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Dietary Shiitake Mushroom (Lentinus edodes) Prevents Fat Deposition and Lowers Triglyceride in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

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High-fat diet (HFD) induces obesity. This study examined the effects of Shiitake mushroom on the prevention of alterations of plasma lipid profiles, fat deposition, energy efficiency, and body fat index induced by HFD. Rats were given a low, medium, and high (7, 20, 60 g/kg = LD-M, MD-M, HD-M) Shiitake mushroom powder in their high-fat (50% in kcal) diets for 6 weeks. The results showed that the rats on the HD-M diet had the lowest body weight gain compared to MD-M and LD-M groups (P < 0.05). The total fat deposition was significantly lower (-35%, P < 0.05) in rats fed an HD-M diet than that of HFD group. Interestingly, plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) level was significantly lower (-55%, P < 0.05) in rats on HD-M than HFD. This study also revealed the existence of negative correlations between the amount of Shiitake mushroom supplementation and body weight gain, plasma TAG, and total fat masses.
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Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Journal of Obesity
Volume 2011, Article ID 258051, 8pages
doi:10.1155/2011/258051
Research Article
Dietary Shiitake Mushroom (
Lentinus edodes
)PreventsFat
Deposition and Lowers Triglyceride in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet
D.Handayani,J.Chen,B.J.Meyer,andX.F.Huang
Metabolic Research Centre, School of Health Sciences and Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute, University of Wollongong,
Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
Correspondence should be addressed to X. F. Huang, xhuang@uow.edu.au
Received 6 July 2011; Accepted 14 August 2011
Academic Editor: Gianluca Iacobellis
Copyright © 2011 D. Handayani et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License,
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
High-fat diet (HFD) induces obesity. This study examined the eects of Shiitake mushroom on the prevention of alterations of
plasma lipid profiles, fat deposition, energy eciency, and body fat index induced by HFD. Rats were given a low, medium, and
high (7, 20, 60 g/kg =LD-M, MD-M, HD-M) Shiitake mushroom powder in their high-fat (50% in kcal) diets for 6 weeks. The
results showed that the rats on the HD-M diet had the lowest body weight gain compared to MD-M and LD-M groups (P<0.05).
The total fat deposition was significantly lower (35%, P<0.05) in rats fed an HD-M diet than that of HFD group. Interestingly,
plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) level was significantly lower (55%, P<0.05) in rats on HD-M than HFD. This study also revealed
the existence of negative correlations between the amount of Shiitake mushroom supplementation and body weight gain, plasma
TAG, and total fat masses.
1. Introduction
Obesity is a chronic health problem. It is predicted that
by 2015 approximately 2.3billion adults will become over-
weight, and more than 700 million will be obese [1].
Obesity causes many complications including dyslipidaemia,
diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease. Recently, obesity
has also been associated with the increased incidence of
many cancers [2]. Dyslipidaemia is a pathological disorder,
and current evidence has highlighted not only total choles-
terol but also triacylglycerol (TAG) as lipid risk factors in
metabolic syndrome.
Recently, community awareness in nutrition as a corner-
stone for healthy life style has increased. Functional food is
a concept of nutrition, based on the role of reducing the risk
of disease. A food will be considered as a functional food if
it gives one or more benefits or positive eects to the body
beyond adequate nutritional eects in a way that is relevant
to either improve the stage of health and well-being and/or
reduce the risk of disease [3].
Shiitake mushrooms are the second most popular and the
third widely cultivated edible mushroom in the world [4].
Certain components of Shiitake mushroom have hypolipi-
daemic eect, such as eritadenine and β-glucan. Although it
has been reported that eritadenine extracted from Shiitake
mushroom has hypolipidaemic eect, most of these studies
emphasize on the mechanism in hypocholesterolaemic eect
[58] but not the eect on triglyceride. β-glucan from
Shiitake mushroom is a primarily soluble dietary fibre. β-
glucan also present at high levels in graminaceous crops
such as barley, rye, and oat and also in bacteria, fungi,
and edible mushrooms [9], but the structure can vary from
source to source. Studies have reported that oat β-glucan
can increase satiety, reduce food intake, delay nutrition
absorption, and reduce plasma lipid levels [1012]. Although
mushroom has been shown to improve lipid profiles [13
15], studies in this regard are incomplete. Some studies have
reported single-dose eect on obesity-associated metabolic
disorders using mushroom powder supplementation [13,
1618]. However, no data are currently available on the
ability of Shiitake mushroom to aect food intake, body fat
deposition, and plasma triglyceride concentrations in a dose
response manner.
2Journal of Obesity
Studies have shown that high-fat diet-induced obesity in
rodents can develop dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance, and
altered metabolic regulatory hormones [1922]. The diet-
induced obese animal model mimics human obesity more
than other models such as genetic knockout mutants [23].
This study has systematically examined the eects of Shiitake
mushroom on plasma lipid profiles, various types of fat
depositions, energy eciency, and body fat index as well as
their relationships in a dose-response manner in rats fed a
high-fat diet.
2. Material and Methods
2.1. Animals and Diet. Allexperimentalprocedureswere
approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of the University
of Wollongong, AE 09/01. Forty Wistar rats, at 9 weeks of age,
were obtained from animal resource centre (ARC)-Perth,
Western Australia, and were given one week acclimatization
to their new environment. They were housed two per cage in
environmentally controlled conditions (temperature 22C,
light cycle from 06:00 to 18:00 hours, and dark cycle from
18:00 to 06:00 hours) and had ad libitum access to food
and water. All rats were fed standard laboratory nonpurified
diet (YS Feeds PTY-Ltd, Young, NSW, Australia) during the
acclimatization period. The forty rats were divided into four
groups (n=10) and fed 50% high-fat diets with an addition
of nil, low, medium, or high-dose of Shiitake mushroom
powder (HFD, 7 g/kg LD-M, 20g/kg MD-M, or 60 g/kg HD-
M, resp.). The dietary intervention was carried out for six
weeks. The food was produced from semisynthetic material
according to the recommendation of American Institute of
Nutrition AIN-93 for rodent [24]. HFD consisted of the
following (g/Kg): corn starch, 210 (Goodman Fielder, NSW,
Australia); sucrose, 175 (Bella-vista, NSW, Australia); copha,
105 (Peerless food, Victoria, Australia); lard, 105 (Fonterra
brand, Victoria, Australia); sunflower oil, 50 (Goodman
Fielder, NSW, Australia); gelatine, 50 (Sunny Hills, Qld, Aus-
tralia); casein, 128 (Fonterra LTD, Auckland, New Zealand);
fiber, 51 (Nature, Rosenberg, Germany); mineral, 67 (MP
Biomedical, Ohio, USA); vitamin, 13 (MP Biomedical,
Ohio, USA). This study used Shiitake mushroom powder
containing 30% β-glucan (w/w) analysed with a Megazyme
β-glucan Kit. Compositions of the four diets are shown in
Tab l e 1 .
2.2. Food Intake, Body Weight, and Body Composition. Ani-
mals were weighed weekly throughout the six-week inter-
vention period. Food intake was measured every 24 hours
by weighing the amount of total food (g) provided to the
rats and subtracting the remaining food (g) in the cage after
24 hours. Following the intervention period, rats were killed
via carbon dioxide asphyxiation. The white adipose tissue
(WAT) comprised of visceral fat (epididymal, perirenal, and
omental fat) and subcutaneous fat (inguinal fat) and brown
adipose tissue (BAT) were then dissected out and weighed.
The body fat index (BFI) was calculated as the total amount
of epididymal, perirenal, omental, and inguinal fat deposits
per100gbodyweight[25]. The energy eciency ratio (EER)
Tab le 1: Composition of experimental diet.
Component Group1
HFD LD-M MD-M HD-M
Carbohydrate(%) 32333334
Protein (%) 16 16 16 16
Fat (%) 50 49 49 48
Fibre(%) 2223
Shiitake mushroom powder
%(wt:wt) —0.7 2 6
Energy density (kJ/g) 18.8 18.8 18.8 18.4
1HFD: high-fat diet; LD-M: low-dose mushroom in HFD; MD-M: medium
mushroom in HFD; HD-M: high-dose mushroom in HFD.
was calculated by body weight gain (BWG) per the amount
of energy intake (g/kJ) [26].
2.3. Plasma Lipid Profile. Blood samples were obtained by
puncturing the right ventricle of heart after euthanasia and
were collected in ethylenediaminetetraacetic-acid- (EDTA-)
coated tubes and centrifuged at 3000×rpm at 22Cfor
25 minutes. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) was isolated
from plasma with dextran sulphate and magnesium chloride,
based on a modified method from Sjoblom and Eklund [27].
Total plasma cholesterol (TC), TAG and HDL cholesterol
were measured using the Konelab 20XT with Infinity reagent
from Thermo Fisher Scientific (Auburn NSW, Australia).
2.4. Statistical Analysis. Food intake, BWG, EER, BFI, adi-
pose tissue, and plasma lipids were presented as mean and
standard errors. Statistical analysis was performed using
SPSS software (version 17.0, SPSS Inc, Chicago, Ill, USA).
One-way ANOVAs were used, followed by a post hoc Tukey-
Kramer significant dierences test for multiple comparisons
among the groups. Dierences were considered significant
when P<0.05.
3. Results
3.1. Food Intake, Body Weight, and Fat Deposition. No dif-
ferences in the amount of food or energy intake were found
among all groups (Tab l e 2 ). This study found significant
eects of dietary intervention on body weight gain (F3,38 =
6.204, P=0.002, Tabl e 2 ). Rats on a high dose of Shiitake
mushroom diet (HD-M group) had 35% and 39% lower
body weight gains than rats on low- and medium-Shiitake
mushroom diets, respectively (P<0.05). There was also
a trend of lower body weight gain in the HD-M group
compared with the HFD group (23%, P=0.077).
Overall, there were significant eects in total fat masses
due to dietary interventions (F3,38 =4.355, P=0.010,
Tab l e 2 ). Rats on HD-M diet had significantly lower total fat
masses, 35% and 37%, than the HFD and LD-M groups,
respectively. Furthermore, HD-M group also had a trend of
lower fat accumulation than the MD-M group (32%, P=
0.076, Figure 1). The white adipose tissue in MD-M group
was 35% and 37% lower than the HFD and LD-M groups,
Journal of Obesity 3
Tab le 2: Food intake, energy intake, body weight, and fat deposits of rats fed experimental diets for 6 weeks1.
Treatment group ANOVA
HFD LD-M MD-M HD-M
Food intake (g/rat/day) 24 ±0.524±0.524±0.623±0.8NS
Energy intake (kJ/rat/day) 455 ±9 449 ±9 448 ±11 423 ±14 NS
Body weight gain 129 ±8a,b 141 ±9b150 ±14b92 ±8a0.002
Fat-pad masses (g)
Epididymal 11.2±1.0a,b 12.1±1.0b11.4±1.2a,b 7.9±0.5a0.014
Perirenal 14.2±1.1a14.3±1.7a12.8±1.6a,b 8.7±0.8b0.015
Omental 8.4±0.6a,b 10.5±1.0a8.5±0.7a,b 6.7±0.6b0.009
Inguinal fat 8.6±1.5a6.8±0.7a,b 8.2±1.7a4.2±0.5b0.012
Visceral fat 33.8±2.3a,b 37.0±3.7b34.0±3.7a,b 23.3±1.7a0.012
WAT 42.4±3.4a43.8±4.3a40.6±4.5a,b 27.5±2.1b0.011
BAT 0.58 ±0.05 0.52 ±0.06 0.54 ±0.05 0.44 ±0.01 NS
Total fat masses 43.0±3.4a44.4±4.3a41.2±4.5a,b 28.0±2.1b0.010
1Values are means ±SEM, n=10. Within a row, values with dierent superscripts are significantly dierent, P<0.05.Abbreviations used: HFD: high-fat diet;
LD-M: low-dose mushroom in HFD; MD-M: medium mushroom in HFD; HD-M, high-dose mushroom in HFD.
respectively (F3,38 =4.340, both P<0.05). The visceral
fat mass (epididymal + perirenal + omental) was the lowest
in the HD-M group among all groups (F3,38 =4.215, P=
0.012, Tabl e 2 ). Furthermore, HD-M group had significantly
lower perirenal (39%) and inguinal fat (52%) compared
to HFD group. Epididymal and omental fat masses were
29% and 21% lower in the HD-M group than HFD group
(P=0, 05). No dierences were found in the BAT masses
among all groups.
3.2. Body Fat Index (BFI) and Energy Eciency Ratio (EER).
The BFI was significantly dierent between four diet groups
(F3,38 =5.86; P=0.002). Results showed that rats on a HD-
M diet had a significantly lower BFI than the rats on HFD,
LD-M, and MD-M diets (35%, 33%, and 30%, resp.).
No dierences were found in the BFI between the HFD, LD-
M, and MD-M groups (Figure 2). There was a significant
dierence in EER among four diet groups (F=5.425,
P=0.004, Figure 3). The HD-M group had a significantly
lower EER than the LD-M and MD-M groups (30% and
34%, resp.) but was not significantly dierent from HFD.
Furthermore, there were no statistical dierences in EER
between the HFD, LD-M, and MD-M groups.
3.3. Plasma Triacylglycerol, Cholesterol and HDL Concentra-
tions. There was a significant dierence in plasma TAG levels
between the four groups (F3,38 =7.445; P=0.001). The rats
on the HD-M diet had significantly lower levels of TAG than
HFD, LD-M, and MD-M (55%, 41%, and 46%, resp.).
There were no significant dierences among the HFD, LD-
M, and MD-M groups (Figure 4). Plasma total cholesterol
levels did not dier between four groups (P=0.125).
Although rats on an HD-M diet had the highest level of
plasma HDL, no statistical dierence was found (HD-M:
HFD: LD-M: MD-M =1.26 ±0.01: 1.12 ±0.02: 0.95 ±0.02:
0.84 ±0.01 mmol/L), respectively.
3.4. Association between the Dosages of Shiitake Mushroom
and BWG, WAT, Plasma Lipid, BFI, and EER. This study
found that the amount of Shiitake mushroom added in a
high-fat diet (50% fat in kcal) was negatively associated
with the BWG, WAT, TAG, BFI, and EER (Figure 5). No
statistical dierence was found between the amount of
Shiitake mushroom diets and plasma cholesterol and HDL
concentrations (data not shown).
4. Discussion
This study showed that adding HD-M in a high-energy
diet containing 50% fat can significantly prevent total fat
deposition and significantly lower plasma TAG in rats
compared with no addition of Shiitake mushroom diet.
It was also found that plasma TAG-lowering eect was
negatively associated with the amount of Shiitake mushroom
supplementations and positively associated with the amount
of visceral fat. Studies have been carried out to test plasma
TAG-lowering eect by adding mushroom powder into the
diets. The results varied, where studies showed a significant
eect of lowering plasma TAG [14,15,18,28,29], whilst
other did not [17,30,31]. There are a few factors that
may explain these diering results. The first is related to
the amount of sucrose in the diet which can lead to a high
level of plasma TAG in rodents [17,18]. High-sucrose diet
promotes a hyper-TAG plasma level by increasing hepatic
TAG secretion and decreasing TAG removal [32]. A previous
study has reported that if the sucrose amount in the diet
is greater than 40% from total energy, the increasing of
plasma TAG is dicult to prevent by enriched mushroom
powder diet [17]. In this study, the high-fat diet group as
controls supplied 15% sucrose from total energy. Second is
the amount of mushroom in the diet. Studies have shown
that adding less than 5% (wt : wt) mushroom powder in the
diet does not significantly decrease plasma TAG, irrespective
the sources [13,14,17,18,30,31,33], which is also what
4Journal of Obesity
a
a
a, b
b
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
HFD LD-M MD-M HD-M
The total fat masses (g)
Figure 1: Total fat masses were measured after 6-week dietary
treatments in rats. Bars represent means ±standard errors, n=10.
abMeans not sharing a common letter are significantly dierent
among groups at P<0.05.
we have found. Therefore, the ratio between the amount of
sucrose and enriched mushroom in the diet is important for
plasma TAG-lowering eect.
The duration of the dietary intervention using mush-
room powder seems less important as it is compared with
the dose. Some short-term studies, 3 to 5 weeks [18,33],
reported a reduction of plasma TAG concentration, whilst
others [1618]reportednoeects. Likewise, the longer-
intervention studies, such as 6- to 10-week interventions, also
showed mixed results with some having no eect [31]and
others with positive outcomes to prevent increasing plasma
TAG l e vels [15,30]. Hence, the dose of mushroom powder is
more important than duration of supplementation.
It is largely unreported to use fat masses as an indicator to
determine the eect of adding mushroom to a diet on body
weight gain. In animal studies, there are currently limited
data relating to the analysis of body fat masses. Kabir and
Kimura [30] reported that giving 5% Shiitake mushroom
and 5% Maitake mushroom for 8 weeks to spontaneous
hypertensive rats (HSRs) did not significantly lower adipose
tissue compared to control group. There is also a lack of study
to define the eect of mushrooms on total fat masses in the
human study. In this study, we have demonstrated that the
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
a
aa
b
The body fat index
HFD LD-M MD-M HD-M
Figure 2: Body fat index was measured after 6-week dietary
treatments in rats. Bars represent means ±standard errors, n=10.
abMeans not sharing a common letter are significantly dierent
among groups at P<0.05.
high-dose Shiitake mushroom lowered total fat deposition.
In addition, there was a negative correlation between an
increased dosage of Shiitake mushroom and a lower body fat
index. Previous study reported that reducing of plasma TAG
is associated with the decrease of total fat masses as white
adipose tissue [34], which is consistent with our results.
Weight-loss interventions are commonly prescribed for
obesity to reduce risk factors associated with metabolic
disease. Studies from animal experiments showed various
results in terms of adding mushroom powder in diets
aecting body weight gain and obesity. For example, a study
[14] showed a decrease in body weight gain by 53% by adding
2% extracts of Agaricus Blazei mushroom in the diet for
6 weeks in diabetes mellitus Sprague-Dawley rats induced
by streptozotocin. Again, body weight gain was significantly
reduced by 25% when adding 20% Maitake mushroom
powder to a hypercholesterolemic diet for 25 weeks [33].
However, no statistical dierence in body weight changes was
reported in ApoE/mice after being given a diet containing
3% Bunashimeji mushroom powder for 10 wks [31]. A
similar result also reported that additional 5% mushroom
powder in the diet for four or eight weeks had no eect on
lowering body weight gain in spontaneous hypertension rats
Journal of Obesity 5
HFD LD-M MD-M HD-M
a, b
b
b
a
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
The energy eciency ratio
Figure 3: Energy eciency ratio (EER) was measured after 6-week
dietary treatments in rats. Bars represent means ±standard errors,
n=10. For each variable, labelled means without a common letter
dier, P<0.05.
or male F344/DuCrj rats [17,30]. It appears that dierent
species of animal respond dierently in body weight gain
to the dietary intervention using mushroom powder. The
dosages less than 5% mushroom powder seem to be less likely
to give any favourable eect to prevent body weight gain. The
initial body weight and age of animal model seem to have no
aect on the outcome of mushroom treatment to prevent the
increase of body weight [1618,30].
This study showed that body weight gain was signifi-
cantly lower in the HD-M group than the MD-M and LD-
M groups. This suggests that there was a threshold eect in
terms of the amount of Shiitake mushroom intake for the
prevention of weight gain in rats on a high-fat diet. As an
estimate of HD-M diet in rats, 90 g mushroom powder per
day may be required for humans to prevent body weight gain
andlowerTAG.However,thismustbetestedinhumans
before the recommendation is given. On the other hand,
a low-dose mushroom diet may not be strong enough to
prevent weight gain. For example, studies have shown that
supplementation of the diet with 30 g Maitake mushroom
per day for 21 days did not achieve body weight lowering
eect in patients with moderate dyslipidaemia [35].
This study found a diet of HD-M significantly lowered
the energy eciency ratio (EER) compared to LD-M and
HFD LD-M MD-M HD-M
a
a, b
a
b
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
Plasma TAG level (mmol/L)
Figure 4: Plasma TAG level was measured after 6-week dietary
treatments in rats. Bars represent means ±standard errors, n=10.
For each variable, labelled means without a common letter dier,
P<0.05.
MD-M diets. The HD-M also tended to lower EER when
compared with HFD. This is in agreement with a previous
study showing that high-dose Shiitake mushroom diet lowers
energy eciency in rats on a high-fat diet as adding Maitake
mushroom (20%) into hypercholesterolemic diet for 4 weeks
reduces 27% energy eciency in body weight gain in rats
[33]. Unfortunately, the study of this kind has not been
carried out in humans.
The exact mechanism is not clear how Shiitake mush-
room diet resulting in lowering body weight gain, fat masses
and plasma TAG. There are three possible mechanisms
worthwhile of considerations. Firstly, Shiitake mushroom
could increase the fat elimination into faeces. Shiitake
mushroom contains 30% β-glucan. As a soluble fibre, β-
glucan may enhance luminal viscosity, delay gastric empty-
ing, and/or reduce intestinal absorption. Hence, it decreases
fat absorption. Secondly, Shiitake mushroom could reduce
nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) derived from TAG as a source
of adipose tissue. Lipolysis of chylomicron and VLDL-TAG
are major determinants of adipose tissue development, and
the reduced WAT may be aected by the low-NEFA source
that enters to adipose tissue. A low NEFA in adipose tissue is
6Journal of Obesity
0 102030405060
500
400
300
200
100
0
R=−0.392; P=0.05
Shiitake mushroom powder (g/kg diet)
BWG/rat (g)
(a)
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
White adipose tissue (g)
R=−0.508; P=0.01
0 102030405060
Shiitake mushroom powder (g/kg diet)
(b)
0 102030405060
Shiitake mushroom powder (g/kg diet)
1.25
1
0.75
0.5
0.25
Plasma TAG level (mmol/L)
R=−0.581; P=0.001
(c)
14
12
10
8
6
4
Body fat index
R=−0.575; P=0.01
0 102030405060
Shiitake mushroom powder (g/kg diet)
(d)
0 102030405060
Shiitake mushroom powder (g/kg diet)
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
Energy eciency ratio
R=−0.443; P=0.01
(e)
Figure 5: Significant correlations were found between dosages and BWG (a), WAT (b), plasma TAG level (c), BFI (d), and (e) EER. BWG:
body weight gain; WAT: white adipose tissue; TAG: triacylglycerol; BFI: body fat index; EER: energy eciency ratio.
Journal of Obesity 7
possibly aected by the activity of enzyme LPL as main gate
keeper entry into adipose tissue [34]. The overexpression of
LPL in muscle prevents HFD-induced lipid accumulation
in adipose tissue. Increased LPL in skeletal muscle leads
to an enhanced TAG storage in muscle and then diverts
lipoprotein TAG-derived NEFA away from storage in adipose
tissue to oxidation in the muscle [36]. Normally fat from
food is released into the circulation as lipoprotein-TAG
[34]. Thirdly, the possibility that eritadenine from Shiitake
mushroom could inhibit the release of triacylglycerol from
the liver. The eritadenine has been reported to inhibit the
production of phosphatidylcholine that influences the release
of VLDL and HDL from liver [5]. Studies showed that adding
eritadenine extracted from Shiitake mushroom in the diet
can decrease plasma TAG by 27% in a cholesterol diet,
20% in cholesterol free diet, and 2% in diet with choline
chloride added [57]. The 50 mg eritadenine per kg diet
was shown to be sucient to elicit hypolipidaemic eect in
rats [8]. The concentration of eritadenine is about 0.36% in
Shiitake mushroom powder [37]. The HD-M diet used in
this study contains 200 mg/kg food. Since TAG was low in
HD-M diet, it will be interesting to examine TAG in various
organs to ensure its possible storage or exclusion. In view of
that, fat content in faecal, plasma NEFA concentration, and
accumulation of TAG in the liver and muscle will need to be
examined to verify its potential side eects.
In conclusion, adding high Shiitake mushroom in a
high-fat diet can prevent body weight gain, fat deposition,
and plasma TAG in rats, while further study is necessary
to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and the possibility
component of Shiitake mushroom of these important eects.
Thereby,itcouldbeusedasafunctionalfoodtoprevent
obesity. This study encourages an eort pursuing human
clinical trial using Shiitake mushroom for prevention and
treatment of obesity and its related metabolic disorders.
Abbreviations
HFD: High fat diet
LD-M: low dose mushroom
MD-M: Medium dose mushroom
HD-M: High dose mushroom
TAG: Triacylglycerol
ARC: Animal resource centre
WAT: White adipose tissue
BAT: Brown adipose tissue
BFI: Body fat index
EER: Energy eciency ratio
EDTA: Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid
HDL: High density lipoprotein
TC: Total cholesterol
ANOVA: Analysis of variance
Author Discosure
D. Handayani, J. Chen, BJ Meyer and XF. Huang have no
conflict of interest.
Acknowledgments
The technical assistance of Mrs. Yizhen Wu is gratefully
acknowledged. The project is funded by the Research Council
of the University of Wollongong.
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... The TGL level was significantly lower in our supplemented group compared to the control group only in the first session. Previous studies based on rats found that adding shiitake mushrooms to a high-energy diet can significantly lower plasma TGL [34]. ...
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Shiitake mushrooms have been highly regarded as possessing enormous nutritive and medicinal values. No clinical studies have yet investigated the effect of shitake supplementation on the health of horses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of shiitake mushroom supplementation on the morphological and biochemical blood properties in horses. A total of 17 adult horses were divided into two groups: supplemented and control. The supplemented group was fed 60 g of shiitake mushrooms per day for 5 months. Blood samples were collected in five sessions. Blood morphological analysis showed higher levels of lymphocytes in session 3 and monocytes in session 4 in the supplemented group. In addition, basophils, hemoglobin, and hematocrit were elevated compared to the control group. Biochemical analysis showed that the shiitake mushrooms affected a large number of parameters. In particular, alkaline phosphatase was found to be the most sensitive to shitake mushroom supplementation, for which the statistical differences were significant for sessions 2, 4, and 5. Furthermore, calcium was found to be affected by supplementation only in session 4, and gamma-glutamyl transferase in session 2. In addition, the bilirubin and glucose levels were lower in the supplemented group, and the albumin/globulin ratio was higher compared to the control group. The differences between the supplement and the control group in various sessions suggest that shiitake mushrooms are a beneficial nutritional supplement for horses.
... Cholesterol is a huge issue that has a source from unhealthy choices in snacks. There have also been studies; both in-vitro and in-vivo, on animals have shown that beta-glucan rich diet can reduce serum cholesterol and lipoprotein concentration due to the excretion of bile acids (Handayani and Chen 2011;Rop et al. 2009). MPC for that matter, have a betaglucan, Pleuran, that can help combat this condition, as seen in experiments done in the blood of hamsters and rats (Braaten et al. 1994). ...
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Global salty snacks category had reached USD 137 billion in sales in 2018. Due to growing health concerns and awareness, consumers are looking for healthy snack choices by avoiding ingredients such as fat, sugar, cholesterol, and sodium and selecting baked and salt free multigrain chips. A sizable number of consumers are concerned about snack nutrition and look for quality ingredients and minimally processed foods called as “Good Health Snack (GHS)”. In this work, we present the development of method of producing and testing mushrooms protein crisps (MPC), a healthy alternative to conventional starchy snacks that are rich in protein, nutraceutical compounds, minerals, vitamin, dietary fiber, and immunity inducing beta-glucans. The methods of producing MPC with different seasoning and hydrolyzed protein, calorie, nutritional and chemical composition, consumer response, shelf life after packing and market analysis are described. These systematic studies will help to market potential of this product which is a healthy alternative to other calorie rich snacks sold in the market benefiting the consumers. Graphical abstract
... Antiobesity and triglyceride lowering effect has been reported for fermented milk product containing edible mushroom water extracts (mushroom yogurt) (Jeon et al., 2005). Flammulina velutipes (Enokitake), Hypsizygus marmoreus (Bunashimeji), Lentinus edodes (Shiitake), G. frondosa (Maitake) and Pleurotus eryngii (Eringi or King oyster mushroom) contain many nutritional components such as dietary fiber, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, niacin, vitamin B6, vitamin D and folic acid (Valverde et al., 2015), and are reported to have antiobesity effects (Handayani et al., 2011;Mizutani et al., 2010;Yeh et al., 2014), immunomodulatory effects (Vetvicka & Vetvickova, 2014), antitumor effects (Masuda et al., 2013), antiatherosclerotic effects (Mori et al., 2008) and antidiabetes effects (Hong et al., 2007). Dried powder of A. auricula-judae, suspension of Coprinus comatus, α-glucan of G. frondosa, and ethanol extract of P. ostreatus inhibited body weight increase in healthy and diabetic patients (Soković et al., 2016). ...
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Mushrooms have been consumed by humans since antiquity and considered as a culinary wonder due to their organoleptic merits. In the era of healthy eating by cutting down the calories, saturated fat and cholesterol, mushrooms are bound to attract the public attention a lot. At present they are widely used across the globe not only as food but also in the area of pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals. In this chapter an attempt has been made to provide the up to date insight on the nutritional and medicinal properties of mushrooms. Mushroom proteins are considered of higher nutritional quality than those of vegetables, being comparable to proteins of animal origin such as meat, eggs and milk. Furthermore, modern mushroom culture produces more protein per unit area of land than any other kind of agricultural technology at present available. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has recommended mushrooms as a food item contributing significantly to the protein nutrition of the developing countries like Nepal, which depend heavily on the cereal diets. In the recent years, a lot of research has been done on the chemical composition of mushrooms around the globe including Nepal which revealed their several nutritional and medicinal attributes. Contemporary researches have also validated and documented much of the ancient knowledge on the mushrooms and recognized them as functional foods as well as a vital natural source for the development of pharmaceuticals, cosmeceuticals and nutraceuticals in the 21 st century.
... L. edodes contains β-glucan, eritadenin, and ergothioneine, important substances responsible for lipid-lowering effects. [5][6][7] Although mushrooms are widely studied in vitro and in vivo, few have been explored in human intervention studies. Among the few studies found, Dai et al. 8 performed a clinical trial and administered L. edodes to 52 individuals for 4 weeks. ...
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Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) is a culinary-medicinal mushroom that has low lipid content and is rich in protein, fiber, minerals, vitamins, antioxidant compounds, and β-glucans. We assessed the effects of L. edodes bars on cholesterolemia and oxidative stress levels in individuals with borderline high cholesterol through a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Individuals with borderline high cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, or triglycerides were recruited. Sixty-eight individuals were randomly allocated to group I (placebo; n = 32) or group II (intervention; n = 36). Blood samples were collected at 0, 33, and 66 days, and all individuals received an unidentified opaque envelope containing the bars. Biochemical (triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and glucose) and oxidative stress biomarkers (reduced glutathione, catalase, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) in the blood were assessed. Participants in the intervention group showed a 10% reduction in triglycerides after 66 days of consuming the shiitake bars (P = 0.0352). In oxidative stress biomarkers, L. edodes increased the main endogenous antioxidant reduced glutathione and reduced lipid peroxidation. Exposure to L. edodes triggered dermatitis in 10% of individuals sensitive to the mushroom. In conclusion, L. edodes bars are a nutritious food and a functional health food alternative. This food improves redox status and can be considered as an adjuvant in the prevention of dyslipidemia.
... The BFI was determined as the total amount of visceral and subcutaneous fat deposits per 100 g body weight. 18 Liver steatosis, aortic wall thickness, foam cell count, and cardiac histopathology Liver steatosis cell count was examined using Hematoxylin & Eosin (HE) staining. Briefly, using a cryostat, the frozen rat livers were placed in a 10 μm-portion cut and fixated in ice-cold 10% formalin. ...
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Background: Dietary fats and fructose have been responsible for inducing obesity and body tissues damage due to the consequence of metabolic syndrome through several mechanisms. The body fat index (BFI) is one of the anthropometric measures used to detect obesity in rats. This study aims to examine the correlation between high-fat high-fructose diet and liver steatosis cell count, early atherosclerosis characteristics, and BFI in Sprague Dawley Rats. Design and methods: This was an experimental design using 2 groups of 12-weeks-old Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. The control group received a standard diet and tap water beverages for 17 weeks. The intervention group was fed with high-fat diet from modified AIN 93-M and additional 30% fructose drink. We analyzed the foam cell count, aortic wall thickness, cardiac histopathology, and liver steatosis cell count after the sacrifice process. Results: The rats in the intervention group had a higher aortic wall thickness, liver steatosis, and foam cell count (+125%, p<0.01; +317%, p<0.01 and +165%, p<0.01 respectively) compared to the control group. The intervention group also showed higher mononuclear inflammatory and hypertrophic cell count. A significant positive correlation was found between dietary fructose with premature atherosclerosis by increasing foam cell count (r=0.66) and aortic wall thickness (r=0.68). In addition, 30% dietary fructose increased liver steatosis (r =0.69) and mononuclear inflammatory cardiac cell count (r=0.61). Interestingly, the intervention had no effect on BFI (p>0.5; r=0.13). Conclusions: Dietary fat and fructose consumption for 17 weeks promote atherosclerosis, liver steatosis, and cardiac histopathology alteration without increasing BFI.
... In this study, the antihyperlipidemia activity of L. edodes was established by feeding rats with high-fat diet along with L. edodes. The fat deposition was significantly reduced along with lowering of the triacylglycerol levels in the plasma (Handayani et al. 2011). In another study, the concentration of phosphatidylcholine, which is an essential phospholipid for secretions from liver, was found to be decreased due to the presence of bioactive compound of L. edodes, namely, Eritadenine. ...
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Mushrooms have been consumed over years as a part of human diet. Due to the therapeutic value of mushroom, it is categorized as a functional food with the property of disease prevention in humans. The presence of biologically active compounds having different medicinal properties provides an opportunity to develop edible mushrooms into functional foods with enhanced nutritional value and numerous health benefits. Mushrooms have cardiovascular, antidiabetic, and immune-modulating properties in order to prevent the risk of cancer and control blood sugar level with substantive antioxidant activity, which are recorded in both wild as well as cultivated species. Various bioactive compounds in mushrooms like phenolics and alkaloid and organic acid contents have the ability to inhibit lipooxidase enzymes, scavenge free radicals, and capture metals and thus contribute to the antioxidant property of mushrooms. Due to the antioxidant properties of the phenolic compounds which are present in mushrooms, there is ample scope for the provision of a lot of health benefits. Flavonoids constitute the major proportion of phenolic compounds present in mushrooms. The bioactive compounds of mushrooms which are responsible for producing various therapeutic effects are commonly obtained from their fruiting bodies. The content and concentration of these bioactives depends upon the cultivation technique, extraction method, and the type of bioactive component.
... The ingredients composition of AIN-93M standard feed was modified with the addition of fat to achieve a high fat content according to the previous studies [14,15]. This process was carried out by mixing all the necessary dry ingredients to form pellets, while fructose was administered as a test animal drink made of 30% fructose solution [16]. ...
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The obesity prevalence in the world continues to increase yearly, which further cause clinical problems related to metabolic syndrome and lipid peroxidation. This study aims to determine the effect of ß-glucan extract from oyster mushrooms on lipid peroxidation markers, namely serum MDA levels in rats. Therefore, Sprague dawley rats were divided into four groups, namely the KN group, which was fed with AIN-93M standard diet, the KP group was given the AIN-93M modified HFHF diet, the PI group was fed with AIN-93M modified HFHF + ß-glucan diet 125 mg/kgBW, and the P2 group was given the AIN-93M modified HFHF + ß-glucan diet 375 mg/kgBW. The ß-glucan detection test in oyster mushroom extract used an FTIR spectrophotometer, while the content analysis used the Mega-Calc™ from Megazyme, and also, the MDA levels were determined through the TBARS method. Furthermore, based on FTIR spectrum results, it was proven that oyster mushroom extract contained ß-glucan. The provision of HFHF diet for 14 weeks caused the rats to be pre-obese, resulting in lipid peroxidation due to the free radicals induction. The average Fee index rats at the end of treatment were 294.00 + 6.40 (KN), 292.78 + 6.37 (KP), 291.85 + 9.60 (PI), and 286.88 + 10.60 (P2), with a p value of 0.687. Meanwhile, the average serum MDA level (ng/mF) obtained were 507.833 + 35.95 (KN), 504.184 + 29.17 (KP), 540.397 + 29.80 (PI), and 553.996 + 86.78 (P2), with a p value of 0.001. The values of serum MDA levels that were statistically significant were KN vs P2, KP vs P1, KP vs P2, and P1 vs P2. These results showed that the dose and duration of ß-glucan administered were not sufficient to prevent the lipid peroxidation process.
Chapter
Pre-diabetes is a stage that usually precedes the onset of type 2 diabetes with a slight increase in fasting glucose, between 5.6 and 6.9 mmol/L; decreased glucose tolerance, between 7.8 and 11 mmol/L; and glycated hemoglobin, between 5.5 and 6.4% (ADA 2020). These biochemical abnormalities are usually caused by defects in insulin secretion from pancreatic cells, low insulin activity, or both (Unwin et al. 2002). Pre-diabetes can eventually lead to type 2 diabetes, which is characterized by hyperglycemia due to the inability of cells to respond fully to insulin, or to be resistant to insulin. Insulin resistance is characterized by insulin inefficiency in promoting glucose uptake by tissues and low intracellular glucose concentration signals for increased insulin production by the pancreas. Over time, depleted pancreatic beta cells reduce or stop insulin production, further elevating blood glucose levels (>6.9 mmol/L), characteristic of the diabetes condition. According to epidemiological data, type 2 diabetes is common in the elderly, but its frequency has increased in children and young adults due to high rates of obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and unbalanced diet, with excess fat and sugar. All of these factors indicate that both type 1 and type 2 diabetes result from a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental triggers (IDF 2020). Type 2 diabetes symptoms are similar to those of type 1 diabetes, but they are difficult to be identified in the early stages due to the long pre-diagnosis process, and, therefore, up to one third of the population may not be diagnosed early (Bansal 2015; Kaur 2014; Buchanan et al. 2002). This can be detrimental for a favorable prognosis after a long period of latent disease, and complications such as retinopathy or ulcers in the lower limbs that do not heal may occur (Chiasson et al. 2002). Furthermore,visceral obesity common in overweight and obese patients is related to the local and systemic inflammatory process, closely linked to the development of these comorbidities (ADA 2020). Regarding the healthy population, individuals with pre-diabetes and diabetes have a higher risk over the time of developing cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and polycystic ovaries, in addition to higher morbidity and mortality rates (Bansal 2015; Kaur 2014). Considering the close relationship between pre-diabetes, obesity, and diet, it is important to examine the influence of intestinal microbiota in this context. Intestinal microbiota is characterized by a diverse community of bacteria responsible for influencing nutrient metabolism, immune responses, and resistance to infectious pathogens (Nicholson et al. 2012; Belkaid and Hand 2014; van Nood et al. 2013). In the diabetic population, the intestinal microbiota presents a pattern of dysbiosis, which can be the starting point for the evolution of pre-diabetes to type 2 diabetes and other chronic diseases (Pratley 2013; Ziemer et al. 2008; Tsui et al. 2008; Stefanakia et al. 2018). Current scientific evidence has shown that probiotics or prebiotics, including phenolic compounds, can play a widely recognized role in the regulation of the intestinal microbiota, altering microbial composition and the metabolism of the bacteria and host (Tsai et al. 2019; Wang et al. 2020). Based on these fundamentals, this chapter will address the intrinsic relationships between the consumption of probiotics and prebiotics in individuals with pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes.
Chapter
Since the prehistoric times, at least 60,000 years back as per fossil records, humans have been using natural products, such as plants, animals, microorganisms, and marine organisms, in medicines to alleviate and treat diseases. The use of natural products as medicines must have a great challenge to early humans because when seeking food in forests and hills, early humans often consumed poisonous plants, which led them to vomiting, diarrhea, coma, or other toxic reaction-even death. Subsequently, they were able to develop knowledge about edible plant materials and to use many plants as natural medicines for treatment of diseases and ailments, which are the basis of traditional medicine. Such forms of traditional medicines, namely, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Indian Ayurveda, Greek-Arabic Unani, Japanese Kampo, and traditional Korean medicine, known as Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM) have been practiced worldwide for more than thousands of years and have blossomed into the present systems of modern medicines. The advancement of modern technology helped us to evaluate the pharmacology and mechanism of action of many medicinal herbs in treatment of diseases and to use them as cornerstones of modern medicine. In the historic year 1805, German pharmacist Friedrich Serturner isolated morphine from the opium plant, Papaver somniferum L., and laid the foundation of modern medicine. Subsequently, countless active natural molecules, known as phytochemicals have been separated from natural plant and microbial extracts, and many of them have potential anticancer, antihypertensive, hypolipidemic, antiobese, antidiabetic, antiviral, antileishmanial, and antimigraine medicative properties. These phytochemicals, which have evolved over millions of years, have a unique chemical structural diversity, which results in the diversity of their biological actions to alleviate and treat critical human diseases. A group of evidence advocates that a “multidrugs” and “multi-targets” approach would be more effective compared to a “single-drug” and “single-target” approach in the treatment of complex diseases like obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Phytochemicals present in a single herb or in a herbal formulation can function alone or synergistically with other phytochemicals in a “multi-targets” approach to produce desired pharmacological effect in prevention and cure of complex diseases. The optimal efficacy of the herbal/polyherbal extract depends on its correct dosage containing the optimal concentration of bioactive phytochemical (s) and the method of preparing and processing of the herbal/polyherbal composition and the appropriate time of collection of plant parts. Therefore, the research on natural products is a thrust area for future research in drug discovery (Yuan et al. 2016). This chapter summarizes the current progress in the study of the antiobesity and antidiabetic potentials of natural products and their main bioactive phytochemicals, major molecular mechanisms in preventing and treating obesity and diabetes, and their associated complications.
Chapter
The increased worldwide prevalence of pre-diabetes and diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes, requiring different strategies for their prevention and management. A new focus is the reversal of diabetes dysbiosis, a disruption of gut microbiota homeostasis, which is closely related to elevated blood glucose levels and altered metabolic parameters. In this sense, a balanced diet plays a key role, and, particularly, probiotic and prebiotic have shown a promising role. This chapter explored current knowledge on the potential of probiotic and prebiotic to modulate glucose homeostasis. We showed that the consumption of probiotics and prebiotics is a promising strategy with a beneficial impact on gut microbiota and glycemic control. Furthermore, specific probiotic strains, such as L. acidophilus, L. casei strain Shirota, and B. lactis Bb12, have demonstrated the ability to improve parameters related to pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes. In addition, polyphenols are emerging as a new alternative in glycemic control through the production of short chain fat acids (SCFA) and decreased lipopolysaccharides (LPS) translocation that leads to metabolic endotoxemia. Finally, the ingestion of beneficial bacteria, and foods rich in fiber and polyphenols, or a combination of them, is a good strategy for the control of pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes, but more studies are still needed, mainly clinical trials, for these strategies are improved and widely used.
Article
The AIN-93 rodent diets were formulated to substitute for the previous version (AIN-76A) and to improve the performance of animals that consume them. They are called AIN-93G, formulated for growth, and AIN-93M, for maintenance. Major changes included substituting cornstarch for sucrose and soybean oil for corn oil and increasing the amount in order to supply both essential fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic). L-Cystine was substituted for DL-methionine to supplement the casein component. The mineral mix was reformulated to lower the amounts of phosphorus, manganese and chromium, to increase the amount of selenium, and to add molybdenum, silicon, fluoride, nickel, boron, lithium and vanadium. The amounts of vitamins E, K-1 and B-12 were increased over those in the AIN-76A vitamin mix. The AIN-93G diet contains 200 g of casein and 70 g of soybean oil/kg diet. The maintenance diet (AIN-93M) contains 140 g of casein and 40 g of soybean oil/kg diet. The 1993 diets have a better balance of essential nutrients than the 1976 diet and are better choices for studies with laboratory rodents.
Article
The effects of mushroom fibers on serum cholesterol and hepatic low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor mRNA in rats were investigated. Rats were fed a cholesterol-free diet with 50 g/kg cellulose powder (CP), 50 g/kg maitake (Grifola frondosa) fiber (MAF), 50 g/kg shiitake (Lentinus edodes) fiber (SF), or 50 g/kg enokitake (Flammulina velutipes) fiber (EF) for 4 weeks. There were no significant differences in the body weight, food intake, liver weight, cecum weight, and cecum pH among the groups. Cecal acetic acid, butyric acid, and total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations in the SF and EF groups were significantly higher than those in the other groups. The serum total cholesterol concentration in the CP group was significantly higher than that in the MAF and EF groups. The very LDL (VLDL) + intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL) + LDL-cholesterol concentration in the CP group was significantly higher than that in the MAF, SF, and EF groups, whereas the high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentration in the EF group was significantly lower than that in the other groups at the end of the 4-week feeding period. The hepatic LDL receptor mRNA level in the EF group was significantly higher than that in the CP group. The fecal cholesterol excretion in the MAF, SF, and EF groups was significantly higher than that in the CP group. The results of this study demonstrate that MAF and EF lowered the serum total cholesterol level by enhancement of fecal cholesterol excretion, and in particular, by enhancement of hepatic LDL receptor mRNA in EF group.
Article
Plasma cholesterol concentration is reduced by feeding some dietary fibers and mushroom fruit body, but the mechanism is not fully understood. We examined the effects of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) fiber and sugar beet fiber on serum cholesterol and hepatic LDL receptor mRNA in rats. Rats were fed a cholesterol-free diet with 50 g/kg cellulose powder (CP), 50 g/kg mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) fiber (MSF) or 50 g/kg sugar beet fiber (BF) for 4 wk. There were no significant differences in the body weight, food intake and cecum weight among the groups. The relative liver weight in the CP group was significantly greater than that in the MSF and BF groups. The cecal pH in the CP and MSF groups was significantly higher than that in the BF group. Cecal acetic acid, butyric acid and total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations in the BF group were significantly higher than those in the other groups. The serum total cholesterol, VLDL + intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL) + IDL cholesterol concentrations in the CP group were significantly greater than those in the MSF and BF groups. The HDL cholesterol concentration in the MSF group was significantly lower than that in the CP group. The hepatic LDL receptor mRNA level in the MSF and BF groups was significantly higher than that in the CP group. The results of this study demonstrate that mushroom fiber and sugar beet fiber lowered the serum total cholesterol level by enhancement of the hepatic LDL receptor mRNA.
Article
Elevated cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels are known risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. A number of animal studies have indicated that the consumption of oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) can positively influence the lipid profile. The present intervention study for the first time investigated the cholesterol lowering properties of an oyster mushroom diet in humans. A total of 20 subjects (9 male, 11 female; 20–34years) were randomized to take either one portion of soup containing 30g dried oyster mushrooms or a tomato soup as a placebo on a daily basis for 21days. Standardized blood concentrations of lipid parameters and oxidized low density lipoprotein were measured at the baseline (t0) and after 21days (t21). Treatment with oyster mushroom soup decreased triacylglycerol concentrations (−0.44mmol/L; p=0.015) and oxidized low density lipoprotein levels (−7.2U/mL; p=0.013) significantly, and showed a significant tendency in lowering total cholesterol values (−0.47mmol/L; p=0.059). No effects on low density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein levels were found. The beneficial effects of oyster mushroom on blood serum parameters may be attributed to the presence of linoleic acid, ergosterol and ergosta-derivatives which showed notable activity in oxygen radical absorbance capacity and cyclooxygenase inhibition assays in vitro.
Article
Approximately 14,000 described species of the 1.5 million fungi estimated in the world produce fruiting bodies that are large enough to be considered as mushrooms. The world market for the mushroom industry in 2005 was valued at over $45 billion. The mushroom industry can be divided into three main categories: edible mushrooms, medicinal mushroom products, and wild mushrooms. International bodies/forums have developed for each of these segments of the mushroom industry that have helped to bring them to the forefront of international attention: (1) International Society of Mushroom Science, for edible mushrooms; (2) World Society for Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products, for mushroom biology and medicinal mushroom products; and (3) International Workshop on Edible Mycorrhizal Mushrooms, for some wild mushrooms. The three international bodies/forums have done much to promote each of their respective fields, not the least of which is bringing together scientists in international forums for useful discussions, encouraging research, and the dissemination of valuable information. The outlook for many of the known mushroom species is bright. Production of mushrooms worldwide has been steadily increasing, mainly due to contributions from developing countries such as China, India, and Vietnam. There is also increasing experimentally based evidence to support centuries of observations regarding the nutritional and medicinal benefits of mushrooms. The value of mushrooms has recently been promoted to tremendous levels with medicinal mushrooms trials conducted for HIV/AIDS patients in Africa, generating encouraging results. However, harvests of highly prized edible mycorrhiza mushrooms are continuously decreasing. This has triggered research into devising methods for improved cultivation. It is hoped that there will be even more research into this area, so that larger quantities can be massively harvested through semicultivation methods. Technological developments in the mushroom industry in general have witnessed increasing production capacities, innovations in cultivation technologies, improvements to final mushroom goods, and utilization of mushrooms' natural qualities for environmental benefits. However, there is always the need to maintain current trends and to continue to seek out new opportunities. The challenge is to recognize opportunities such as increasing consumption capabilities with the increase in world population and to take advantage of this by promoting the consumption of mushrooms.
Article
The hypocholesterolemic effect of dietary supplementation with eritadenine, a hypocholesterolemic factor present in the Lentinus edodes mushroom, was investigated in relation to its effect on hepatic phospholipid metabolism in rats. The plasma total cholesterol level was significantly decreased by eritadenine supplementation at levels above 8 μmol/kg of diet in a dose-dependent manner, accompanying decreases in both VLDL + LDL and HDL cholesterol levels. Eritadenine supplementation significantly increased the phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) content and inversely decreased the phosphatidylcholine (PC) content of liver microsomes in a dose-dependent manner. There was a highly significant correlation between plasma cholesterol levels and the content or proportion of PC and PE of liver microsomes. Eritadenine supplementation did not decrease the activity of PE N-methyltransferase in liver microsomes but rather increased the activity, possibly because of the increased PE content of liver microsomes. On the one hand, eritadenine had no direct inhibitory effect on the enzyme activity when added to the assay mixture. On the other hand, eritadenine supplementation increased the hepatic S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) level and decreased the ratio of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to SAH in a dose-dependent manner. The in vivo incorporation of radioactivity of [methyl-3H]methionine into the PC of liver microsomes and blood plasma was also markedly depressed by dietary eritadenine supplementation at a level of 200 μmol/kg of diet. These results suggest that the hypocholesterolemic action of eritadenine might be elicited through an alteration of the hepatic phospholipid metabolism that resulted from an inhibition of PE N-methylation due to a decreased SAMSAH ratio in the liver.
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacological effect of polysaccharides from Lentinus edodes on serum oxidative status and expression of VCAM-1mRNA of thoracic aorta endothelial cell in high-fat-diet rats. Forty male rats received two different diets during 40 days: standard chow (SC) and high-fat-diet (HF). The result indicates that the administration of polysaccharides from L. edodes significantly reduced serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and enhanced serum antioxidant enzyme activity and thymus and liver index in high-fat rats. In addition, the administration of polysaccharides from L. edodes significantly decreased the increased expression level of VCAM-1mRNA in group (V) (P < 0.05). In conclusion, our data suggest that the administration of polysaccharides from L. edodes could decrease the increased oxidation stress induced by high-fat-diet and decrease expression of VCAM-1mRNA of thoracic aorta endothelial cell in rats.
Article
High-fat (HF) diet feeding can induce obesity and metabolic disorders in rodents that resemble the human metabolic syndrome. However, this dietary intervention is not standardized, and the HF-induced phenotype varies distinctly among different studies. The question which HF diet type is best to model the metabolic deterioration seen in human obesity remains unclear. Therefore, in this review, metabolic data obtained with different HF diet approaches are compiled. Both whole-body and organ-specific diet effects are analyzed. On the basis of these results, we conclude that animal fats and omega-6/omega-9-containing plant oils can be used to generate an obese and insulin-resistant phenotype in rodents, whereas fish oil-fed animals do not develop these disorders. Looking at the present data, it does not seem possible to define an ideal HF diet, and an exact definition of diet composition and a thorough metabolic characterization of the HF diet effects in a researcher's specific laboratory setting remains essential for metabolic studies with this model.
Article
Dietary beta-glucans lower the blood concentrations of cholesterol in animals and humans. Recent studies have uncovered mechanisms by which dietary beta-glucans may regulate cholesterol homeostasis. There is evidence that beta-glucans sequester bile acids in the intestine, reducing their reabsorption and return to the liver. Reducing hepatic bile acid concentrations activates the enzyme CYP7A1, which converts cholesterol into bile acids. This action leads to a reduction of hepatic cell cholesterol content, which up-regulates low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor synthesis and thereby accelerates the transportation of LDL-cholesterol from the blood into hepatocytes. Reduced intracellular cholesterol also up-regulates the hepatic synthesis of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol synthesis. Statins inhibit 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and could therefore provide an additive effect in suppressing hepatocyte cholesterol to that produced by enhancing its depletion with beta-glucans. Through this combination of agents, one would expect a greater clearance of LDL from the plasma with lower steady state levels of LDL-cholesterol.