In vitro antibacterial activity of different endodontic irrigants

Department of Operative Dentistry, University of Pavia, Piazzale Golgi 3, Pavia, Italy.
Dental Traumatology (Impact Factor: 1.6). 11/2011; 28(3):205-9. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-9657.2011.01074.x
Source: PubMed


The objective of this study was to compare in vitro the antibacterial activity of Tetraclean (mixture of doxycycline, citric acid and polypropylene glycol), Niclor 5 (5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution), Cloreximid (0.2% chlorhexidine and 0.2% cetrimide solution) and hydrogen peroxide 12 volumes on three endodontic pathogens associated with primary endodontic infections. Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans and Staphylococcus aureus strains were selected to evaluate the antibacterial activity of endodontic irrigants by the agar disc-diffusion test.
Paper discs were saturated with each one of the test solutions (at room temperature and preheating at 50°C) and placed onto culture agar-plates preadsorbed with bacterial cells and further incubated for 24 h at 37°C. The growth inhibition zones around each irrigant were recorded and compared for each bacterial strain. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were applied to compare the various groups.
At room temperature, Tetraclean showed significantly higher inhibition of bacteria growth than all other irrigants tested. Preheating at 50°C significantly increased growth inhibition for all the groups tested. At 50°C, hydrogen peroxide 12 volumes and Tetraclean showed significantly higher efficacy than all other irrigants tested.
50°C-preheated hydrogen peroxide 12 volumes and Tetraclean showed highest inhibition of the bacterial growth.

Download full-text


Available from: Claudio Poggio
  • Source
    • "These authors employed confocal microscopy to evaluate bacterial cell viability after the exposure of oral bacteria biofilm to NaOCl and CHX, and showed that NaOCl was pronouncedly more effective than CHX to kill bacteria cells organized in biofilm (Ordinola-Zapata et al., 2012). Other studies that have compared the effectiveness of NaOCl and CHX against E. faecalis showed that CHX was as effective as, or even more effective than NaOCl, but these studies did not use a method based on antimicrobial activity against biofilms (Vianna and Gomes, 2009), or used unreliable methods such as the agar diffusion test (Poggio et al., 2012; Mattigatti et al., 2012; Sassone et al., 2008). However, it has been clearly shown that bacteria are usually organized in biofilm structures or within necrotic pulp tissue remnants in the root canal system (Baldasso et al., 2012; Vera et al., 2012; Ricucci and Siqueira, 2010; Ricucci et al., 2009), and these tissues/structures may protect bacterial cells against antimicrobial action. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: There are few reports on the migration of CLA+ T cells through E-selectin in cutaneous lichen planus, with only one study on oral lichen planus (OLP). This study aimed to analyze CLA expression and assess whether there is a correlation with E-selectin (CD62E) in OLP lesions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Biopsies were performed on 11 patients including two areas: one without clinical and histopathological features of OLP [perilesional group (PLG)] and the other with clinical and histopathological features of OLP [OLP group (OLPG)]. The specimens obtained were divided into two: One was fixed in formalin for routine analysis (H&E), and the other was frozen for CD3, CD4, CD8, CLA, and CD62E immunofluorescence markers. RESULTS: More CD4+ (median 1409, range 860-2519), CD8+ (median 1568, range 654-3258), and CLA+ T cells (median 958, range 453-2198) and higher CD62E expression (median 37, range 27-85) were identified in OLPG (P = 0.003; P = 0.003; P = 0.004; P = 0.003, respectively) than those in PLG. The median prevalence analysis was also significantly higher for CLA+CD8+ T cells in OLPG (OLPG = 39.4%, range 18.4-64.2; PLG = 29.4%, range 12.1-47.1) (P = 0.026). None of the correlations between CD3+ or CLA+ T cells and CD62E in OLPG and in PLG were significant. CONCLUSION: The significant presence of CLA+ T cells and E-selectin expressions in the OLPG suggests their involvement in the etiopathogenesis of OLP; however, only a weak correlation between CLA+ T cells and E-selectin was observed.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014
  • Source
    • "Agar disc-diffusion test method is a well-established technique for antibacterial study.[1011] Advantage of this method is that chemical properties of the medicaments are not changed and the antimicrobial resistance can be detected by challenging bacterial isolates with antimicrobial discs.[12] "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the comparative antibacterial efficacy of Biopure MTAD, Metapex, Metronidazole, and Aztreonam against two obligate anerobic bacteria. Antimicrobial efficacy of selected medicaments against two obligate anaerobic bacteria Bacteroides fragilis and Propionibacterium acnes was done by Agar disc-diffusion method. Pre-sterilized Whatman paper discs, 6 mm in diameter and soaked with the test solution, were prepared and placed onto the previously seeded agar Petri plates. Each plate was incubated in anaerobic jar for anerobic environment at 37°C for 48 hours. A zone of inhibition was recorded for each plate and the results were analysed statistically. Saline and ethanol used as control group in this study. Biopure MTAD, Metapex and Metronidazole were effective against all the selected microorganisms. Aztreonam was effective against Bacteroides fragilis. Saline and ethanol used as control were ineffective. Metronidazole showed the superior antibacterial property amongst the tested medicaments.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Journal of Conservative Dentistry
  • Source
    • "They have important impact on human health due to their natural presence among gut microbiota, usage as probiotics and conversely their deleterious role in spoilage process of fruit juices and meat products123. Furthermore, among Enterococcus genus, Enterococcus faecium and E. faecalis are mostly responsible for serious relevant nosocomial infections such as urinary tract infections (UTIs), endocarditis, bacteremia, intra-abdominal and intra-pelvic abscesses34567. Interstingly, many of these problems arise from the ability of enterococci to survive in adverse conditions (temperature ranging from 10 to 45 ºC, basic pH of 9.6 and growth in 6.5% NaCl), presence of several virulence determinants (cytolysin, gelatinase, aggregation substance, extracellular superoxide) and possess both intrinsic as well as acquired antibiotic resistance trait (vancomycin, streptogramins, isoxazolylpenicillins, monobactams and cephalosporins)[3,89101112131415. The rising prevalence of antimicrobial resistance trait among Enterococcus spp. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: The occurrence of multi-antibiotic resistance among enterococci is a prevalent clinical problem worldwide and continues to get serious due to the lack of efficient therapeutic options by the time. In this regards, prokaryotic antimicrobial peptides with bactericidal or bacteriostatic activity which are directed against bacterial strains closely related to producer strains looks one of the promising alternative to conventional antibiotics. Methods: The antibiotic susceptibility pattern of 20 clinical isolates of enterococci was evaluated and subsequently the isolates were screened for antibacterial activity against three different indicator strains. The efficacy of potential bacteriocinogenic isolates were assayed against multi-antibiotic resistant Enterococcus spp. by comparative minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Results: Antibiotic resistant pattern of enterococcal isolates demonstrated that multi-antibiotic resistant to conventional antibiotics were significantly high and the prevalent pattern of resistance was combination of gentamicin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol and vancomycin. In addition, the data from comparative MIC showed the noticeable activity of selected potential bacteriocinogenic strains against pathogenic enterococci. Conclusion: The present survey may address the potential applicability of antimicrobial peptides in alleviating the problems of antibiotic resistance.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Show more