Relationship of household food insecurity to anaemia in children aged 6-59 months among families in rural Indonesia
Anaemia is a significant global public health problem in developing countries with adverse health effects on young children. Household food insecurity, which reflects a household's access, availability and utilisation of food, has not been well characterised in relation to anaemia in children.
To examine the relationship of household food insecurity with anaemia (Hb <11 g/dl) in children.
In a cross-sectional study of 4940 rural households participating in the Indonesian Nutrition Surveillance System, household food insecurity was measured using a modified 9-item food security questionnaire and related to anaemia in children aged 6-59 months.
The proportion of households with an anaemic child was 56·6%. In households with and without anaemic children, the mean (SD) food insecurity score was 1·82 (1·72) vs 1·55 (1·54) (p<0·0001), respectively. In a multivariate logistic regression model, food insecurity score was related to anaemia in children (odds ratio 0·77, 95% confidence interval 0·63-0·95, p=0·01) when the highest quintile of food insecurity score was compared with the lowest quintile, adjusting for potential confounders.
A higher household food insecurity score is associated with greater prevalence of anaemia in children in rural families in Indonesia.
Available from: PubMed Central
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ABSTRACT: This cross-sectional study was conducted to find out the factors associated with food insecurity (FI) in households of the students aged 6-12 years in public schools of Salvador city, Bahia, Brazil. The study included 1,101 households. Food and nutritional insecurity was measured using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale (BFIS). Data on socioeconomic and demographic characteristics as well as environmental and housing conditions were collected during the interviews conducted with the reference persons. Multivariate polytomous logistic regression was used in assessing factors associated with food insecurity. We detected prevalence of food insecurity in 71.3% of the households. Severe and moderate forms of FI were diagnosed in 37.1% of the households and were associated with: (i) female gender of the reference person in the households (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.47-3.31); (ii) a monthly per-capita income below one-fourth of the minimum wage (US$ 191.73) (OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.68-4.08); (iii) number of residents per bedroom below 3 persons (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.23-2.96); and (iv) inadequate housing conditions (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.12-4.49). Socioeconomic inequalities determine the factors associated with FI of households in Salvador, Bahia. Identifying vulnerabilities is necessary to support public policies in reducing food insecurity in the country. The results of the present study may be used in re-evaluating strategies that may limit the inequalities in school environment.
Available from: Michel Lucas
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Inuit in Canada experience alarming levels of food insecurity, but nutritional and physiological consequences are poorly documented, especially in school-age children. The objective of this study was to assess the relation of food insecurity to iron deficiency and stature in school-aged Inuit children from Nunavik (Northern Quebec).
METHODS: Food insecurity, iron deficiency, and stature were assessed in a cohort of children. Food insecurity was determined by interviewing the children’s mothers. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of food insecurity to iron deficiency and short stature. We defined short stature as a height in the lowest tertile for age and sex, based on Canadian growth charts. The relation of food insecurity to height (cm) was analyzed with a general linear model. Statistical models controlled for age, sex, normal/overweight/obese status, prenatal lead exposure and postnatal polychlorinated biphenyls exposure.
RESULTS: Half of the children (49.7%, n=145) were food insecure, while one third were iron depleted, 12.6% had anaemia, and 8.7% had iron-deficiency anaemia. The multivariate odds ratio of anaemia was 1.82 (95% CI: 0.97, 3.42, p=0.06) for food-insecure children. Prevalence of short stature was 18.7%. Food-insecure children were an average of 2 cm shorter (95% CI: -0.48, -3.17) than food-secure children (p<0.01).
CONCLUSION: In this population, food-insecure children have greater burdens of nutritional deficiencies and slower linear growth. Considering the high prevalence of food insecurity among Inuit children in Nunavik, nutritional deficiencies and adverse effects on development should be carefully monitored.
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