2-(3-{1-Carboxy-5-[(6-[18F]fluoro-pyridine-3-carbonyl)-amino]-pentyl}-ureido)-pentanedioic acid, [18F]DCFPyL, a PSMA-based PET imaging agent for prostate cancer

Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins Medical School, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
Clinical Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 8.72). 12/2011; 17(24):7645-53. DOI: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-11-1357
Source: PubMed


We have synthesized and evaluated in vivo 2-(3-{1-carboxy-5-[(6-[(18)F]fluoro-pyridine-3-carbonyl)-amino]-pentyl}-ureido)-pentanedioic acid, [(18)F]DCFPyL, as a potential imaging agent for the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA). PSMA is upregulated in prostate cancer epithelia and in the neovasculature of most solid tumors.
[(18)F]DCFPyL was synthesized in two steps from the p-methoxybenzyl (PMB) protected lys-C(O)-glu urea precursor using 6-[(18)F]fluoronicotinic acid tetrafluorophenyl ester ([(18)F]F-Py-TFP) for introduction of (18)F. Radiochemical synthesis was followed by biodistribution and imaging with PET in immunocompromised mice using isogenic PSMA PC3 PIP and PSMA- PC3 flu xenograft models. Human radiation dosimetry estimates were calculated using OLINDA/EXM 1.0.
DCFPyL displays a K(i) value of 1.1 ± 0.1 nmol/L for PSMA. [(18)F]DCFPyL was produced in radiochemical yields of 36%-53% (decay corrected) and specific radioactivities of 340-480 Ci/mmol (12.6-17.8 GBq/μmol, n = 3). In an immunocompromised mouse model [(18)F]DCFPyL clearly delineated PSMA+ PC3 PIP prostate tumor xenografts on imaging with PET. At 2 hours postinjection, 39.4 ± 5.4 percent injected dose per gram of tissue (%ID/g) was evident within the PSMA+ PC3 PIP tumor, with a ratio of 358:1 of uptake within PSMA+ PC3 PIP to PSMA- PC3 flu tumor placed in the opposite flank. At or after 1 hour postinjection, minimal nontarget tissue uptake of [(18)F]DCFPyL was observed. The bladder wall is the dose-limiting organ.
These data suggest [(18)F]DCFPyL as a viable, new positron-emitting imaging agent for PSMA-expressing tissues.

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    • "A limitation of this study seems to be the high kidney uptake of the investigated monomer and dimer. There are numerous examples of variably labeled urea-based molecules with extremely high murine kidney uptake [18,19,23,48,49]. It was shown in these and in our studies that the uptake is mainly specific as a consequence of physiologically expressed PSMA in murine kidneys [18,32]. "
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