Article

Objective Measures of Emotion Related to Brand Attitude: A New Way to Quantify Emotion-Related Aspects Relevant to Marketing

School of Psychology, Faculty of Science and Information Technology, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.23). 11/2011; 6(11):e26782. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026782
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

With this study we wanted to test the hypothesis that individual like and dislike as occurring in relation to brand attitude can be objectively assessed. First, individuals rated common brands with respect to subjective preference. Then, they volunteered in an experiment during which their most liked and disliked brand names were visually presented while three different objective measures were taken. Participant's eye blinks as responses to acoustic startle probes were registered with electromyography (EMG) (i) and their skin conductance (ii) and their heart rate (iii) were recorded. We found significantly reduced eye blink amplitudes related to liked brand names compared to disliked brand names. This finding suggests that visual perception of liked brand names elicits higher degrees of pleasantness, more positive emotion and approach-oriented motivation than visual perception of disliked brand names. Also, skin conductance and heart rate were both reduced in case of liked versus disliked brand names. We conclude that all our physiological measures highlight emotion-related differences depending on the like and dislike toward individual brands. We suggest that objective measures should be used more frequently to quantify emotion-related aspects of brand attitude. In particular, there might be potential interest to introduce startle reflex modulation to measure emotion-related impact during product development, product design and various further fields relevant to marketing. Our findings are discussed in relation to the idea that self reported measures are most often cognitively polluted.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Peter Walla
  • Source
    • "The eye - blink magnitudes of participants were recorded during these walk - throughs . Real estate price was strongly correlated with explicit pleasantness rat - ings , and the startle measures confi rmed affective differences between the most expensive and cheapest districts ( Geiser & Walla , 2011 ) . In a further study , a virtual environment viewed from the perspective of the driver of a Humvee was used to examine variations in eye - blink responses in both low - threat and high - threat zones , under immersive and non - immersive conditions , while driving through a virtual Iraqi city ( Parsons , Rizzo , Courtney , & Dawson , 2012 ) . "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The startle eye-blink is part of a non-voluntary response that typically occurs when an individual encounters a sudden and unexpected stimulus, such as a loud noise or increase in light. Modulations of the startle reflex can be used to infer affective processing in players. The response can be elicited using simple auditory, visual, electric, or mechanical stimuli. The magnitude of the startle eye-blink is used to infer the unconscious positive (pleasant) or negative (unpleasant) emotional state of the player. It is frequently used in psychology where variations in the magnitude, latency, and duration of the startle response are used to understand attention, workload, affective processing, and psychopathologies such as schizophrenia. By comparison, there has been limited use of this objective measure for studying games. As such, there are opportunities to adapt this measure to studies of player affect in the context of game design. We provide a review of the concepts of “affect” and “affective computing” as they relate to game design and also explain in detail the use of the startle eye-blink for objectively measuring player affect. Finally, the use of the approach is illustrated in a case study for evaluating a serious game design.
    Full-text · Chapter · Jun 2015
  • Source
    • "The respective units were labeled with log μS. Mean HR values (in beats per minute) were calculated for time windows starting from the onset of picture/sound presentation until 2 s (picture presentation) or 5 s (sound presentation) after the onset of the stimuli (Walla, Brenner, and Koller, 2011). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nighttime fear is a phenomenon in which people feel more afraid of threats at night. Despite the vast amount of psychological research on nighttime fear, previous researchers have not accurately distinguished between "night" and "darkness", both of which play important roles in nighttime fear. We collected physiological (skin conductance response and heart rate) and psychological (self-report) data simultaneously to investigate the effects of "night" and "darkness" on fearful feelings and whether these effects were moderated by the mode of stimulus delivery (i.e., visual or auditory). Specifically, two tasks were employed in which time (day vs. night), illumination (light vs. darkness) and stimulus type (fearful vs. neutral) were manipulated. Participants (n=128) were exposed to visual and auditory oddball tasks consisting of fearful and neutral stimuli. The results indicated that there were significant increases in fear responses at night, and the difference between day and night was significant for fear stimuli but not for neutral events. Furthermore, these effects were consistent over different sensory modalities (visual and auditory). The results of this study underscore the importance of the day-night cycle in fear-related information processing and suggest that further attention needs to be paid to the influence of the biological circadian rhythm on these processes. The current findings could inform a deeper understanding of anxiety and fear-related disorders, and thus, we invite future studies to illuminate the underlying neurobiological mechanisms therein. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · International journal of psychophysiology: official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology
  • Source
    • "SRM is a 114 valid approach to selectively measure the valence of affective information processing. It is easy to 115 apply also in a field setting and can perfectly be combined with methods measuring the associated 116 level of arousal, like skin conductance and heart rate (Dawson et al., 1999; Walla et al., 2011). 117 Measuring the underlying forces of behavior other than mere stated intention is also crucial 118 regarding health-related issues with respect to consumption. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Climate change, the need for efficient and environment-friendly energy use and health-related issues like obesity and addictions, these three crucial topics build a triad that the global society has extensively been discussing and caring about during the past decades. First, according to the recently published fifth IPCC climate change assessment report (2013), intense weather conditions have been on the rise. These changes will in extreme cases impose life-threatening dangers to some civilizations, but it will mostly influence individual attitudes and decision-making and thus finally modify consumption behavior quite dramatically during the next decades. Second, the European Union is aiming for a 20% cut in Europe's annual primary energy consumption by 2020 (Energy Efficiency Plan 2011). This government-driven aim does not only affect global industry, but again also the consumption behavior of each individual end-user. Third, according to the World Health Organization (2013), worldwide obesity has nearly doubled since 1980. In fact, 65% of the world's population lives in countries where overweight and obesity kills more people than underweight (World Health Organization, 2013). Given these unpleasant scenarios we need to get active now in order to prevent the worst and to ensure the best possible and highest standards of life across the globe.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Show more