Determinants of Tobacco Use and Renaming the FTND to the Fagerström Test for Cigarette Dependence

Fagerström Consulting, Jordkull 3670, 26878 Kagerod, Sweden.
Nicotine & Tobacco Research (Impact Factor: 3.3). 01/2012; 14(1):75-8. DOI: 10.1093/ntr/ntr137
Source: PubMed
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Available from: Karl Fagerström, Dec 11, 2014
    • "Pres - ence of four smoking - related diseases ( chronic obstructive pulmonary disease , COPD ; cancer ; diabetes ; cardiovas - cular disease ) was measured with four questions . Level of nicotine dependence was measured with the six - item Fagerström Test for Cigarette Dependence with an index score ranging from 0 to 10 ( Fagerström , 2012 ; Heather - ton , Kozlowski , Frecker , & Fagerström , 1991 ) . Previous quit attempts were also assessed . "
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    ABSTRACT: Background and objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of a web-assisted computer-tailored smoking cessation intervention, an action planning (AP) intervention in which potential quitters were encouraged to form action plans (e.g., plan a quit date) and execute them (e.g., remove ashtrays). We also investigated whether the AP intervention resulted in more AP and plan execution than a similar, control intervention without the supplementary AP component. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, the AP intervention (N = 977) was compared with the control intervention (N = 1,005) in terms of self-reported continued abstinence (CA) and point prevalence abstinence (PPA) six months after baseline. AP, plan execution, and opinion of the intervention were measured one month after baseline. Results: Complete-case logistic regression analysis showed that the AP intervention had a significant effect on CA (OR = 2.01; CI 1.08-3.84, p = .02), whereas intention-to-treat analysis showed a borderline significant effect (OR = 1.68; CI .96-2.92, p = .07). Sixteen percent of the experimental group achieved CA compared to 10% of the control group. The AP intervention had no effect on PPA. The experimental group also showed significantly more AP and plan execution at one month. Execution of plans was associated with smoking cessation. Conclusions: The effects of the AP intervention on CA, AP, and execution of plans were encouraging. The potential for widespread use of web-based interventions means that even small behavioral effects may have an impact on public health. We recommend that the intervention be intensified and improved.
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    • "CPD is significantly associated with nicotine dependence, but differences in dependence are found to be independent of CPD level [12]. However, high cigarette consumption indicates a strong habit and illustrates aspects of dependence such as the time and effort the smoker dedicate to the behaviour [13]. Nicotine dependence has been widely measured in population-based surveys using different measurements like the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) and associated short versions such as the Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI) and time to first cigarette in the morning (TTFC). "
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    ABSTRACT: . The study aim was to examine the influence of education and income on multiple measures of risk of smoking continuation. Methods . Three logistic regression models were run on cigarette consumption, dependence, and intention to quit based on nationally representative samples (2007–2012) of approximately 1 200 current smokers aged 30–66 years in Norway. Results . The relative risk ratio for current versus never smokers was RRR 5.37, 95% CI [4.26–6.77] among individuals with low educational level versus high and RRR 1.53, 95% CI [1.14–2.06] in the low-income group versus high (adjusted model). Low educational level was associated with high cigarette consumption, high cigarette dependence, and no intention to quit. The difference in predicted probability for having high cigarette consumption, high cigarette dependence, and no intention to quit were in the range of 10–20 percentage points between smokers with low versus those with high educational level. A significant difference between low- and high-income levels was observed for intention to quit. The effect of education on high consumption and dependence was mainly found in smokers with high income. Conclusion . Increased effort to combat social differences in smoking behaviour is needed. Implementation of smoking cessation programmes with high reach among low socioeconomic groups is recommended.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015
    • "Test developers assume that individuals' responses to items will differ depending on the degree to which they possess the underlying trait. For example, smokers who are more nicotine dependent are likely to score higher on the Fagerström Test for Cigarette Dependence (Fagerström, 2012) item assessing the number of cigarettes "
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    ABSTRACT: The Autonomy over Tobacco Scale (AUTOS) is composed of 12-symptoms of nicotine dependence. While it has demonstrated excellent reliability and validity, several psychometric properties have yet to be investigated. We aimed to determine (1) whether items functioned differently across demographic groups, (2) the likelihood that individual symptoms would be endorsed by smokers at different levels of diminished autonomy, and (3) the degree of information provided by each item and the reliability of the full AUTOS across the range of diminished autonomy. Data for this study come from two convenience samples of American adult current smokers (n=777; 69% female; 88% white; Mage=34years, range: 18-78), of whom 66% were daily smokers (Mcigarettes/smoking day=10.1, range: <1-70). Participants completed the AUTOS online as part of "a research study about the experiences people have when they smoke." After p value correction, items remained invariant across sex and minority status, while two items functioned differently according to age, with minimal impact on the total AUTOS score. Discriminative power of the items was high. The greatest amount of information is provided at just under one-half SD above the mean and the least at the extremes of diminished autonomy. The AUTOS maintains acceptable reliability (>0.70) across the range of diminished autonomy within which more than 95% of smokers' scores could be anticipated to fall. The AUTOS is a versatile and psychometrically sound instrument for measuring the loss of autonomy over tobacco use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Addictive Behaviors
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