Use of inverse probability weighting to adjust for non-participation in estimating brain volumes in schizophrenia patients
Department of Psychiatry, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oulu, Finland. Psychiatry Research
(Impact Factor: 2.47).
11/2011; 194(3):326-32. DOI: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2011.06.002
Low participation is a potential source of bias in population-based studies. This article presents use of inverse probability weighting (IPW) in adjusting for non-participation in estimation of brain volumes among subjects with schizophrenia. Altogether 101 schizophrenia subjects and 187 non-psychotic comparison subjects belonging to the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort were invited to participate in a field study during 1999-2001. Volumes of grey matter (GM), white matter (WM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were compared between the 54 participating schizophrenia subjects and 100 comparison subjects. IPW by illness-related auxiliary variables did not affect the estimated GM and WM mean volumes, but increased the estimated CSF mean volume in schizophrenia subjects. When adjusted for intracranial volume and family history of psychosis, IPW led to smaller estimated GM and WM mean volumes. Especially IPW by a disability pension and a higher amount of hospitalisation due to psychosis had effect on estimated mean brain volumes. The IPW method can be used to improve estimates affected by non-participation by reflecting the true differences in the target population.
Available from: Peter Jones
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative theories may be viewed as incompatible accounts that compete to explain the pathogenesis
of schizophrenia. However, it is possible that neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative processes could both reflect common
underlying causal mechanisms. We hypothesized that cognitive dysfunction would gradually deteriorate over time in schizophrenia
and the degree of this deterioration in adulthood would be predicted by an infant measure of neurodevelopment. We aimed to
examine the association between age of learning to stand in infancy and deterioration of cognitive function in adulthood.
Participants were nonpsychotic control subjects (n = 76) and participants with schizophrenia (n = 36) drawn from the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort study. The schizophrenia group showed greater deterioration in abstraction
with memory than controls, but there were no differences between schizophrenia and controls in rate of change of other cognitive
measures. Age of learning to stand in infancy significantly inversely predicted later deterioration of abstraction with memory
in adult schizophrenia (later infant development linked to greater subsequent cognitive deterioration during adulthood), possibly
suggesting a link between abnormal neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative processes in schizophrenia.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The practice of medicine is currently undergoing a transformation to become more efficient, cost-effective, and patient centered in its delivery of care. The aim of this article is to stimulate discussion within the sleep medicine community in addressing these needs by our approach as well as other approaches to sleep medicine care. The primary goals of the Sustainable Methods, Algorithms, and Research Tools for Delivering Optimal Care Study (SMART DOCS) are: (1) to introduce a new Patient-Centered Outcomes and Coordinated-Care Management (PCCM) approach for the future practice of sleep medicine, and (2) to test the PCCM approach against a Conventional Diagnostic and Treatment Outpatient Medical Care (CONV) approach in a randomized, two-arm, single-center, long-term, comparative effectiveness trial. The PCCM approach is integrated into a novel outpatient care delivery model for patients with sleep disorders that includes the latest technology, allowing providers to obtain more accurate and rapid diagnoses and to make evidence-based treatment recommendations, while simultaneously enabling patients to have access to personalized medical information and reports regarding their diagnosis and treatment so that they can make more informed health care decisions. Additionally, the PCCM approach facilitates better communication between patients, referring primary care physicians, sleep specialists, and allied health professionals so that providers can better assist patients in achieving their preferred outcomes. A total of 1,506 patients 18 y or older will be randomized to either the PCCM or CONV approach and will be followed for at least 1 y with endpoints of improved health care performance, better health, and cost control.
Clinical Trials Number: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02037438.
© 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.
Available from: Jenni Koivukangas
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Birth cohort designs are useful in studying adult disease trajectories and outcomes, such as schizophrenia. We review the schizophrenia research performed in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC 1966), which includes 10,934 individuals living in Finland at 16 years of age who have been monitored since each mother’s mid-pregnancy. By the age of 44, 150 (1.4%) had developed schizophrenia. There are 77 original papers on schizophrenia published from the NFBC 1966. The early studies have found various risk factors for schizophrenia, especially related to pregnancy and perinatal phase. Psychiatric and somatic outcomes were heterogeneous, but relatively poor. Mortality in schizophrenia is high, especially due to suicides. Several early predictors of outcomes have also been found. Individuals with schizophrenia have alterations in brain morphometry and neurocognition, and our latest studies have found that the use of high lifetime doses of antipsychotics associated with these changes. The schizophrenia research in the NFBC 1966 has been especially active for 20 years, the prospective study design and long follow-up enabling several clinically and epidemiologically important findings. When compared to other birth cohorts, the research in the NFBC 1966 has offered also unique findings on course and outcome of schizophrenia.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.