions possibly via inhibition of calcium influx but without involving NO, cGMP, endothelium and prostaglandins. The OPE hypotensive effect could be due to extract quercetin content, antioxidant activity and inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cells Ca2+ influx.
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Numerous studies have shown that high olive oil intake reduces blood pressure (BP). These positive effects of olive oil have frequently been ascribed to its minor components, such as α-tocopherol, polyphenols, and other phenolic compounds that are not present in other oils. However, in this study we demonstrate that the hypotensive effect of olive oil is caused by its high oleic acid (OA) content (≈70–80%). We propose that olive oil intake increases OA levels in membranes, which regulates membrane lipid structure (HII phase propensity) in such a way as to control G protein-mediated signaling, causing a reduction in BP. This effect is in part caused by its regulatory action on G protein-associated cascades that regulate adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C. In turn, the OA analogues, elaidic and stearic acids, had no hypotensive activity, indicating that the molecular mechanisms that link membrane lipid structure and BP regulation are very specific. Similarly, soybean oil (with low OA content) did not reduce BP. This study demonstrates that olive oil induces its hypotensive effects through the action of OA. • aorta • fatty acids • membrane structure • signaling proteins • membrane-lipid therapy
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We examined the effect of diets enriched in gamma linolenic acid (GLA) on acute inflammation induced by monosodium urate crystals, and on subacute and chronic inflammation induced by complete Freund's adjuvant in the rat subcutaneous air pouch and in rats with adjuvant induced arthritis. Diets were enriched (15% fat) with borage seed oil (23% GLA) or safflower oil (less than 1% GLA). Diets enriched with GLA suppressed inflammation markedly in all models, whereas the safflower oil diet did not influence the inflammatory response. The degree of inflammation was quantified by measuring pouch exudate cell concentration, lysosomal enzyme activity, volume, protein concentration and prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene B4 concentrations. In the chronic air pouch model, the pouch lining was thickened, invaded by mononuclear cells and exhibited proliferation of lining cells 14 days after adjuvant injection. The lesion was far less severe and usual pouch lining architecture was maintained in animals given dietary GLA. Livers of rats fed borage seed oil were enriched in GLA and dihomo gamma linolenic acid (DGLA), and the DGLA/arachidonate ratio was increased 5-fold compared with animals fed safflower oil. Enrichment of diet with plant seed oils rich in GLA may provide a way to alter generation of prostaglandins and leukotrienes and to influence acute and chronic inflammatory responses.
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To review and evaluate the literature relative to the use of herbal therapies in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Literature was identified by MEDLINE, Embase, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, and the International Bibliographic Information on Dietary Supplements searches and through cross-referencing of selected articles. All articles identified from the data sources were evaluated and all information deemed relevant was included in this review. A large percentage of men >50 years old begin to experience signs and symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Herbs hold promise in the treatment of BPH. Serenoa repens, Pygeum africanum, Urtica dioica radix, and Cucurbita peponis semen are some of the botanical therapies used in the treatment of BPH. There are many European studies examining efficacy, dose, and adverse effects of these plants in the treatment of BPH. However, numerous questions remain. These include issues concerning long-term beneficial and adverse effects of herbal therapy, prevention of complications, standardization of extracts, and concomitant use with "mainstream" medications. Based on the information available today, these botanical therapies can be used for treatment of a number of objective and subjective symptoms in patients with BPH, stages I and II.
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The oil from the pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seed is claimed to be useful in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. This investigation seeks to examine the effect of pumpkin seed oil on testosterone-induced hyperplasia of the prostate of rats. Hyperplasia was induced by subcutaneous administration of testosterone (0.3 mg/100 g of body weight) for 20 days. Simultaneous oral administration of either pumpkin seed oil (2.0 and 4.0 mg/100 g of body weight) or corn oil (vehicle) was also given for 20 days. The weights of the rats were recorded weekly, and the influence of testosterone and pumpkin seed oil on the weight gain of the rats was examined. On day 21, rats were sacrificed, and the prostate was removed, cleaned, and weighed. The prostate size ratio (prostate weight/rat body weight) was then calculated. Neither testosterone nor pumpkin seed oil had any significant influence on the weight gain of the rats. Testosterone significantly increased prostate size ratio (P < .05), and this induced increase was inhibited in rats fed with pumpkin seed oil at 2.0 mg/100 g of body weight. The protective effect of pumpkin seed oil was significant at the higher pumpkin seed oil dose (P < .02). We conclude pumpkin seed oil can inhibit testosterone-induced hyperplasia of the prostate and therefore may be beneficial in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia.
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In Austria pumpkins are grown primarily for the production of pumpkin seeds that can be used for eating or the production of salad oil. Pumpkin seed oil is dark green and its fatty acid composition consists typically of linoleic acid and oleic acid as the dominant fatty acids. The saturated fatty acids palmitic and stearic acid occur at lower levels. The samples for this study were taken from a breeding program that intends to increase the seed and oil productivity. 15 samples with different contents of linoleic acid (40—57%) and vitamin E (100—600 μg/g) were selected. The stability of the oil was measured in a Rancimat that oxidizes the oil at 120 ?C and measures the induction time that is needed for the oxidation. The correlation analysis showed that only the ratio of linoleic acid to oleic acid had a significant influence on the oxidative stability of the oil. Vitamin E did not show any correlation. When α-tocopherol was added to the oil a strong pro-oxidative effect was observed.
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The cucurbitacins are triterpenic plant principles with varied pharmacological activities, found in several botanical families. This review includes the structures described in the literature, the plant-containing cucurbitacins and their main pharmacological effects.
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Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), a lignan isolated from flaxseed, is a phytoestrogen. Estrogens and phytoestrogen from soy have been reported to have mild hypotensive effects. Effects of SDG on arterial pressures are not known. The objective of this study was to determine whether (a) SDG has a hypotensive effect, and (b) the hypotensive effect is mediated through the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway. The studies were conducted in anesthetized Sprague Dawley normotensive rats weighing between 450 and 500 grams Carotid arterial pressures were recorded to investigate the changes in the arterial pressures and heart rate with various doses of SDG. Maximum drops in the mean arterial pressure, which occurred at 15 minutes after intravenous SDG, were 40%, 41%, and 47%, respectively, with 10mg, 15mg, and 20mg/kg of SDG. The pressures tended to recover, but even at the end of four hours, the percent drops in the mean arterial pressures were 33, 22, and 29, respectively, with 10mg, 15mg, and 20mg/kg of SDG. The drops in the diastolic and mean arterial pressures were slightly higher than systolic pressures. Smaller doses of SDG (3 and 5mg/kg) produced dose-dependent decreases in the systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures. Heart rate remained unchanged. Pretreatment with N G -monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, did not prevent the SDG-induced reduction in arterial pressures. However, pretreatment with methylene blue (MB), a nonspecific, and oxadiazolo quinoxalin (ODQ), a specific inhibitor of guanylate cyclase, completely prevented the SDG-induced reduction in the arterial pressures. These results suggest that SDG is a long-acting hypotensive agent, and that the hypotensive effect is mediated through the guanylate cyclase enzyme.
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In the traditional medicine in North America and Mexico, pumpkin seeds have been used as an anthelmintic agent and for supportive treatment in functional disorders of the bladder. Also anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective activity of pumpkin seeds is discussed. Three different extracts of pumpkin seeds were prepared and effects were investigated in unstimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and in cells stimulated with the mitogens phytohaemagglutinin and concanavalin A in vitro. Tryptophan degradation and neopterin concentrations were measured in the supernatants allowing to detect biochemical changes induced by cytokine interferon-. Extracts of pumpkin seeds suppressed mitogen-induced neopterin production and tryptophan degradation in a dose-dependent way. Data demonstrate capacity of pumpkin extracts to modulate immunobiochemical pathways induced by interferon- . Findings imply an immunoregulatory potential of compounds contained in pumpkin seeds.
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The effects of orally ingested dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DHLA), the natural biosynthetic precursor of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), were assessed in human volunteers. Single doses of DHLA (0.1--2g) increased the proportion of DHLA relative to arachidonic acid in plasma and platelets and also increased the ex-vivo capacity of platelets to produce PGE1 and PGE2. More pronounced effects were observed during sustained treatment (five days to four weeks) when DHLA also accumulated in red cell membranes. These biochemical changes were accompanied by potentially antithrombotic changes in haemostatic function. The most common effect, which was consistently detected after 0.1-g single doses of DHLA or its methyl ester, was a decrease in plasma heparin-neutralising activity. Inhibition of platelet aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate was also detected, though this was generally less pronounced. Sustained treatment in one subject also produced definite inhibition of ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation. There was only one possible adverse effect--a transient cough in a subject with a history of asthma. DHLA therefore seems to have considerable potential as an agent for preventing and treating human thromboembolic disease.
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A thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test procedure with reasonable reproducibility applicable to the assay of lipoperoxides in various animal tissue homogenates is described. It was concluded that the deproteinization of homogenate prior to coloration is not needed, but double wavelength measurement is necessary to avoid interference and the reaction should be performed with phosphoric acid at a definite pH near 2.0. The most reproducible procedure is as follows: To 0.5 ml of 10% homogenate of the tissue sample, add 3 ml of 1% H3PO4 and 1 ml of 0.6% TBA aqueous solution; stir and heat the mixture on a boiling water bath for 45 min. After cooling, add 4 ml of n-butanol, shake, and separate the butanol layer by centrifugation; determine the optical density of the butanol layer at 535 and 520 nm; and calculate the difference of optical density between the two determinations to be taken as the TBA value.
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Superoxide dismutase activity was assayed in terms of its ability to inhibit the radical-mediated chain-propagating autoxidation of epinephrine. The enzyme assay based on adrenochrome absorption at 480 nm has been improved by measuring the absorption change at 320 nm. This alternative procedure was found to be 6 to 10 times more sensitive and more consistent than that measured at 480 nm.
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Consumption of carotenoids is associated with an enhanced immune response and protection against neoplasia and atherosclerosis. Because these effects have been achieved using carotenoids with no pro-vitamin A activity, they are assumed to be due to the antioxidant properties of carotenoids. Carotenoids protect against photosensitized oxidation by quenching singlet oxygen. In addition, beta-carotene reacts chemically with peroxyl radicals to produce epoxide and apocarotenal products. To investigate the potential significance of these reactions to biological systems, we have used soybean lipoxygenase to generate peroxyl radical enzymatically. beta-Carotene inhibits the oxidation of linoleic acid by soybean lipoxygenase as well as the formation of the hydroperoxide product. In addition, the absorption of beta-carotene is diminished (bleached) by soybean lipoxygenase. The potential significance of these antioxidant reactions of carotenoids to biological function is discussed.
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The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of dietary variations of linoleic acid on the development of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension in rats. All rats were divided into three groups and fed one of the following isocaloric diets with 8% NaCl: a high linoleic acid (HLA) (20% sunflower oil), a moderate linoleic acid (5% lard oil + 15% sunflower oil), or a low linoleic acid (DLA) (20% lard oil). After 4 weeks of feeding, we determined intraerythrocyte sodium, potassium, and magnesium concentrations, intra-aortic and lymphocyte magnesium content, and erythrocyte ouabain-sensitive 22Na efflux rate constant. Cytoplasmic free calcium concentration of lymphocytes from thymus was also determined with quin-2 as a fluorescent indicator. In the HLA group, the elevation of systolic blood pressure was significantly attenuated, and intraerythrocyte sodium concentration was significantly lower than in the DLA group. There were greater intraerythrocyte potassium and magnesium concentrations, intra-aortic and lymphocyte magnesium contents, and erythrocyte ouabain-sensitive 22Na efflux rate constant in the HLA group as compared with other groups. Cytoplasmic free calcium concentration in the HLA group was significantly lower than in other groups. Systolic blood pressure significantly correlated negatively with intraerythrocyte and intra-aortic magnesium concentrations and intraerythrocyte potassium concentration, and correlated positively with cytoplasmic free calcium concentration. Erythrocyte ouabain-sensitive 22Na efflux rate constant significantly correlated positively with intraerythrocyte magnesium concentration. These findings suggest that dietary linoleic acid can attenuate the development of DOCA-salt hypertension.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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Evidence of a blood-pressure-lowering effect of marine polyunsaturated fatty acids was examined in epidemiological and intervention studies. Data from observational studies suggest that in populations consuming diets rich in sea food, the prevalence of elevated blood pressure is low compared with Western societies. These observations were supported by results from intervention studies with fish oil supplementation to Western diets. At present dietary supplementation with fish oil concentrates should be considered experimental.
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Experiments were designed to determine the effects of oxygen-derived free radicals on the production and biological activity of endothelium-derived relaxing factor or factors released by acetylcholine. Rings of canine coronary arteries without endothelium (bioassay rings) were superfused with solution passing through a canine femoral artery with endothelium. Superoxide dismutase caused maximal relaxation of the bioassay ring when infused upstream, but not downstream, of the femoral artery; this effect of superoxide dismutase was inhibited by catalase. Infusion of acetylcholine relaxed the bioassay rings because it released a labile relaxing factor (or factors) from the endothelium. When infused below the femoral artery, superoxide dismutase and, to a lesser extent, catalase augmented the relaxations to acetylcholine. Superoxide dismutase, but not catalase, doubled the half-life of the endothelium-derived relaxing factor(s). This protective effect of the enzyme was augmented fivefold by lowering the oxygen content of the perfusate from 95 to 10%. These data demonstrate that: superoxide anions inactivate the relaxing factor(s) released by acetylcholine from endothelial cells and hyperoxia favors the inactivation of endothelium-derived relaxing factor(s).
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This study investigated a model of psychosocial stress-induced hypertension in the rat, and examined effects of the prostaglandin E precursor, gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) on the development of hypertension during psychosocial stress. In the first study, male rats were housed four/cage for an acclimation period of 21 days, followed by a 14-day control period. An experimental group (N = 12) was then placed in isolation cages for 14 days, then regrouped for a 7-day recovery period. Controls (N = 12) remained group-housed. Eight animals per group were sacrificed after the experimental period, and four per group after recovery for organ weight analysis. Mean systolic blood pressure (BP) was similar between groups during the control period (126 +/- 2 and 125 +/- 2 mm Hg), but increased during isolation, reaching 140 +/- 2 mm Hg (P less than 0.001) by Day 14. During recovery BP returned to control levels. No changes in heart rate, heart weight/body weight or adrenal weight were seen. The second study utilized a protocol similar to that of the experimental group of the first study, minus the recovery period. On Day 1 of the control period 28-day osmotic pumps were implanted ip, releasing olive oil or GLA in olive oil. Four groups of rats (N = 8/group) received either (i) olive oil (controls), (ii) 0.018 mg GLA/hr, (iii) 0.040 mg GLA/hr, or (iv) 0.040 mg GLA/hr with no stress. Organ weights were obtained following stress in groups 1-3. Controls developed a sustained elevation in BP within 24 hr of isolation. Animals receiving 0.018 mg GLA/hr developed elevated BP upon isolation, but the BP was less than that of controls on Days 1 (P less than 0.05) and 14 (P less than 0.001) of isolation. Animals receiving 0.040 mg GLA/hr demonstrated a greatly attenuated rise in BP vs controls (P less than 0.001) on all isolation days. GLA in unstressed rats had no effect on BP. Heart rate, heart weight/body weight, and adrenal weight were unchanged in all groups. These data suggest that (i) isolation is a useful tool for investigating reversible psychosocial stress-induced hypertension, and (ii) GLA, while not affecting BP in unstressed animals, produces a dose-dependent attenuation of the BP response to chronic stress.
Article
Kidney prostaglandlns appear to bare powerful Influences on Nad-Induced hypertension. In quick-frozen kidneys, the concentration of prosUglandin E, (PGE,) in the renal papilla is 60% lower in Dahl S rats than in Dahl R rats (17 mg/100 mg TS 42 ng/100 mg, p < 0.01) when both S and R rats are fed a 0.3% low NaCI diet. When S and R rats eat a 4% high NaCl diet for 4 weeks or 11 weeks, the PGE, concentration doubles in both strains (p < 0.05) but the papillary PGE, concentration in the S rats is always about half that in the R rat (p < 0.01). Through effects on sodium (Na) excretion and papillary plasma flow, the low PGE, in S papillae may account in part for the large rises in the blood pressure (BP) of S rats after eating a high NaCI diet. This proposition was explored by utilizing high fat diets with either normal or high linoleic acid content. Arachidonic acid is the precursor of PGE, and linoleic add is the precursor of arachidonic acid. It turned out that the low PGE, level in S papillae could be tripled by a diet high in linoleic acid. Sixteen S rats on a 16-week diet of 5% NaCI and 1.5% linoleic acid had a mean papillary PGE, level of 30 compared to a level of 89 in 15 other S rats on a diet of 5% NaCI and 16% linoleic acid. The 16% high linoleic diet tripled the PGE, concentration in S papillae (p < 0.005). It also increased the PGE, concentration in R papillae Vh times, 137 vs 53 (p < 0.02). In rats on either high or normal linoleic diets, the PGE, In S papillae was always at least 35% less than that in R papillae. However, the 16% high linoleic diet did raise the papillary PGE, level In S rats up to that found in normal rats on regular rat chow of equivalent NaCI content. Moreover, this change in PGE, level was associated with greatly reduced BP rises in S rats. The BP of S rats on a 5% NaCI-1.5% linoleic diet began to rise after 5 weeks on the diet and reached 183 mm Hg after 16 weeks. The BP of S rats on a 5% NaCl-16% linoleic diet did not begin to rise until 12 weeks on the diet and reached only 166 after 16 weeks. The high linoleic diet greatly delayed the onset of the rise in BP and significantly reduced the ultimately attained level (p < 0.001). In fact, on a low 0.3% NaCI diet, S rats of comparable age reached approximately the same mildly hypertensive level of 166. Thus, in S rats, the high linoleic diet brings papillary PGE3 up to normal and also prevents the large rises in BP usually related to a high NaCI Intake. These two changes may well be causally related.
Article
Nitric oxide is an important regulator of vascular function and blood pressure. Chronic administration of nitric oxide inhibitors provides a new model of hypertension with pronounced target organ damage. We investigated the effects of oral treatment with N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) for 6 weeks on vascular reactivity of the aorta in Wistar-Kyoto rats. Certain rats received verapamil or trandolapril in addition to L-NAME. Systolic blood pressure increased in the L-NAME group (by approximately or equal to 80 mm Hg systolic) but not in controls or rats treated with verapamil or trandolapril. Isometric tension changes of aortic rings were recorded. Endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine were reduced in the L-NAME group (58 +/- 6% versus 104 +/- 1% in placebo, P < .05) but were normalized by treatment with verapamil or trandolapril. In contrast, endothelium-independent relaxations to sodium nitroprusside were not significantly reduced in L-NAME hypertension but were slightly enhanced by trandolapril therapy (P < .05) in the L-NAME group only. In quiescent rings, acetylcholine caused endothelium-dependent contractions in particular after in vitro incubation with L-NAME. These contractions tended to be enhanced in L-NAME hypertension (23 +/- 4% versus 14 +/- 3% in the placebo group; P = NS) and were significantly reduced after treatment with verapamil or trandolapril (P < .05). Concentrations to norepinephrine and angiotensin I and II were unaffected by L-NAME hypertension, whereas those to endothelin-1 were reduced (P < .05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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Pumpkin-seed oil (PSO), a natural supplement rich with antioxidant ingredients, was given to rats in which arthritis was induced using Freund's complete adjuvant. Its effect was compared with that of indomethacin, as a classical anti-inflammatory agent. Two experimental patterns were studied, an acute phase that was applied only with PSO and a chronic phase applied for both PSO and indomethacin. Compared to normal untreated rats, it was shown that the induction of arthritis caused a decrease in serum sulphhydryl groups, with an increase in serum ceruloplasmin in both phases. Blood glutathione was first elevated in the acute phase, then its level was reduced in the chronic phase. Serum N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase activity was elevated only at the acute phase, while plasma total proteins and albumin were reduced at the chronic phase. Liver glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity was markedly increased, while no changes were observed in the levels of liver lipid peroxides and glutathione. These changes in the studied parameters were attributed to the superoxides and free radicals during arthritic inflammation. Administration of PSO succeeded in modulating most of the altered parameters affected during arthritis, especially at the chronic phase. Also, a remarkable inhibition of paw oedema was observed. A similar pattern was obtained upon treatment with indomethacin except that indomethacin markedly elevated liver lipid peroxides levels. Concurrent administration of PSO with indomethacin caused no changes in the parameters studied compared to that induced by treatment with indomethacin alone.
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The extract prepared from dried seeds of Cucurbita maxima was administered to rats and pigs. Following a single dose or 4 weeks of daily oral administration, the extract produced no changes in serum glucose, urea, creatinine, total protein, uric acid, GOT, GPT, LDH or blood counts. Urine analysis (urea, uric acid, creatinine, total protein, Na and K), as well as histopathological investigation, showed no abnormalities. These results taken as a whole indicate that the seeds of C. maxima as used in Brazilian folk medicine are not toxic for rats and swine.
Article
Nitric oxide, NO, which is generated by various components of the immune system, has been presumed to be cytotoxic. However, NO has been proposed to be protective against cellular damage resulting during ischemia reperfusion. Along with NO there is often concomitant formation of superoxide/hydrogen peroxide, and hence a synergistic relationship between the cytotoxic effects of nitric oxide and these active oxygen species is frequently assumed. To study more carefully the potential synergy between NO and active oxygen species in mammalian cell cytotoxicity, we utilized either hypoxanthine/xanthine cell cytotoxicity, we utilized either hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase (a system that generates superoxide/hydrogen peroxide) or hydrogen peroxide itself. NO generation was accomplished by the use of a class of compounds known as "NONOates," which release NO at ambient temperatures without the requirement of enzyme activation or biotransformation. When Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (V79 cells) were exposed to hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase for various times or increasing amounts of hydrogen peroxide, there was a dose-dependent decrease in survival of V79 cells as measured by clonogenic assays. However, in the presence of NO released from (C2H5)2N[N(O)NO]-Na+ (DEA/NO), the cytotoxicity resulting from superoxide or hydrogen peroxide was markedly abrogated. Similarly, primary cultures of rat mesencephalic dopaminergic cells exposed either to hydrogen peroxide or to hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase resulted in the degradation of the dopamine uptake and release mechanism. As was observed in the case of the V79 cells, the presence of NO essentially abrogated this peroxide-mediated cytotoxic effect on mesencephalic cells.
Article
We investigated the response to pressure (myogenic tone) and flow of rat mesenteric resistance arteries cannulated in an arteriograph which allowed the measurement of intraluminal diameter for controlled pressures and flows. Rats were treated for 3 weeks with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 50 mg kg−1 day−1) or L-NAME plus the angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) quinapril (10 mg kg−1 day−1). Mean blood pressure increased significantly in chronic L-NAME-treated rats (155±4 mmHg, n=8, vs control 121±6 mmHg, n=10; P<0.05). L-NAME-treated rats excreted significantly more dinor-6-keto prostaglandin F1α (dinor-6-keto PGF1α), the stable urinary metabolite of prostacyclin, than control rats. The ACEI prevented the rise in blood pressure and the rise in urinary dinor-6-keto PGF1α due to L-NAME. Isolated mesenteric resistance arteries, developed myogenic tone in response to stepwise increases in pressure (42±6 to 847±10 mN mm−1, from 25 to 150 mmHg, n=9). Myogenic tone was not significantly affected by the chronic treatment with L-NAME or L-NAME+ACEI. Flow (100 μl min−1) significantly attenuated myogenic tone by 50±6% at 150 mmHg (n=10). Flow-induced dilatation was significantly attenuated by chronic L-NAME to 22±6% at 150 mmHg (n=10, P=0.0001) and was not affected in the L-NAME+ACEI group. Acute in vitro NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG, 10 μM) significantly decreased flow-induced dilatation in control but not in L-NAME or L-NAME+ACEI rats. Both acute indomethacin (10 μM) and acute NS 398 (cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, 1 μM) did not change significantly flow-induced dilatation in controls but they both decreased flow-induced dilatation in the L-NAME and L-NAME+ACEI groups. Acute Hoe 140 (bradykinin receptor inhibitor, 1 μM) induced a significant contraction of the isolated mesenteric arteries which was the same in the 3 groups. Immunofluorescence analysis of COX-2 showed that the enzyme was expressed in resistance mesenteric arteries in L-NAME and L-NAME+ACEI groups but not in control. COX-1 expression was identical in all 3 groups. We conclude that chronic inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis is associated with a decreased flow-induced dilatation in resistance mesenteric arteries which was compensated by an overproduction of vasodilator prostaglandins resulting in part from COX-2 expression. The decrease in flow-induced dilatation was prevented by the ACEI, quinapril. British Journal of Pharmacology (1997) 121, 83–90; doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0701109
Article
Pumpkin-seed oil (PSO), a natural supplement rich with antioxidants and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), was given in combination with simvastatin, as antihypercholesterolemic drug, to high cholesterol-fed rabbits, for three weeks. In comparison with normal rabbits, a significant increase of the aortic contractile response to norepinephrine was observed which could be attributed to endothelium dysfunction. In addition, serum levels of total lipids, triacylglycerols, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were increased while phospholipids and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) were decreased in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. These changes could be related to the predominance of LDL and oxidized-LDL particles caused by high levels of reactive oxygen species during hypercholesterolemia (HC). Treatment with simvastatin modulated most of the altered parameters affected during HC that might be, in part, due to inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis. While concomitant administration of simvastatin and PSO succeeded to cause marked reduction of the aortic contractile response to norepinephrine and to normalize the most adverse effects observed during HC. These effects were explained by the potentiating effects of simvastatin with antioxidants and essential fatty acids in PSO. On the contrary, serum activities of aminotransferases and creatine phosphokinase were increased with simvastatin treatment but not with the combination therapy in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.
Article
Linoleic acid, a polyunsaturated C18 fatty acid, is one of the major fatty acids in the coronary arterial wall. Although diets rich in linoleic acid reduce blood pressure and prevent coronary artery disease in both humans and animals, very little is known about its mechanism of action. We believed that its beneficial effects might be mediated by changes in vascular tone. We investigated whether linoleic acid induces relaxation of porcine coronary artery rings and the mechanism involved in this process. Linoleic acid and two of its metabolites, 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-HODE) and 13-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-HPODE), induced dose-dependent relaxation of prostaglandin (PG) F2alpha-precontracted rings that was not affected by indomethacin (10[-5] mol/L), a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, or cinnamyl-3,4-dihydroxy-alpha-cyanocinnamate (CDC; 10[-5] mol/L), a lipoxygenase inhibitor. Removal of endothelial cells had no effect on vasorelaxation, suggesting a direct effect on the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). When rings were contracted with KCl, linoleic acid failed to induce relaxation. Although tetrabutylammonium (5 x 10[-3] mol/L), a nonselective K+ channel blocker, slightly inhibited the relaxation caused by linoleic acid, glibenclamide (10[-6] mol/L), an ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker, and charybdotoxin (7.5x10[-8] mol/L) or tetraethylammonium (5x10[-3] mol/L), two different Ca2+-activated K+ channel blockers, had no effect. However, relaxation was completely blocked by ouabain (5x10[-7] mol/L), a Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitor, or by a K+-free solution. In addition, linoleic acid (10[-6] mol/L) caused sustained hyperpolarization of porcine coronary VSMC (from -49.5+/-2.0 to -60.7+/-4.2 mV), which was also abolished by ouabain. We concluded that linoleic acid induces relaxation and hyperpolarization of porcine coronary VSMC via a mechanism that involves activation of the Na+/K+-ATPase pump.
We examined the influence of procedures used in blood pressure measurement on blood pressure and the effects of antihypertensive agents. Subjects were spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and their Wistar/Kyoto (WKY) controls. Blood pressure was recorded by telemetry. Twenty-four h baseline pressure were measured, and the effect of minor handling on blood pressure and heart rate was examined. The influence of restraint such as is used for tail-cuff blood pressures was examined. The effects of three different antihypertensive drugs was also examined in the SHR. In the home-cage environment, the SHRs showed higher systolic blood pressures, but had similar hypertensive responses to minor handling as the WKYs. Both strains had elevated heart rate and blood pressure when restrained in the manner used for tail-cuff readings. The antihypertensive effects of captopril and losartan in the SHR were unchanged when the animals were restrained but the hypotensive effect of hydralazine was greater. These results confirm that significant changes in heart rate and blood pressure can occur as a result of the minor procedures frequently used in blood pressure recording in both SHR and WKY rats. This suggests that telemetry may have significant advantages as a method for continuous blood pressure monitoring. The pharmacological profile of antihypertensive drugs may well be different in animals where telemetry is employed and are not subject to the stresses involved in previous methods of monitoring blood pressure.
Article
Natural products like pumpkin-seed oil (PSO) may modify the potency of the calcium antagonist felodipine (FEL) or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-inhibitor), captopril (CPT) in modulating the biochemical derangement in blood, heart and kidney as well as blood pressure and heart rate of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were investigated. SHR were treated orally with FEL at a dose of 0. 45 mg kg(-1) body wt. or CPT at a dose of 9 mg kg(-1) body wt. once daily for 4 weeks. PSO was administered at a dose of 40 mg kg(-1) body wt. alone or with FEL or CPT in the previous respective dose regimen for the same period to SHR. This study showed that hypertension induced increments the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) by 55% and 38% as well as the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) by 26% and 23% in heart and kidney, respectively, accompanied by reductions in the activity of myocardial superoxide dismutase (SOD) from 3.40+/-0.17 to 2.42+/-0.19 U mg protein(-1)and contents of glutathione (GSH) and protein thiols (PrSHs) in different tissues of SHR as compared to normotensive rats. Treatment of SHR with FEL or CPT monotherapy or combined with PSO produced improvement in the measured free radical scavengers in the heart and kidney. Our results also showed that pretreatment of SHR with PSO for 4 weeks then i.v. administration of FEL or CPT produced a significant beneficial hypotensive action. The results were explained in the light of the antioxidant properties of PSO. Therefore, it is concluded that concomitant administration of FEL or CPT with natural antioxidants can yield a beneficial therapeutic effect and retard the progression of hypertension.
Article
Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seeds are used locally in Eritrea to treat tapeworm. Seeds were found to be rich in oil (approximately 35%), protein (38%), alpha-tocoferols (3 mg/100 g) and carbohydrate content (approximately 37%). The physico-chemical properties and fatty acid composition of the seed oil were examined. The four dominant fatty acids found are: palmitic C16:0 (13.3%), stearic C18:0 (8.0%), oleic C18:1 (29.0%) and linoleic C18:2 (47.0%). The oil contains an appreciable amount of unsaturated fatty acids (78.0%) and found to be a rich source of linoleic acid (47.0%). Within the three localities of the study, variations exist in seed properties and the fatty acid composition of the oil.
Article
Numerous methods are available for measurement of nitrate (NO(-)(3)). However, these assays can either be time consuming or require specialized equipment (e.g., nitrate reductase, chemiluminescent detector). We have developed a method for simultaneous evaluation of nitrate and nitrite concentrations in a microtiter plate format. The principle of this assay is reduction of nitrate by vanadium(III) combined with detection by the acidic Griess reaction. This assay is sensitive to 0.5 microM NO(-)(3) and is useful in a variety of fluids including cell culture media, serum, and plasma. S-Nitrosothiols and L-arginine derivatives were found to be potential interfering agents. However, these compounds are generally minor constituents of biological fluids relative to the concentration of nitrate/nitrite. This report introduces a new, convenient assay for the stable oxidation products of nitrogen oxide chemistry in biological samples.
Article
Many individuals with cardiovascular diseases undergo periodic exercise conditioning with or with out medication. Therefore, this study investigated the interaction of exercise training and chronic nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor (Nitro-L-Arginine Methyl Ester, L-NAME) treatment on blood pressure and its correlation with aortic nitric oxide (NO), antioxidant defense system and oxidative stress parameters in rats. Fisher 344 rats were divided into four groups: (1) sedentary control, (2) exercise training (ET) for 8 weeks, (3) L-NAME (10 mg/kg, subcutaneous for 8 weeks) and (4) ET + L-NAME. Blood pressure (BP) was monitored weekly for 8 weeks with tail-cuff method. The animals were sacrificed 24 h after last treatments and thoracic aortic rings were isolated and analyzed. Exercise conditioning resulted in a significant increase in respiratory exchange ratio (RER), aortic NO production, NO synthase activity and inducible iNOS protein expression. Training significantly enhanced aortic GSH levels, GSH/GSSG ratio and up-regulation of aortic CuZn-SOD, Mn-SOD, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and protein expression and significantly decreased aortic lipid peroxidation. Chronic L-NAME administration resulted in a significant depletion of aortic NO, NOS activity, endothelial (eNOS) and iNOS protein expression, GSH level, GSH/GSSG ratio, down-regulation of aortic antioxidant enzyme activities and protein expressions. Aortic xanthine oxidase (XO) activity significantly increased with increased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation after L-NAME administration. The biochemical changes were accompanied by increased in BP. Interaction of training and chronic NOS inhibitor treatment resulted in normalization of BP and aortic antioxidant enzyme activity and protein expression, up-regulation of aortic GSH/GSSG ratio, NO levels, Mn-SOD protein expression, depletion of GSSG, protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation. The data suggest that training attenuated the oxidative injury caused by chronic NOS inhibitor treatment by up-regulating the NO and antioxidant systems and lowering the BP in rats.
Article
Many individuals with cardiac diseases undergo periodic physical conditioning with or without medication. Therefore, this study investigated the interaction of physical training and chronic nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor (nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, L-NAME) treatment on blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and cardiac oxidant/antioxidant systems in rats. Fisher 344 rats were divided into four groups and treated as follows: (1) sedentary control (SC), (2) exercise training (ET) for 8 weeks, (3) L-NAME (10 mg/kg, s.c. for 8 weeks) and (4) ET+L-NAME. BP and HR were monitored with tail-cuff method. The animals were sacrificed 24 h after last treatments and hearts were isolated and analyzed. Physical conditioning significantly increased respiratory exchange ratio (RER), cardiac nitric oxide (NO) levels, NOS activity and endothelial (eNOS) and inducible (iNOS) protein expression. Training significantly enhanced cardiac glutathione (GSH) levels, GSH/GSSG ratio and up-regulation of cardiac copper/zinc-superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), manganese (Mn)-SOD, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and protein expression. Training also caused depletion of cardiac malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls. Chronic L-NAME administration resulted in depletion of cardiac NO level, NOS activity, eNOS, nNOS and iNOS protein expression, GSH/GSSG ratio and down-regulation of cardiac CuZn-SOD, Mn-SOD, CAT, GSH-PX, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity and protein expression. Chronic L-NAME administration enhanced cardiac xanthine oxidase (XO) activity, MDA levels and protein carbonyls. These biochemical changes were accompanied by increases in BP and HR after L-NAME administration. Interaction of training and NOS inhibitor treatment resulted in normalization of BP, HR and up-regulation of cardiac antioxidant defense system. The data suggest that physical conditioning attenuated the oxidative injury caused by chronic NOS inhibition by up-regulating the cardiac antioxidant defense system and lowering the BP and HR in rats.
Article
1. Broilers were divided at 42 to 44 d of age into a Control group (n=30) and a Treatment group (n=30). The mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) and electrocardiogram (ECG) leads II and aV(F) were measured 1, 2 and 4 h after an intravenous injection of 0.9% saline (Control group) or Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl esther (L-NAME), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase and thus an inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production (Treatment group). 2. At 1 and 2 h but not 4 h post-injection, L-NAME significantly increased the mPAP and the amplitudes of the ECG S-wave and RS-wave leads II and aVF when compared with Control values. 3. The correlation coefficients between the mPAP and the ECG S-wave and RS-wave amplitudes for lead II within the Treatment group were -0.848 and -0.553 at 1 h and -0.798 and -0.512 at 2 h, respectively. The corresponding coefficients for lead aVF were -0.735, -0.596, -0.663 and -0.724, respectively. 4. After suitable mPAP and ECG values had been recorded at each time interval, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), which acts as a short-lived NO donor molecule, was injected intravenously via a right-cardiac catheter. Within 5 min after the SNP injection, the mPAP and the ECG lead II S-wave and RS-wave amplitudes were transiently reduced to levels that, at 1 and 2 h after L-NAME injection, did not differ from Control values. Within 10 min after the SNP injection, all values returned to the levels previously induced by L-NAME. 5. These results demonstrate that L-NAME increased the myocardial contractility and PAP, whereas SNP transiently reversed the effects of L-NAME on myocardial contractility and PAP. It appears likely from these results that the pulmonary vascular endothelium releases NO that in turn reduces the pulmonary vascular resistance or attenuates myocardial contractility in broiler chickens.
Article
The present study analysed, for the first time, the effects of the flavonoid quercetin in rats after chronic inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis with Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Rats were divided randomly into five different treatment groups for 6 weeks: (1) vehicle (control, 1 ml of 1% methylcellulose once daily); (2) vehicle plus L-NAME (75 mg/100 ml in drinking water); (3) quercetin (10 mg/kg p.o. once daily); (4) quercetin (5 mg/kg p.o.) plus L-NAME; and (5) quercetin (10 mg/kg p.o.) plus L-NAME. The evolution of systolic blood pressure, morphological variables, proteinuria, plasma malondialdehyde and nitrite and nitrate concentrations, hepatic glutathione and malondialdehyde content, glutathione enzymes activity and vascular reactivity at the end of the experiment were analysed. Quercetin markedly inhibited the development of L-NAME-induced hypertension. This effect was accompanied by a partial or full prevention of most of the effects induced by L-NAME, such as: (1) increases in the left ventricular and kidney weight indices; (2) proteinuria; (3) renal histological lesions, including hyaline arteriopathy and thickening of the vascular wall with moderate decrease of the lumen; (4) increased endothelium-dependent contraction; (5) increased vascular thromboxane B2 (TXB2) synthesis; (6) reduced plasma concentrations of nitrites plus nitrates (NOx); (7) increased plasma and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations; and (8) reduced glutathione peroxidase activity. In most cases these effects were dose dependent, but none of them were observed in normotensive animals. This study confirms and extends the previous evidence about the antihypertensive effects and end-organ protection of the flavonoid quercetin in animal models of hypertension.
Article
Ouabain is an endogenous compound that has been associated with the genesis and maintenance of hypertension. This compound inhibits the Na+ pump activity, which leads to an accumulation of intracellular Na and ultimately might increase vascular tone. In nanomolar concentrations, it enhances vasopressor responses to phenylephrine in some vascular beds from normotensive and hypertensive rats. However, it is not known whether this action of ouabain is a common mechanism for all models of hypertension. The aim of this work was to determine whether ouabain can alter pressor responses to phenylephrine in rats with Nomega-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced hypertension. In anesthetized rats, ouabain (0.18 microg/kg, i.v.) increased arterial blood pressure in L-NAME-treated rats but not in controls. Ganglionic blockade by hexamethonium (5 mg/kg, i.v.) prevented the increase in arterial blood pressure produced by ouabain in L-NAME-treated rats. Additional studies using isolated perfused tail artery preparations were performed to investigate which factors are involved in the action of ouabain in L-NAME-treated rats. The effects of 10 nM ouabain on the vasoconstrictor actions of phenylephrine were determined on preparations with intact or damaged endothelium or in the presence of tetraethylammonium (a K+-channel blocker). Ouabain reduced pressor actions of phenylephrine in preparations with an intact endothelium. However, after endothelial damage or infusing tetraethylammonium, the response to phenylephrine was increased after ouabain. In tails from L-NAME-treated rats, the functional activity of the Na, K+-ATPase was reduced, and 10 nM ouabain did not produce any further reduction. In conclusion, in this model of hypertension, a low dose of ouabain (0.18 microg/kg) increased arterial blood pressure in vivo probably as a result of increased sympathetic tone. However, this effect was not accompanied by an enhanced action of phenylephrine on the tail vascular bed with an intact endothelium. The results suggest that this was due to the release of an endothelium-derived K+-channel opener.