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To investigate Pothos scandens for the in vitro antioxidant and antipyretic activity. Preliminary phytochemicals, total phenolics and flavonoid contents were analyzed in leaf, stem and root samples. In vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by different assays such as 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, 2, 2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS•+) radical scavenging, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, phosphomolybdenum reduction assay, metal chelating activity, superoxide anion radical scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide scavenging assay. The antipyretic activity of root methanol extract was studied by pyrexia induced by brewer's yeast on Wistar albino rats at concentration of 200 and 400 mg/kg using paracetamol as standard drug. The total phenolics and tannin content were found to be higher in ethanol extract of stem, whereas total flavonoid content was higher in acetone extract of root. The methanol extract of root showed highest free radical scavenging activity in assays namely ABTS assay (8 221.5 μM TE/g extract), FRAP assay [514.4 mM Fe (II)/g extract], hydrogen peroxide (60.3%) and nitric oxide scavenging assays (58.7%). The DPPH assay and superoxide radical assay results revealed that the ethanol extract of root has remarkable free radical scavenging capacity (IC50 0.284 mg/mL and 70.84%). The antipyretic studies on methanol extract of root showed significant reduction of temperature in pyrexia induced rats at 200 and 400 mg/kg doses. These findings justify that Pothos scandens can be a valuable natural antioxidant and antipyretic source which seemed to provide potential nutraceuticals for human health.
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... the compounds present in this extracts; might be responsible for the potent antioxidant capacity (143). Experimental evidence suggests that free radicals and ROS can be involved in a high number of diseases (67). As in the fact that it is an excellent antioxidant and bio-active free radical scavengers, playing an important role in protecting humans (153). ...
... All four extracts; ethanol extract (REE),), DMSO extract (RDE) ,aqueous extract (RAE) and methanol extract (RME) exhibited inhibition zones of about 7-11 mm against certain bacteria, indicating a broad spectrum activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria, this study is in agreement with the study of Nurmahani et al(195). Gram-positive bacteria are considered to be more sensitive as compared to Gram-negative because of the differences in their cell wall structures(67). But in this study, there was no clear trend observed for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. ...
... The medicinal plants curative characteristics may be a result of the presence of a variety of the secondary metabolites like the flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, phenols, sterols, and so on (177) , there has been an increasing interest in the correlation of the medicinal plant phytochemicals with their pharmacological activities. To continue the strategy of the discovery of new drugs for managing the oxidative stress associated diseases, several scientific researches have indicated specific steroids, terpenoids, and phenolic compounds like the coumarins, tannins, and flavonoids have some protective impacts as a result of its anti-oxidant characteristics (178) . The phenolics can be considered as the most widespread secondary metabolites in the plant kingdom. ...
... Various extracts of root, stem, and leaves of Pothos scandens Linn. were found to possess antioxidant and antipyretic activities [18]. ...
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Objective: This study aims to isolate an active phytoconstituent from ethanolic leaf extract of Pothos scandens Linn., to evaluate in vitro anticancer activity, and to carry out molecular docking studies of the isolated phytoconstituent. Methods: The bioactive constituent 1,1’-(4,5-dihydroxy benzene-1,2-diyl) bisoct-7-en-1-one, a phenolic compound, was isolated by using chromatographic methods and the structure was elucidated by various spectroscopic techniques. In vitro anticancer activity was evaluated against HeLa and MCF 7 cell lines. The viability of cells was evaluated by direct observation of cells by an Inverted phase-contrast microscope and by the MTT assay method. IC50 was calculated using the linear regression model. Results: The results of anticancer studies revealed that different concentrations of the ethanolic extract of leaves of Pothos scandens Linn. exhibited cytotoxic activity against HeLa and MCF 7 cell lines with IC50 of 22.9 and 18.32 μg/ml, respectively. The anticancer potential of the plant was revalidated by in silico molecular docking study with Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2 (VEGFR2, PDB ID: 4AG8) using Discovery studio 2018. Results of the docking study showed that the ligand exhibited strong interaction with the VEGFR2 kinase with significant binding energy. Conclusion: Pothos scandens linn. can be used for the isolation of potent anticancer agents.
... From the study, the determination of the total phenolic and flavonoid contents for the leaf extracts revealed that it contains 199 ± 0.2 mg AAE / GAE/g and 74.1 ± 0.4 mg AAE/ GAE/g respectively ( Figure SM 1). The high levels of these polyphenols obtained from the plant might be due to the contributions of carbohydrate, and the solvents used for the extraction [32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42]. These data were not compared with those of the previous studies as there has not been any work of such scientifically documented on the plant as at the time of this present study. ...
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Ethnopharmacological relevance Spondias venulosa is a plant whose ethnobotanical uses were neither scientifically investigated nor documented despite the overwhelming use of the leaf extract as antioxidant, pain relief, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer agent in traditional medicine in Nigeria. Aim of the study To evaluate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and cytotoxic activity of S. venulosa leaf extracts on MCF-7/S0.5 and OV7 cancer cell lines and isolate the phytoconstituent responsible for its possible bioactivity. Materials and methods The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and H2O2 radical scavenging activities, anti-inflammatory was evaluated by carrageenan induced paw edema in mice, analgesic activity was carried out by acetic acid induced writhing in mice while cytotoxicity activity of the extract was investigated in vitro and in vivo by MTT assay and tumor induction model by trypan blue dye exclusion assay respectively. Identification and characterization of the bioactive compound present in S. venulosa were done using the GC-MS, FTIR, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Results The ¹H-NMR showed six protons signals while ¹³C-NMR showed twenty-six carbons consisting of methyl, methylene and quaternary groups characteristic of lactones. Ethyl acetate (EF) fraction showed highest biological activities in terms of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and cytotoxic activities on MCF-7/S0.5 and OV7 cancer cells because of higher amount of phenolic and flavonoid contents. The EF showed an IC50 values of 12.18 ±0.20 (SI = 1.97) and 4.12 ±0.001 (SI = 77.67) on MCF-7/S0.5 and OV7 cell lines respectively. Most of the biological activities of the extracts were dose-dependent. The isolated compound showed the highest selective index on cancer cells especially against OV7 with IC50 value of 2.01 ±0.01; SI >100 when compared with the control drug doxorubicin with IC50 value of 2.20.80 ±0.01; SI = 25.57. Extracts of S. venulosa showed strong MST and %ILS on tumor-treated mice in dose-dependent fashion. The extract showed significant reductions in TCV and VCC at higher concentration, and low levels of liver biomarker (AST, ALP and ALT) which is an indication of the tolerance of S. venulosa in the animals. In addition, a lactone flavonoid compound 6-hydroxy-4,4.7a-tetrahydrobenzofuran-2(4H)-one (i.e. 6-OH-THBF) was identified as one of the bioactive compounds largely responsible for some of the observed pharmacological activities. Conclusion The 6-OH-THBF isolated from EF fraction was the most potent on the two cancer cell lines, and it showed the highest selective against cancerous and normal Vero E6 cell line. Our study showed that S. venulosa extract possessed the acclaimed pharmacological action in traditional medicine.
... The IC50 for extract was 29 µg\ml and for AuNPs it was 22 µg\ml, compared with Gallic acid which had 20 µg\ml scavenging activity, this study shows that the dragon fruit is an important source for anti-oxidant [32]. This study is in agreement with another study [33] that showed a lower scavenging activity for Dragon fruit. ...
... The IC50 for extract was 29 µg\ml and for AuNPs it was 22 µg\ml, compared with Gallic acid which had 20 µg\ml scavenging activity, this study shows that the dragon fruit is an important source for anti-oxidant [32]. This study is in agreement with another study [33] that showed a lower scavenging activity for Dragon fruit. ...
... The IC50 for extract was 29 µg\ml and for AuNPs it was 22 µg\ml, compared with Gallic acid which had 20 µg\ml scavenging activity, this study shows that the dragon fruit is an important source for anti-oxidant [32]. This study is in agreement with another study [33] that showed a lower scavenging activity for Dragon fruit. ...
... DPPH free radical scavenging assay is one of the most popular in vitro antiradical assays wherein the samples with hydrogen donating potential will scavenge DPPH radicals (purple) and convert them into DPPHH (yellow; diphenylpicryl hydrazine). DPPH assay is extensively used to evaluate antiradical activity of plants (Chung et al., 2006;Elmastas et al., 2006;Sajeesh et al., 2011;Sowndhararajan and Kang, 2013). The leaf extract as well as ascrobic acid were effective in producing dose dependent scavenging of DPPH radicals. ...
... Our results are consistent with the phytochemical composition results shown in Table 2 presenting methanolic bark extract with the highest phenolic content. Several lines of evidence have showed that plant extracts with high phenolic content exhibited substantially high antioxidant activity [36,37]. On the other hand, the dichloromethane fruit extract showed poor antioxidant activity with ABTS, FRAP and CUPRAC tests and inactivity was reported with DPPH and metal chelating assays. ...
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Traditional therapeutic procedures using antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables have been in vogue for the development of evidence-based biomarkers for assessing reproductive health. Present investigation was designed to study the antioxidative potential of broccoli sprouts aqueous extract (BE), against ovarian toxicity in female rats induced by triazophos (TZ). In the experimental setup, six groups of rats were formed; Control (group 1), BE (group 2), TZ (group 3), and also BE+TZ groups such as BE1 (group 4), BE2 (group 5) and BE3 (group 6) groups. Body weight was weekly recorded of all the rats, while vaginal smear was observed daily during 30 days experiment. After sacrifice, oxidative stress (OS) biomarkers levels viz; catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were determined along with histopathological and apoptotic observation. Results revealed differentially modified changes in OS biomarkers as CAT, SOD, GR, GPx, and GST, while LPO levels were significantly improved with broccoli supplementation compared to TZ group rats. Plasma progesterone and estradiol levels were also restored along with improved ovarian histoarchitecture among all BE+TZ treated rats. Reduced apoptotic granulosa cells with reduced atresia and normal ovarian surface epithelium height were also observed with BE treatment. BE exerts multi-mechanistic protective effects against TZ induced ovarian toxicity which is attributable to its antioxidant and protective actions.
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The in vitro and in vivo genetic toxicity tests currently in use for chemical screening and for regulatory approval of chemical substances evolved from a larger series of tests that were found useful for identifying germ cell mutagens and clastogens, and carcinogens. This chapter provides a brief history of genetic toxicity testing, the philosophy behind the selection of the tests currently in use and their recommended combinations, and brief descriptions of the various in vitro and in vivo tests for identifying presumptive carcinogens and germ cell mutagens. Also presented are general procedures and precautions that need to be followed for performing the tests and submitting the tests to regulatory authorities.
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