Consumers' sensory acceptability of pork from immunocastrated male pigs

IRTA, Finca Camps i Armet, 17121 Monells, Spain.
Meat Science (Impact Factor: 2.62). 12/2008; 80(4):1013-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2008.04.018
Source: PubMed


Boar taint is the off-odour or off flavour of cooked pork. Currently, the most common method of controlling boar taint is surgical castration. However, immunocastration has been used in some parts of the world as an alternative to surgical castration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensory acceptability of meat from immunocastrated pigs (IM) compared with meat from females (FE), surgically castrated (CM) and entire males (EM). Twenty animals of each type were evaluated by 201 consumers in 20 sessions. Longissimus thoracis muscle of the different animals was cooked in an oven at 180°C for 10min. Consumers scored the odour and the flavour of the meat in a 9-point category scale without an intermediate level. There were no significant differences in consumer's evaluation of meat from IM, CM, and FE. In contrast, EM meat presented a higher percentage of dissatisfied scores and was significantly (P<0.05) less accepted than meat from CM, IM and FE. Consumers' acceptability of EM meat was always lower, independently of its androstenone levels. However meat with low levels of androstenone was more accepted that meat with medium or high levels of this substance. It can be concluded that immunocastration produced pork that was accepted by the consumers, and was indistinguishable from pork from CM or FE.

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    • "The effects of male pig immunocastration have been investigated by measurements of carcass traits, meat quality parameters, fat composition (Dunshea et al., 2001; Font i Furnols et al., 2012; Fuchs et al., 2009) and panel (Pearce et al., 2008) and consumer testing (Font i Furnols et al., 2008). When evaluated for traits that are key to meat processing, vaccinated pigs have shown lower backfat thickness, higher percentage of lean meat, and heavier hams than in surgically castrated pigs, with no significant differences in meat qualities (Batorek et al., 2012; Font i Furnols et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate immunocastration (vaccination against GnRH using Improvac® vaccine), as an alternative to surgical castration in heavy male pigs (average live weight 165±10kg), used in the production of Italian typical dry-cured ham. A total of 60 Landrace×Large White male pigs were assigned to three groups of 20 units, including one group of surgically castrated (SC), and two of immunocastrated pigs, with two (IC2) or three (IC3) vaccine treatments, respectively. The groups were compared for green ham traits, processing weight losses, chemo-physical, and sensory properties of dry-cured hams. While IC3 were not different (P>0.05) from SC group, IC2 hams were found to differ (P<0.05) both from SC and IC3 groups in ham traits, final weight losses, texture and sensory boar taint in finished hams. Therefore, vaccination with three doses could be taken into account to control boar taint in the manufacturing of typical Italian dry-cured ham. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Meat Science
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    • "This reduces the prevalence of boar taint compounds in pork from IM. In Europe, pork from young, lightweight immunologically castrated (IC) barrows had sensory characteristics similar those of physically castrated (PC) barrows (Font i Furnols et al., 2008, 2009). However, in the United States, pigs are slaughtered at heavier weights (Bonneau et al., 1994; Pauly et al., 2009), and pork is often enhanced with salt and phosphate solutions . "
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    ABSTRACT: Our objective was to evaluate color changes during storage of fresh pork chops and enhanced and nonenhanced loin quality from anti-gonadotropin-releasing factor (Improvest) immunologically castrated (IC) barrows. In study 1, treatments evaluated were IC barrows, IC barrows fed ractopamine (IC+RAC), physically castrated (PC) barrows, intact males (IM), and gilts. Fresh loins were evaluated for sensory characteristics and instrumental tenderness including both Warner-Bratzler Shear force (WBSF) and star probe force. In study 2, treatments evaluated were IC barrows fed 0.55% and 0.65% standard ileal digestible (SID) lysine and PC barrows fed 0.55% SID lysine. Loin chops were displayed for 7 d, and color was evaluated. The remaining loin was halved, and one half was enhanced with a 3.5% salt and phosphate solution. Enhanced loins were evaluated for sensory characteristics and instrumental tenderness. In both studies, pen served as the experimental unit for all traits measured. Data from individual animals were averaged by pen and analyzed, per study, as a 1-way ANOVA using the MIXED procedure of SAS. In study 1, there were no differences ( 0.05) between treatments for juiciness, tenderness, chewiness, or off-flavor. Intact males had the most intense ( 0.05) boar aroma. Gilts had the most intense ( < 0.05) pork flavor, whereas IM had the least intense pork flavor; all other treatments were intermediate. Tenderness (WBSF) was similar between treatments at 1 d of aging; however, at 7, 14, and 21 d of aging, loins from IC barrows were more tender ( 0.05) than those from gilts, IM, and IC+RAC but were similar ( 0.05) to those from PC. In study 2, discoloration of fresh loin chops during storage was similar ( 0.42) between PC and IC barrows. Chops from enhanced loins were more tender and juicy but had more off-flavor than nonenhanced loins ( 0.01). Star probe and WBSF were also reduced ( 0.01) in enhanced loins compared with nonenhanced loins. Sensory characteristics and tenderness were not different between treatments of IC and PC barrows ( > 0.05), and there were no interactions of enhancement with castration treatments. These data suggest that immunological castration does not negatively impact the color stability, sensory characteristics, or tenderness of enhanced or nonenhanced pork loins.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Journal of Animal Science
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    • "Overall liking and liking of appearance, odour, and flavour (only SAUCE and MENU) were rated using verbally labelled 8-pt hedonic scales (1 = 'like extremely' to 8 = 'dislike extremely'). In contrast to the original 9-pt hedonic scale the intermediate category (either like or dislike) was not provided to prevent consumers from stating indifference (Font i Furnols et al., 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated whether consumer acceptance of boar meat is overestimated by standardised situational testing andwhether repeated exposure decreases liking. Thus, a home use test (HUT) followed by a central location test (CLT) was conducted to assess the acceptance of minced boar meat with approximately 14% fat either HIGH or LOW in androstenone (2.0 vs. 0.30 ppm) and skatole (0.30 vs. 0.06 ppm) in comparison to meat from castrates and gilts (CONTROL). In HUT, no significant difference (p N .05) in dislike frequency was observed between CONTROL and LOW. For HIGH, liking was strongly impaired during frying. The results indicated a masking effect of the ready-made sauce on the odour but not on the flavour. In CLT, dissatisfaction was generally higher than in HUT. Similar to HUT, HIGH boar meat was more often disliked (p b .001) compared to LOW and CONTROL in the CLT. To conclude, standardised testing did not underestimate acceptance. In contrast to anticipations, a single previous exposure to boarmeat with high levels of androstenone and skatole did not affect (p N .05) liking in the follow-up CLT.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Food Research International
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