Mindfulness predicts less texting while driving among young adults: Examining attention- and emotion-regulation motives as potential mediators

Simmons College, Boston MA.
Personality and Individual Differences (Impact Factor: 1.95). 11/2011; 51(7):856-861. DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2011.07.020
Source: PubMed


Many young adult drivers read and send text messages while driving despite clear safety risks. Understanding predictors of texting-while-driving may help to indentify relevant targets for interventions to reduce this dangerous behavior. The present study examined whether individual differences in mindfulness is associated with texting-while-driving in a sample of young-adult drivers. Using path analysis, we tested whether this relationship would be mediated by the degree to which individuals use text-messaging as a means of reducing unpleasant emotions (emotion-regulation motives) and the degree to which individuals limit texting in order to focus on present-moment experiences (attention-regulation motives). Individuals lower in mindfulness reported more frequent texting-while-driving and this relationship appeared to be mediated primarily by emotion-regulation motives. Results may help inform the development of mindfulness-based interventions to prevent texting-while-driving.

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Available from: Greg Feldman, Jan 06, 2014
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    • "As student convenience samples have very limited generalizability, the large online sample from Mechanical Turk was utilized to provide a more diverse sample for this foundational study (Buhrmester, Kwang, & Gosling, 2011). This is particularly relevant because previous work has linked texting usage to age and life phase (Ling, Bertel, & Sundsoy, 2011), and studies concerning the psychological processes of texting have largely been restricted to undergraduates for credit (Feldman et al., 2011; Walsh, White, Cox, & Young, 2011). After removing individuals who missed simple attention checks (25%), a sub-sample of 250 respondents was randomly selected for Study 1 to test the hypothesized measurement models (RQ1), and a second sub-sample of 526 was randomly selected and set aside to provide the data for Study 2. Such randomized dataset splitting is recommended in structural equation modeling practice (Kline, 2011; van Prooijen & van Der Kloot, 2001), and allows us to test the fit of new measurement models in Study 1, as well as subsequently evaluate the validity of the final model (on a separate subsample) in Study 2. The subsample for Study 1 was 29.3% college participants (vs. "
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    ABSTRACT: The everyday use of mobile devices is sometimes performed in a highly unconscious manner (e.g., automaticity, habits, impulses), whereas other times it is performed in a highly conscious manner (e.g., immersion, presence, absorption). In Study 1, we surveyed individuals (n = 250) to evaluate the seemingly oppositional relationship between automatic (less conscious) and immersive (more conscious) tendencies toward texting. Despite their standard separation, confirmatory factor analyses revealed that automaticity and immersion are actually positively related independent of usage frequency. In Study 2 (n = 526), these consciousness tendencies were related to select facets of trait self-control and mindfulness. Together, these studies underline the importance of media cognition in combination with personality factors for understanding the psychology of mobile device use.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Human Communication Research
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    • "Driving simulator experiments have increasingly been used to safely and ethically model the relationship between traffic safety and driver behavior, especially prohibited behavior in hazardous situations. Studies have covered various topics, including red light jumping, incident perception, and young and novice driver behavior (Auberlet et al., 2012; Bella, 2008; Feldman et al., 2011; van Driel, Hoedemaeker, & van Arem, 2007; Yan, Radwan, & Guo, 2007; Yan, Radwan, Guo, & Richards, 2009; Yang, Overton, Han, Yan, & Richards, 2013). The driving simulator methodology has been prevalent in distracted driving studies (McCartt et al., 2006), especially in studies of mobile phone use while driving, which have examined the effects of conversation (Beede & Kass, 2006; Consiglio et al., 2003; Törnros & Bolling, 2005), dialing, and text messaging (Drews et al., 2009; Horrey & Wickens, 2006; Hosking et al., 2009; Rudin-Brown, Young, Patten, Lenné, & Ceci, 2013; Young et al., 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Reading and typing text messages while driving seriously impairs driving performance and are prohibited activities in many jurisdictions. Hong Kong is a bilingual society and many people write in both Chinese and English. As the input methods for text messaging in Chinese and English are considerably different, this study used a driving simulator approach to compare the effects of reading and typing Chinese and English text messages on driving performance. Method The driving performances of 26 participants were monitored under the following conditions: (1) no distraction, (2) reading and typing Chinese text messages, and (3) reading and typing English text messages. The following measures of driving performance were collected under all of the conditions: reaction time (RT), driving lane undulation (DLU), driving speed fluctuation (DSF), and car-following distance (CFD) between test and leading cars. Results RT, DLU, and DSF were significantly impaired by reading and typing both Chinese and English text messages. Moreover, typing text messages distracted drivers more than reading them. Although the Chinese text messaging input system is more complicated than the English system, the use of Chinese did not cause a significantly different degree of distraction. Conclusion Both reading and typing text messages while driving should be prohibited regardless of whether Chinese or English is used.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Transportation Research Part F Traffic Psychology and Behaviour
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    • "Evidence also suggests mindfulness training, as well as a higher level of dispositional mindfulness, can improve situational awareness, 1 which is generally known as a state of " knowing what's going on " . This is highly dependant on the use of past experience and pivotal for performing functionally in high risk industries (Endsley, 1995; Vidulich and Tsang, 2012), thus providing a good basis for all types of safety behaviors (Feldman et al., 2011; Kass et al., 2011; Mrazek et al., 2013). Moreover, in the literature on self-regulation, mindfulness has been found to reduce 1 Dispositional mindfulness and situational awareness are conceptually different from each other. "
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    ABSTRACT: Based on the dual process model of human cognition, this study investigated the influence of dispositional mindfulness on operators’ safety behaviors and its boundary conditions. In a sample of 212 nuclear power plant control room operators, it was found that both safety compliance and safety participation behaviors were positively influenced by dispositional mindfulness as measured by the 14-item Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory. This effect was still positive after controlling for age, intelligence, work experience and conscientiousness. Moreover, two boundary conditions were identified: the impact of dispositional mindfulness of safety behaviors was stronger among operators who were either more experienced or more intelligent. Theoretically, the framework we used to understand the benefit of mindfulness on safety behaviors has been proved to be useful. Practically, it provides a new and valid criterion that could be used in operators’ selection and training program to improve organizational safety.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Accident; analysis and prevention
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