Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC): oncological outcomes and prognostic factors in a large multicentre series

University of Eastern Piedmont, Novara, Italy.
BJU International (Impact Factor: 3.53). 11/2011; 110(1):76-83. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2011.10690.x
Source: PubMed


Study Type – Outcomes (cohort)
Level of Evidence 2b
What's known on the subject? and What does the study add?
About 80% of RCCs have clear cell histology, and consistent data are available about the clinical and histological characteristics of this histological subtype. Conversely, less attention has been dedicated to the study of non-clear cell renal tumours Specifically, published data show that chromophobe RCC (ChRCC) have often favourable pathological stages and better nuclear grades as well as a lower risk of metastasizing compared with clear cell RCC (ccRCC). Patients with ChRCC were shown to have significantly higher cancer-specific survival (CSS) probabilities compared with ccRCC. However, an independent prognostic role of RCC histotype was not confirmed in some large multicenter series and only a few studies have focused on the oncological outcomes of ChRCC.
The present study is one of the few to evaluate cancer-related outcomes of ChRCC and represents to our knowledge the largest series of ChRCCs. Consequently, the present findings may assist in elucidating the natural history of surgically treated ChRCC. The present study confirms that ChRCCs have good prognosis and a low tendency to progress and metastasize. Only 1.3% of patients presented with distant metastases at diagnosis, and the 5- and 10-year CSS were 93% and 88.9%, respectively. However, although ChRCCs are generally characterised by an excellent prognosis, we observed that patients with locally advanced or metastatic cancers as well as those with sarcomatoid differentiation have a poor outcome. The study also investigated prognostic factors for recurrence-free survival (RFS) and CSS for this RCC histotype. The definition of outcome predictors can be useful for patient counselling, planning of follow-up strategies, and patient selection for clinical trials. In the present study, gender, clinical T stage, pathological T stage, and presence of sarcomatoid differentiation were significantly associated with RFS and CSS at multivariable analysis. We also identified N/M stage as an independent predictor of CSS. Notably, as Fuhrman grade was not an independent predictor of cancer-related outcomes, the present study confirms that this histological variable is not a reliable prognostic factor for ChRCC.

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