Occupational stress and hypertension

ArticleinJournal of the American Society of Hypertension (JASH) 6(1):2-22 · February 1982with55 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2011.09.002 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Occupational stress, or job strain, resulting from a lack of balance between job demands and job control, is considered one of the frequent factors in the etiology of hypertension in modern society. Stress, with its multifactorial causes, is complex and difficult to analyze at the physiological and psychosocial levels. The possible relation between job strain and blood pressure levels has been extensively studied, but the literature is replete with conflicting results regarding the relationship between the two. Further analysis of this relationship, including the many facets of job strain, may lead to operative proposals at the individual and public health levels designed to reduce the effects on health and well-being. In this article, we review the literature on the subject, discussing the various methodologies, confounding variables, and suggested approaches for a healthier work environment.
    • "On the other hand, there is a lack of studies investigating screening of BP, chronic work stressors and anxiety in young people. Anyhow, studies of this kind may be relatively uneasy to perform due to the enormous number of variables involved, of confounding factors and of the umpteen existing methods (Rosenthal and Alter, 2012). Therefore, the aim of this paper was to study the role of work-related stress and anxiety in the development of HT in a sample of young health care profession students and the potential consequences of early CVDs. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypertension (HT) is a long-term medical condition characterized by persistently elevated blood pressure (BP) in the arterial vessels. Although HT initially is an asymptomatic condition, it chronically evolves into a major risk factor for cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and renal diseases that, in turn, represent crucial causes of morbidity and mortality in industrialized countries. HT is a complex disorder that is estimated to affect more than a quarter of the world's adult population. It is classified on the basis of both its pathophysiology (primary and secondary HT) and on the resting BP values (elevated systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressure). It originates from a complicated interaction of genes and several environmental risk factors including aging, smoking, lack of exercise, overweight and obesity, elevated salt intake, stress, depression, and anxiety. Anxiety and depressive disorders are the most commonly diagnosed mental disorders, affecting millions of people each year and impairing every aspect of everyday life, both of them characterized by affective, cognitive, psychomotor, and neurovegetative symptoms. Moreover, work-related stress has been considered as an important risk factor for HT and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Although different authors have investigated and suggested possible relations between HT, stress, anxiety, and depression during the last decades, a full understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms has not been satisfactorily achieved, especially in young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of anxiety and work-related stress in the development of HT amongst young health care profession students and the possible related consequences of early CVDs.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2016
    • "Men in the informal area mentioned alcohol and drug intake and depression as specific causes of hypertension. There is evidence that sodium intake above the recommended (eating habits), body weight, and possibly stress may be important predictors of development of hypertension [32][33][34][35]. The association between food insecurity and hypertension, even after adjustment with sociodemographic characteristics, was described by several authors (e.g., [14,15]). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Urbanization processes are intertwined with nutritional transition because there is easier access to food of low nutritional quality at reduced prices, changing dietary patterns and leading to an increase of non-communicable chronic diseases. This study aims to understand the perceptions for high blood pressure, obesity, and alcoholism, describing some interactions of these dimensions in the problem of food security in the city of Praia. A qualitative study was carried out under the framework of the research project “UPHI-STAT: Urban Planning and Health Inequalities—moving from macro to micro statistics”. Ten focus groups were conducted in three urban areas with distinct characteristics in the city of Praia, with a total of 48 participants. Participants reported frequent consumption of foods with poor nutritional quality, understanding the potential danger in terms of food security in the city of Praia. Easy access to and high levels of alcohol consumption, and poor quality of traditional drinks were mentioned by participants in the study areas. The impact of the economic situation on the possibility of access to safe and healthy options emerged as a differentiating factor.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2016
    • "A insegurança alimentar também se relaciona com excesso de peso ou obesidade, mas estes resultados são mais consistentes entre as mulheres do que entre os homens e crianças [33,34] . Existe evidência segundo a qual a ingestão de sódio acima do recomendado (hábitos alimentares), o peso corporal e, possivelmente, o stress poderão ser importantes preditores de desenvolvimento da hipertensão [35][36][37][38] Estudos realizados sobretudo nos EUA apresentam correlações entre o estado de saúde e a insegurança alimentar que incluem o aumento da depressão [39] e inadequações nutricionais em adultos [40,41] , e problemas de desenvolvimento psicossocial [42,43] e físico [21,22] em crianças. E, finalmente, pessoas envolvidas em situações de insegurança alimentar também podem ser mais propensas a adiar a toma de medicamentos necessários e de cuidados médicos, priorizando as necessidades básicas [44] . "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The interdependence between social conditions and health conditions are established and the reduction of poverty and promotion of food security are fundamental on the road to better health of populations. Strengthening food security was recognised as one of the cornerstones in the perspective of the social determinants of health. Food insecurity is a daily reality for hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Despite its more often obvious extreme signs, it is more difficult to identify other signs that are revealed in families that face constraints on access to food. In urban areas, food insecurity is related to income, but also to access to food, with the possibility of these situations in urban areas generating another cause of poverty increasing related health problems. In this brief review we seek to reflect on the challenges in terms of social determinants of food security and their interactions with health problems in rapid urbanization contexts, focusing on the African context.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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