Article

Programmed Cell Death in Animal Development and Disease

Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA.
Cell (Impact Factor: 32.24). 11/2011; 147(4):742-58. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2011.10.033
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Programmed cell death (PCD) plays a fundamental role in animal development and tissue homeostasis. Abnormal regulation of this process is associated with a wide variety of human diseases, including immunological and developmental disorders, neurodegeneration, and cancer. Here, we provide a brief historical overview of the field and reflect on the regulation, roles, and modes of PCD during animal development. We also discuss the function and regulation of apoptotic proteins, including caspases, the key executioners of apoptosis, and review the nonlethal functions of these proteins in diverse developmental processes, such as cell differentiation and tissue remodeling. Finally, we explore a growing body of work about the connections between apoptosis, stem cells, and cancer, focusing on how apoptotic cells release a variety of signals to communicate with their cellular environment, including factors that promote cell division, tissue regeneration, and wound healing.

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Available from: Yaron Fuchs, Jun 29, 2014
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    • "Paired box gene 8 may regulate ventricular septal defect (VSD) by affecting the trade-off between apoptosis and proliferation. Apoptosis has a critical function in tissue development and maturation , as a form of programmed cell death[12]. One of the potential mechanisms for septum dysplasia has been attributed to apoptosis[13]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a worldwide health problem, particularly in young populations. In spite of the advancement and progress in medical research and technology, the underlying causative factors and mechanisms of CHD still remain unclear. Bone morphogenetic protein receptor IA (ALK3) mediates the development of ventricular septal defect (VSD). We have recently found that paired box gene 8 (Pax8) may be the downstream molecule of ALK3. Paired box gene 8 plays an essential role in VSD, and apoptosis and proliferation imbalance leads to septal dysplasia. Recent studies have also disclosed that cellular senescence also participates in embryonic development. Whether programmed senescence exists in cardiac organogenesis has not ever been reported. We hypothesized that together with various biological processes, such as apoptosis, enhanced cellular senescence may occur actively in the development of Pax8 null mice murine hearts. In H9C2 myogenic cells, Pax8 overexpression can rescue caspase-dependent apoptosis induced by ALK3 silencing. Senescent cells and senescence-associated mediators in Pax8 knockout hearts increased compared with the wild-type ones in an age-dependent manner. These results suggest that Pax8 maybe the downstream molecule of ALK3, it mediates the murine heart development perhaps via cellular senescence, which may serve as a mechanism that compensates for the cell loss via apoptosis in heart development.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
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    • "The apoptosis is characterized by two foremost markers: i) the morphological features such as reduction in cell size, nuclear fragmentation and chromatin condensation resulting in apoptotic bodies, ii) the DNA cleavage. Thus, its process consists of cell shrinking, DNA degradation, membrane blebbing, and apoptotic bodies' formation [6]. Consequently, apoptosis detection (programmed cell death) is essential to recognize the underlying mechanism of the cell progress that has a significant role in disease progression and diagnosis. "
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    ABSTRACT: Apoptosis is an imperative constituent of various processes including proper progression and functioning of the immune system, embryonic development as well as chemical-induced cell death. Improper apoptosis is a reason in numerous human/animal’s conditions involving ischemic damage, neurodegenerative diseases, autoimmune disorders and various types of cancer. An outstanding feature of neurodegenerative diseases is the loss of specific neuronal populations. Thus, the detection of the dead cells is a necessity. This paper proposes a novel algorithm to achieve the dead cells detection based on color intensity and contrast changes and aims for fully automatic apoptosis detection based on image analysis method. A stained cultures images using Caspase stain of albino rats hippocampus specimens using light microscope (total 21 images) were used to evaluate the system performance. The results proved that the proposed system is efficient as it achieved high accuracy (98.89 ± 0.76 %) and specificity (99.36 ± 0.63 %) and good mean sensitivity level of (72.34 ± 19.85 %).
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Dec 2015
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    • "The apoptosis is characterized by two foremost markers: i) the morphological features such as reduction in cell size, nuclear fragmentation and chromatin condensation resulting in apoptotic bodies, ii) the DNA cleavage. Thus, its process consists of cell shrinking, DNA degradation, membrane blebbing, and apoptotic bodies' formation [6]. Consequently, apoptosis detection (programmed cell death) is essential to recognize the underlying mechanism of the cell progress that has a significant role in disease progression and diagnosis. "

    Full-text · Conference Paper · Nov 2015
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