Survey of national immunization programs and vaccine coverage rates in Asia Pacfic coutries

Department of Pediatrics, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.
Vaccine (Impact Factor: 3.62). 11/2011; 30(13):2250-5. DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.10.070
Source: PubMed


Children in the Asia Pacific region are still suffering from certain vaccine-preventable diseases. The current study surveyed the national immunization programs and vaccine uptake of traditional and newly developed vaccines in 12 countries in this area. The results showed children in most countries were well protected from conventional vaccine-preventable diseases, while immunization programs for certain diseases such as poliovirus or measles should be strengthened in certain countries. Protection against pneumococcus, rotavirus, and human papillomavirus infections were obviously inadequate in most of the countries in the region. Promoting coverage of newly developed vaccines will benefit a great number of children in this area.

12 Reads
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of bacterial infections resulting in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Currently, up to 13 serotypes are included in pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). However, the serotype formulation of these vaccines was initially designed to protect children against serotypes most commonly causing invasive disease in North America, and may not reflect the serotype distribution across the world. Data regarding pneumococcal epidemiology from the other parts of the world, in particular South East Asia, has not been reviewed. This systematic literature review analyses published serotype data regarding S. pneumoniae isolates from South East Asian countries (defined as countries belonging to the Association of South East Asian Nations, ASEAN): Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam up to 3rd of March 2012. Analysis of data from six ASEAN countries, from which information on pneumococcal serotypes was available, showed that the most common disease causing serotypes (in rank order) were 19F, 23F, 14, 6B, 1, 19A and 3. Serotype distribution of pneumococcal isolates was similar across the ASEAN region. Serotype level data was more commonly reported for pneumococcal isolates causing invasive pneumococcal disease than for those from non-invasive disease. Studies from Malaysia, Thailand and Singapore contributed the largest proportion of pneumococcal isolates, and serotype data, when compared to other ASEAN countries. This review demonstrates that the majority of IPD causing serotypes in SE Asia are included in currently licensed PCVs. However, PCV's are included in the routine childhood immunisation schedule of only one of the ten countries included in this analysis. Our findings demonstrate the scarcity of information available on serotype prevalence and distribution of pneumococci in SE Asia.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Vaccine
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Molecular typing of Bordetella pertussis is routinely performed on bacterial isolates, but not on DNA extracted from nasopharyngeal aspirates or pernasal swabs submitted for diagnostic real-time PCR (qPCR). We investigated whether these DNA extracts were suitable for mulitlocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and DNA sequence-based typing. We analysed all the available qPCR-positive samples received by our laboratory from patients <1 year of age between January 2008 and August 2010. Eighty one percent (106/131) of these generated a complete MLVA profile. This rose to 92 % (105/114) if only samples positive for both of the two targets used for the B. pertussis PCR (insertion element, IS481 and pertussis toxin promoter, ptxP) were analysed. Sequence-based typing of the pertactin, pertussis toxin S1 subunit and pertussis promoter regions (prn, ptxA and ptxP) was attempted on 89 of the DNA extracts that had generated a full MLVA profile. Eighty three (93 %) of these produced complete sequences for all three targets. Comparison of molecular typing data from the 89 extracts with those from 111 contemporary bacterial isolates showed that the two sources yielded the same picture of the B. pertussis population (dominated by the MLVA-27 prn(2) ptxA(1) ptxP(3) clonal type). There was no significant difference in MLVA type distribution or diversity between the two sample sets. This suggests that clinical extracts can be used in the place of, or to complement, bacterial cultures for typing purposes (at least, in this age group). With small modifications to methodology, generating MLVA and sequence-based typing data from qPCR-positive clinical DNA extracts is likely to generate a complete data set in the majority of samples from the <1 year age-group. Its success with samples from older subjects remains to be seen. However, our data suggest that it is suitable for inclusion in molecular epidemiological studies of the B. pertussis population or as a tool in outbreak investigations.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Journal of Medical Microbiology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The study aims to determine HPV vaccine uptake (≥1 dose) amongst adolescent girls in Hong Kong and to explore the reasons for non-acceptance of the vaccine. A total of 1832 secondary school girls (15.5±2.0 years) were randomly surveyed. Their HPV vaccine uptake was estimated, and their reasons for non-vaccination summarised. A total of 131 (7.2%, 95% CI: 6.0-8.4%) adolescent girls had received the HPV vaccine (≥1 dose). Vaccine uptake was positively associated with a higher maternal education level and locally born status. Amongst the non-vaccinated girls, 20.6% had never heard of or knew little about the vaccine, 20.2% 'did not know where to receive', and 17.8% were concerned about the cost. The HPV vaccine uptake amongst adolescent girls in Hong Kong is very low. A school-based education and service programme is needed to improve uptake and prevent disparities in the Chinese population.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Vaccine
Show more