Hepatitis C virus-mixed cryoglobulinemia-lymphoma relationship.
Internal Medicine, "Colentina" Clinical Hospital, Bucharest, RO.Romanian journal of internal medicine = Revue roumaine de médecine interne 01/2011; 49(1):3-10.
HCV (hepatitis C virus) chronic hepatitis has become one the most expensive diseases for public health systems all over the world in the past 10-20 years, a real epidemic, the second most frequent, after hepatitis B virus infection. Due to the complex manifestations, one may consider HCV infection as a "systemic" disease. Mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC) is the most common extrahepatic manifestation of HCV infection, but cryoglobulinemic vasculitis (CV) is considered to be relatively sparse although prevalence studies are needed. Presence of serum cryoglobulins is essential for MC diagnosis, but serum levels do not correlate with the disease activity or prognosis. MC can be defined as a B lymphocyte proliferation disease being characterized by polyclonal activation and antibody synthesis. Evolution to lymphoma should be considered continuous but also other infectious, environmental or genetic factors could be involved. The t (14.18) translocation and Bcl-2 activation in B lymphocytes, B cell-activating factor (BAFF), E2-CD81 interaction, immunoregulatory T CD4+CD25(high) + lymphocytes and type III IFNs might play an important role in MC and lymphoma evolution in HCV patients.
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ABSTRACT: Objective The tetraspanin CD81 is one of the main receptors involved in hepatitis C virus entry. Herein, we aimed to explore the role of microRNAs in regulating CD81 receptor expression and function. Patients and Methods Bioinformatics analysis was carried out to select potential mircroRNAs that binds CD81 3’untranslated region. Liver biopsies taken from 28 HCV genotype- 4 patients and 10 healthy donors were screened. Naïve, JFH1 and ED43/JFH1- infected- Huh7 cells were transfected with mimics and inhibitors followed by analyzing CD81 protein and mRNA expression. This was done using flow cytometry and Q-RT PCR, respectively. HCV entry into Huh7 cells was investigated post-transfection. Binding confirmation was done using luciferase reporter vector harboring wild /mutant target sites of microRNA. The impact of Epigallocatechin-gallate on modulating microRNA/CD81 expression was assessed. Results Bioinformatics revealed that CD81 is a potential down-stream target for miR-194. A significant inverse correlation was found between miR-194 and CD81 expression in liver biopsies of HCV patients. Forcing the expression of miR-194 showed a down-regulation of CD81 protein, mRNA expression and significantly abrogated the HCV infectivity of Huh7 cells. Stimulation with EGCG enhanced mir-194 expression and down-regulated CD81 expression. Conclusion This study showed that mir-194 hinders HCV entry through targeting CD81 receptors.