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Transcript and metabolite analysis in Trincadeira cultivar reveals novel information regarding the dynamics of grape ripening. BMC Plant Biol 11:149

Plant Systems Biology Lab, Departmento de Biologia Vegetal/ICAT, Center for Biodiversity, Functional and Integrative Genomics-BioFIG, FCUL, 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal.
BMC Plant Biology (Impact Factor: 3.81). 11/2011; 11(1):149. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-11-149
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) are economically the most important fruit crop worldwide. However, the complexity of molecular and biochemical events that lead to the onset of ripening of nonclimacteric fruits is not fully understood which is further complicated in grapes due to seasonal and cultivar specific variation. The Portuguese wine variety Trincadeira gives rise to high quality wines but presents extremely irregular berry ripening among seasons probably due to high susceptibility to abiotic and biotic stresses.
Ripening of Trincadeira grapes was studied taking into account the transcriptional and metabolic profilings complemented with biochemical data. The mRNA expression profiles of four time points spanning developmental stages from pea size green berries, through véraison and mature berries (EL 32, EL 34, EL 35 and EL 36) and in two seasons (2007 and 2008) were compared using the Affymetrix GrapeGen® genome array containing 23096 probesets corresponding to 18726 unique sequences. Over 50% of these probesets were significantly differentially expressed (1.5 fold) between at least two developmental stages. A common set of modulated transcripts corresponding to 5877 unigenes indicates the activation of common pathways between years despite the irregular development of Trincadeira grapes. These unigenes were assigned to the functional categories of "metabolism", "development", "cellular process", "diverse/miscellanenous functions", "regulation overview", "response to stimulus, stress", "signaling", "transport overview", "xenoprotein, transposable element" and "unknown". Quantitative RT-PCR validated microarrays results being carried out for eight selected genes and five developmental stages (EL 32, EL 34, EL 35, EL 36 and EL 38). Metabolic profiling using 1H NMR spectroscopy associated to two-dimensional techniques showed the importance of metabolites related to oxidative stress response, amino acid and sugar metabolism as well as secondary metabolism. These results were integrated with transcriptional profiling obtained using genome array to provide new information regarding the network of events leading to grape ripening.
Altogether the data obtained provides the most extensive survey obtained so far for gene expression and metabolites accumulated during grape ripening. Moreover, it highlighted information obtained in a poorly known variety exhibiting particular characteristics that may be cultivar specific or dependent upon climatic conditions. Several genes were identified that had not been previously reported in the context of grape ripening namely genes involved in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolisms as well as in growth regulators; metabolism, epigenetic factors and signaling pathways. Some of these genes were annotated as receptors, transcription factors, and kinases and constitute good candidates for functional analysis in order to establish a model for ripening control of a non-climacteric fruit.

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    • "The criteria used for evaluating the evolution of grape development and ripening were the measurement of sugar content (SSC) and the CIRG values (Figure 1). Developmental stages considered in the study were defined as follows: (a) E- L 31: small hard green berries accumulating organic acids; (b) E-L 32: beginning of bunch closure, berries tight at touch; (c) E-L 34: stage immediately preceding véraison (onset of ripening) characterized by green berries; E-L 36: sugar (15– 18 @BULLET Brix) and anthocyanins accumulation and active growth due to cell enlargement (mid/late véraison) (Fortes et al., 2011) and E-L 38: harvest time. Biochemical and physical measurements performed on berries during 2011 growing season indicated different rate of berry development (Figure 1). "

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    • "This has led to a better level of transcriptome exposure, enhanced the specificity and precision as in mapping sequencing reads. Significantly, constant incremental developments in defining the grapevine transcriptome in the form of functional annotation [13, 14] and gene ontology assignment [15], now permits the precise narration of the functional task of mainly about Vitis vinifera genes [16] . Particularly analogous RNA deepsequencing presents modern scientific platform for scrutinizing transcriptional instruction. "
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    • "). 포도과실의 발육은 명확한 3단계로 구성되는 이중S자형 생장곡선 형태를 나타낸다(Coombe et al. 2000). 포도 과실의 발육단계에 따른 전사체 분석에 관한 연 구는 단백질연구와 함께 유전체를 기반으로 매우 활발히 진행되고 있다(Deluc et al. 2007; Fortes et al. 2011; Guillaumie et al. 2011; Pilati et al. 2007; Terrier et al. 2005; Waters et al. 2005; Zenoni et al. 2010). "

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