Partial internal biliary diversion for patients with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 1
Division of Pediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 1-7-1 Sakamoto, Nagasaki, 852-8501, Japan.Pediatric Surgery International (Impact Factor: 1). 01/2012; 28(1):51-4. DOI: 10.1007/s00383-011-3018-x
We herein report a case of progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis with partial internal biliary diversion (PIBD). Although by using PIBD an external stoma can be avoided, exposure of the ileocecal junction to bile reflux as well as the effects of the direct bile flow on the colonic mucosa require further investigation.
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ABSTRACT: This is a case report of the first patient with Alagille syndrome (AGS) to undergo a partial internal biliary diversion (PIBD) for the treatment of symptoms refractory to medical therapy. Alagille syndrome is a hereditary disease resulting in chronic cholestasis and hypercholesterolemia that can lead to severe and intractable pruritus and disfiguring and debilitating xanthomas. PIBD has proven to be an effective treatment option for other causes of cholestatic liver disease. This report reviews the immediate and 2-year follow-up of a patient after this surgical procedure. The results suggest that PIBD has potential to provide relief of intractable symptoms and improve the quality of life in patients with AGS while avoiding an external stoma. It does not, however, appear to prevent the progression of liver disease. Long-term follow-up is still needed.
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ABSTRACT: Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) is a group of rare disorders which are caused by defect in bile secretion and present with intrahepatic cholestasis, usually in infancy and childhood. These are autosomal recessive in inheritance. The estimated incidence is about 1 per 50,000 to 1 per 100,000 births, although exact prevalence is not known. These diseases affect both the genders equally and have been reported from all geographical areas. Based on clinical presentation, laboratory findings, liver histology and genetic defect, these are broadly divided into three types—PFIC type 1, PFIC type 2 and PFIC type 3. The defect is in ATP8B1 gene encoding the FIC1 protein, ABCB 11 gene encoding BSEP protein and ABCB4 gene encoding MDR3 protein in PFIC1, 2 and 3 respectively. The basic defect is impaired bile salt secretion in PFIC1/2 whereas in PFIC3, it is reduced biliary phospholipid secretion. The main clinical presentation is in the form of cholestatic jaundice and pruritus. Serum gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) is normal in patients with PFIC1/2 while it is raised in patients with PFIC3. Treatment includes nutritional support (adequate calories, supplementation of fat soluble vitamins and medium chain triglycerides) and use of medications to relieve pruritus as initial therapy followed by biliary diversion procedures in selected patients. Ultimately liver transplantation is needed in most patients as they develop progressive liver fibrosis, cirrhosis and end stage liver disease. Due to the high risk of developing liver tumors in PFIC2 patients, monitoring is recommended from infancy. Mutation targeted pharmacotherapy, gene therapy and hepatocyte transplantation are being explored as future therapeutic options.
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