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The four most common types of abuse are physical, sexual, emotional, and economic. Abuse is often further categorized into child abuse, intimate partner violence, and elder abuse. This article describes the important role that nurses and health care providers play in detecting, assessing, and reporting abuse. Armed with increased knowledge about signs and symptoms of abuse, nurses can guide patients to the appropriate resources.

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As members of the population of older adults have increased, so has the problem of elder abuse. It has become a focus of study for many social scientists, beginning in the late 1970s. Elder abuse brings its own brand of distinctiveness under the umbrella term of “domestic violence.” With the problem of elder abuse come the common types of abusive behaviors: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, and financial abuse. The implications of research on elder abuse have led to changes in legislation in the United States, changes in social policy, and the establishment of national and local community organizations directed at alleviating and ending the problem of elder abuse. Of particular interest is the call for the development of a coordinated community response to this increasing public health problem.
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Objective To verify the occurrence of maltreatment of the elderly and its characteristics (location, type, reason, involvement of alcohol/drugs, profile and family relationship of victims and perpetrators) from the police records of a specialized police station over a five year period. Method A cross-sectional, descriptive and documentary analytical study was performed. The police reports of a medium-sized municipality in the northwest of São Paulo were analyzed from 2008 to 2012. The sociodemographic characteristics of the perpetrators and victims and the data relating to the aggression investigated were: violence; location; reason; the presence of alcohol and drugs during the assault and victim-offender relationship. Data was tabulated using descriptive statistical analysis. Results Of a total of 572 cases, most of the perpetrators were men (69.2%), Caucasian (56.5%), aged 31-40 years (14.20%) with no information regarding occupation provided (50.70%); most of the victims were women (93.0%), Caucasian (71.5%), aged 60-65 years (46.30%), married (34.10%) and unemployed/retired (59.98 %). Emotional abuse was prevalent (57.0%), occurred in the home of the elderly person (81.3%) and the children of the elderly were the main perpetrators (25.3%). The motives were related to arguments in most cases (53.1%). Conclusion Women who were Caucasian, married, aged 60-65, unemployed/retired were the main victims, with the perpetrators most frequently their own children, also Caucasian, single and aged 31-40 years. Psychological violence was the most prevalent, primarily triggered by disagreements among those involved, and it occurred most frequently in the residence of the victim. Most of the attackers were not under the influence of alcohol/drugs.
Elder abuse is a pervasive phenomenon around the world with devastating effects on the victims. Although it is not a new phenomenon, interest in examining elder abuse is relatively new. This book aims to provide an overview of the aetiological theories and measures of elder abuse. The book briefly reviews theories to explain causes of elder abuse and then discusses the most commonly used measures of elder abuse.
The authors reviewed available literature on the phenomenon of the elderly people abuse. In connection with ongoing worldwide demographic changes, a rapid growth of the population aged 60 years and more is noted. Such trends will continue, which gives rise to a gradual increase in the number of cases of abused seniors. The article presents definitions of violence against elderly people, with a special emphasis on the symptoms that may suggest abuse. Furthermore, we specified the articles that focus on the assessment of individual risk factors that may increase the occurrence of aggressive behaviour towards seniors. We also focused on analysis of available literature on the prevalence of violence against the elderly, both in Poland and worldwide. Analysis of the data from countries with different structural and cultural conditions clearly confirms the presence of this phenomenon everywhere, although it appears to varying extent. Research results depend on many factors, including the applied research methodology and measurement tools, the accepted definition of violence and sources of information. Worth noting are underestimated statistics which may be due to senior citizens' reluctance to disclose abuses. In view of the multidimensional nature of the issue, it is important to introduce further system solutions in order to reduce the incidence of elderly people abuse and more effectively detect and resolve the problem, which still constitutes, especially in our country, a taboo subject.
Obesity is a significant public health issue in the United States and in many other countries in the Western world. Individuals with obesity often suffer from a wide range of physical and psychosocial issues. While these conditions often motivate the pursuit of bariatric surgery, significant psychosocial and behavioral issues can leave patients poorly prepared to take on the behavioral and psychological changes required for an optimal postoperative result. For these reasons, the preoperative psychosocial evaluation is a central part of bariatric care and plays an important role in identifying potential threats to postoperative success. The postoperative weight losses experienced by most bariatric patients are accompanied by significant improvements in psychosocial status. However, a sizable minority of patients experience suboptimal weight losses, weight regain over time, or psychosocial complications. Identifying strategies to improve postoperative follow-up or maintain patients' contact with the bariatric program, such as regular contact with patients via electronic means, may help identify patients at risk for these outcomes. Enhanced follow-up also may provide opportunities to intervene with patients struggling with behavioral and psychosocial issues and, as a result, promote the best possible long-term outcomes to the greatest possible number of patients.
While congress considers (and passes) legislation to fight elder mistreatment, most legal action occurs at the state level through state Adult Protection Service laws, often imposing criminal liability on elder mistreatment. Mandatory or voluntary reporting laws apply in many states. The National Research Council Report recommends enhanced research on the effectiveness of various interventions, and recommends that researchers be exempt from reporting requirements.
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