Quantitative characterization of fluorophores in multi-component nanoprobes by single-molecule fluorescence

Biomedical Optics Express (Impact Factor: 3.65). 10/2011; 2(10):2761-9. DOI: 10.1364/BOE.2.002761
Source: PubMed


Multi-modal nanoparticles incorporating fluorophores are increasingly being used for medical applications. The number of fluorophores incorporated into the nanoparticles during synthesis is stochastic, leaving some nanoparticles devoid of fluorophores. Determining the number, the brightness and the photostability of the fluorophores incorporated, and the percentage of labeled nanoparticles (labeling efficiency) remains challenging. We have determined the aforementioned quantities for two synthesized multi-modal nanoparticles by exploiting the photobleaching of fluorophores at the single-molecule level using a total internal reflection fluorescence microscope. Labeling efficiency was determined by fitting the distribution of incorporated fluorophores with a statistical model and verified by independent experiments.

Download full-text


Available from: Keir C Neuman
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Arguably targeting is one of the biggest problems for controlled drug delivery. In the case that drugs can be directed with high efficiency to the target tissue, side-effects of medication are drastically reduced. Colloidal inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) have been proposed and described in the last 10 years as new platforms for in vivo delivery. However, though NPs can introduce plentiful functional properties (such as controlled destruction of tissue by local heating or local generation of free radicals), targeting remains an issue of intense research efforts. While passive targeting of NPs has been reported (the so called enhanced permeation and retention, EPR effect), still improved active targeting would be highly desirable. One classical approach for active targeting is mediated by molecular recognition via capture molecules, i.e. antibodies (Abs) specific for the target. In order to apply this strategy for NPs, they need to be conjugated with Abs against specific biomarkers. Though many approaches have been reported in this direction, the controlled bioconjugation of NPs is still a challenge. In this article the strategies of controlled bioconjugation of NPs will be reviewed giving particular emphasis to the following questions: 1) how can the number of capture molecules per NP be precisely adjusted, and 2) how can the Abs be attached to NP surfaces in an oriented way. Solution of both questions is a cornerstone in controlled targeting of the inorganic NPs bioconjugates.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Advanced drug delivery reviews
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fast and efficient energy transfer among dyes confined in nanocontainers provides the basis of outstanding functionalities in new-generation luminescent probes. This feature article provides an overview of recent research achievements on luminescent Pluronic-Silica NanoParticles (PluS NPs), a class of extremely monodisperse core-shell nanoparticles whose design can be easily tuned to match specific needs for diverse applications based on luminescence, and that have already been successfully tested in in vivo imaging. An outline of their outstanding properties, such as tuneability, bright and photoswitchable fluorescence and electrochemiluminescence, will be supported by a critical discussion of our recent works in this field. Furthermore, novel data and simulations will be presented to (i) thoroughly examine common issues arising from the inclusion of multiple dyes in a small silica core, and (ii) show the emergence of a cooperative behaviour among embedded dyes. Such cooperative behaviour provides a handle for fine control of brightness, emission colour and self-quenching phenomena in PluS NPs, leading to significantly enhanced signal to noise ratios.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Nanoscale
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nanomedicine is a rapidly growing field in nanotechnology, which has great potential in the development of new therapies for numerous diseases. For example iron oxide nanoparticles are in clinical use already in the thermotherapy of brain cancer. Although it has been shown, that tumor cells take up these particles in vitro, little is known about the internalization routes. Understanding of the underlying uptake mechanisms would be very useful for faster and precise development of nanoparticles for clinical applications. This study aims at the identification of key proteins, which are crucial for the active uptake of iron oxide nanoparticles by HeLa cells (human cervical cancer) as a model cell line. Cells were transfected with specific siRNAs against Caveolin-1, Dynamin 2, Flotillin-1, Clathrin, PIP5Kα and CDC42. Knockdown of Caveolin-1 reduces endocytosis of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (SCIONs) between 23 and 41%, depending on the surface characteristics of the nanoparticles and the experimental design. Knockdown of CDC42 showed a 46% decrease of the internalization of PEGylated SPIONs within 24 h incubation time. Knockdown of Dynamin 2, Flotillin-1, Clathrin and PIP5Kα caused no or only minor effects. Hence endocytosis in HeLa cells of iron oxide nanoparticles, used in this study, is mainly mediated by Caveolin-1 and CDC42. It is shown here for the first time, which proteins of the endocytotic pathway mediate the endocytosis of silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles in HeLa cells in vitro. In future studies more experiments should be carried out with different cell lines and other well-defined nanoparticle species to elucidate possible general principles.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Show more