Article

Distribution and surfactant association of carcinoembryonic cell adhesion molecule 6 in human lung

Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology (Impact Factor: 4.08). 01/2012; 302(2):L216-25. DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00055.2011
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Carcinoembryonic cell adhesion molecule 6 (CEACAM6) is a glycosylated, glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored protein expressed in epithelial cells of various primate tissues. It binds gram-negative bacteria and is overexpressed in human cancers. CEACAM6 is associated with lamellar bodies of cultured type II cells of human fetal lung and protects surfactant function in vitro. In this study, we characterized CEACAM6 expression in vivo in human lung. CEACAM6 was present in lung lavage of premature infants at birth and increased progressively in intubated infants with lung disease. Of surfactant-associated CEACAM6, ∼80% was the fully glycosylated, 90-kDa form that contains the glycophosphatidylinositol anchor, and the concentration (3.9% of phospholipid for adult lung) was comparable to that for surfactant proteins (SP)-A/B/C. We examined the affinity of CEACAM6 by purification of surfactant on density gradient centrifugation; concentrations of CEACAM6 and SP-B per phospholipid were unchanged, whereas levels of total protein and SP-A decreased by 60%. CEACAM6 mRNA content decreased progressively from upper trachea to peripheral fetal lung, whereas protein levels were similar in all regions of adult lung, suggesting proximal-to-distal developmental expression in lung epithelium. In adult lung, most type I cells and ∼50% of type II cells were immunopositive. We conclude that CEACAM6 is expressed by alveolar and airway epithelial cells of human lung and is secreted into lung-lining fluid, where fully glycosylated protein binds to surfactant. Production appears to be upregulated during neonatal lung disease, perhaps related to roles of CEACAM6 in surfactant function, cell proliferation, and innate immune defense.

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Available from: Cheryl J Chapin, Jan 08, 2016
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    • "Analysis of human CEACAM6 was performed using previously described methods with slight modifications for the presence of mouse immunoglobulins (Chapin et al. 2012). Western analyses used mouse anti-human CEA- CAM6 primary antibody ( "
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    ABSTRACT: Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 6 (CEACAM6) is expressed in the epithelium of various primate tissues, including lung airway and alveoli. In human lung, CEACAM6 is developmentally and hormonally regulated, protects surfactant function, has anti-apoptotic activity and is dysregulated in cancers. We hypothesized that alveolar CEACAM6 expression increases in lung injury and promotes cell proliferation during repair. Studies were performed in CEABAC transgenic mice-containing human CEACAM genes. The level of CEACAM6 in adult CEABAC lung was comparable to that in human infants; expression occurred in epithelium of airways and of some alveoli but rarely co-localized with markers of type I or type II cells. Ten days after bleomycin instillation, both the number of CEACAM6(+) cells and immunostaining intensity were elevated in injured lung areas, and there was increased co-localization with type I and II cell markers. To specifically address type II cells, we crossed CEABAC mice with animals expressing EGFP driven by the SP-C promoter. After bleomycin injury, partially flattened, elongated epithelial cells were observed that expressed type I cell markers and were primarily either EGFP(+) or CEACAM6(+). In cell cycle studies, mitosis was greater in CEACAM6(+) non-type II cells versus CEACAM6(+)/EGFP(+) cells. CEACAM6 epithelial expression was also increased after hyperoxic exposure and LPS instillation, suggesting a generalized response to acute lung injuries. We conclude that CEACAM6 expression is comparable in human lung and the CEABAC mouse. CEACAM6 in this model appears to be a marker of a progenitor cell population that contributes to alveolar epithelial cell replenishment after lung injury.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015
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    • "CEACAM7 is down-regulated or absent in a variety of epithelial-derived neoplasms and is considered as a tumor suppressor. In contrast, over-expression of CEACAM5 and CEACAM6 is detected in nearly 70% of solid tumors, including cancers of the gastrointestinal tract, breast, lung, and female reproductive system, and is associated with greater migration, invasion, and metastasis in vitro456789. Expression of CEACAM6 is suggested to be an independent prognostic factor in colorectal cancer[8,9], and its level is associated with tumor stage, metastasis, and postoperative survival of patients with pancreatic cancer[10]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 6 (CEACAM6) shows increased expression in a wide variety of human cancers, and its over-expression is associated with enhanced migration, invasion, and in vivo metastasis. Here, we reported that CEACAM6 was up-regulated in gastric cancer (GC) cell lines and tumor tissues. Over-expression of CEACAM6 in MKN-45 and SGC-7901 GC cells promoted migration and invasion in vitro and metastasis in athymic mice, whereas migration and invasion of MKN-28 and SNU-16 GC cells were suppressed by knockdown of CEACAM6. We also observed that steroid receptor coactivator (C-SRC) phosphorylation was increased when CEACAM6 was over-expressed in SGC-7901 cells. Taken together, these results suggested that CEACAM6 functions as an oncoprotein in GC and may be an important metastatic biomarker and therapeutic target.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
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    • "Fahlgren et al. showed that the LS174T cell line that expressed high levels of CEACAM5 and CEACAM6 before IFNγ treatment did not show any enhanced expression after IFNγ exposure while IFNγ up-regulated both mRNAs in two cell lines, HT-29 and T84, that initially expressed low levels of CEACAM5 and CEACAM6 [66]. However, the very high and constant CEACAM6 expression in NHBE cells as well as in the lung specimens is in accordance with its proposed role as a surfactant [58,78]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-related cell adhesion molecules CEACAM1 (BGP, CD66a), CEACAM5 (CEA, CD66e) and CEACAM6 (NCA, CD66c) are expressed in human lung. They play a role in innate and adaptive immunity and are targets for various bacterial and viral adhesins. Two pathogens that colonize the normally sterile lower respiratory tract in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are non-typable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) and Moraxella catarrhalis. Both pathogens bind to CEACAMs and elicit a variety of cellular reactions, including bacterial internalization, cell adhesion and apoptosis. To analyze the (co-) expression of CEACAM1, CEACAM5 and CEACAM6 in different lung tissues with respect to COPD, smoking status and granulocyte infiltration, immunohistochemically stained paraffin sections of 19 donors were studied. To address short-term effects of cigarette smoke and acute inflammation, transcriptional regulation of CEACAM5, CEACAM6 and different CEACAM1 isoforms by cigarette smoke extract, interferons, Toll-like receptor agonists, and bacteria was tested in normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells by quantitative PCR. Corresponding CEACAM protein levels were determined by flow cytometry. Immunohistochemical analysis of lung sections showed the most frequent and intense staining for CEACAM1, CEACAM5 and CEACAM6 in bronchial and alveolar epithelium, but revealed no significant differences in connection with COPD, smoking status and granulocyte infiltration. In NHBE cells, mRNA expression of CEACAM1 isoforms CEACAM1-4L, CEACAM1-4S, CEACAM1-3L and CEACAM1-3S were up-regulated by interferons alpha, beta and gamma, as well as the TLR3 agonist polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C). Interferon-gamma also increased CEACAM5 expression. These results were confirmed on protein level by FACS analysis. Importantly, also NTHI and M. catarrhalis increased CEACAM1 mRNA levels. This effect was independent of the ability to bind to CEACAM1. The expression of CEACAM6 was not affected by any treatment or bacterial infection. While we did not find a direct correlation between CEACAM1 expression and COPD, the COPD-associated bacteria NTHi and M. catarrhalis were able to increase the expression of their own receptor on host cells. Further, the data suggest a role for CEACAM1 and CEACAM5 in the phenomenon of increased host susceptibility to bacterial infection upon viral challenge in the human respiratory tract.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Respiratory research
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