Occupational stress and hypertension
Occupational stress, or job strain, resulting from a lack of balance between job demands and job control, is considered one of the frequent factors in the etiology of hypertension in modern society. Stress, with its multifactorial causes, is complex and difficult to analyze at the physiological and psychosocial levels. The possible relation between job strain and blood pressure levels has been extensively studied, but the literature is replete with conflicting results regarding the relationship between the two. Further analysis of this relationship, including the many facets of job strain, may lead to operative proposals at the individual and public health levels designed to reduce the effects on health and well-being. In this article, we review the literature on the subject, discussing the various methodologies, confounding variables, and suggested approaches for a healthier work environment.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Psychosocial job factors (PJF) have been implicated in the development of cardiovascular disease. The paucity of data from developing economies including Mexico hampers the development of worksite intervention efforts in those regions.Methods This cross-sectional study of 2,330 Mexican workers assessed PJF (job strain [JS], social support [SS], and job insecurity [JI]) and biological cardiovascular disease risk factors [CVDRF] by questionnaire and on-site physical examinations. Alternative formulations of the JS scales were developed based on factor analysis and literature review. Associations between both traditional and alternative job factor scales with CVDRF were examined in multiple regression models, adjusting for physical workload, and socio-demographic factors.ResultsAlternative formulations of the job demand and control scales resulted in substantial changes in effect sizes or statistical significance when compared with the original scales. JS and JI showed hypothesized associations with most CVDRF, but they were inversely associated with diastolic blood pressure and some adiposity measures. SS was mainly protective against CVDRF.Conclusion Among Mexican workers, alternative PJF scales predicted health outcomes better than traditional scales, and psychosocial stressors were associated with most CVDRF. Am. J. Ind. Med. 58:331-351, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.0Comments 0Citations
- "Even though the Job-Demand-Control-Support model has consistently been shown to predict employee strain and wellbeing in the psychosocial environment, further research is needed to broaden the applicability and generalizability of this model in different cultures [Ibrahim and Ohtsuka, 2012]. Although most studies point to a positive association between psychosocial work stressors and cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVDRF) or cardiovascular disease [Backe et al., 2012; Kivimaki et al., 2012; Choi et al., 2013;, the literature also includes some findings of inverse or null associations [Eaker et al., 2004; Olesen et al., 2012; Rosenthal and Alter, 2012; Szerencsi et al., 2012]. In Mexico, the relationship between psychosocial factors and health outcomes has barely been explored. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The major objectives of this work are to estimate the hypertension (HT) frequency in the east of Morocco and to study the relationship between HT, type 2 diabetes and obesity. Our sample is composed of 1628 adults aged 40 years and older, recruited voluntarily by using the convenience sampling method through 26 screening campaigns in urban and rural areas of the east of Morocco. We enumerated 516 hypertensive people (31.7%), without significant difference between women (32.5%) and men (30.2%). The known hypertensive people represent 10.1% of the whole sample. The frequency of HT, increases with age and it is more marked in rural (39.9%) than in urban areas (29%) (p < 0.001). It is significantly very high in diabetic subjects (69.9%) than among the non-diabetic ones (27.4%) (p < 0.001). The odd ratio (OR) of the diabetics to HT is 6.16 (IC95% [4.33-8.74]). Among the obese persons, HT is present at (40.8%) vs. (30.2%) among the subjects of normal weight (p < 0.05). The OR of the obese to HT is 1.6 (IC95% [1.26 -2.04]). In conclusion, our results show a high frequency of HT in the east of Morocco; it affects nearly one third of the adult population aged 40 years and older. The relations between type 2 diabetes and obesity have also been identified and estimated.0Comments 3Citations
- "The relations between these three affections are strong and well demonstrated (UKPDS 1998; Grossman and Messerli 1996; Hayashi et al. 2004). Multiple factors such as age, sex, stress, residence, physical inactivity and dietary habits are associated with this vascular disease (Joffres et al. 1997; Tazi et al. 2003; Karppanen and Mervaala 2006; Rosenthal and Alter 2012). Regarding the epidemiology of HT, its prevalence is very worrying; the recent report of the WHO (WHO 2012) shows that one of three adults in the world is affected by HT, more than 2 billion people, most of whom are not diagnosed (Nejjari et al. 2013). "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Mexico black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) fruits are consumed fresh, dried or prepared in jam. Considering the evidence that has linked intake of fruits and vegetables rich in polyphenols to cardiovascular risk reduction, the aim of this study was to characterize the phenolic profile of black cherry fruits and to determine their antioxidant, vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. The proximate composition and mineral contents of these fruits were also assessed. Black cherry fruits possess a high content of phenolic compounds and display a significant antioxidant capacity. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis indicated that hyperoside, anthocyanins and chlorogenic acid were the main phenolic compounds found in these fruits. The black cherry aqueous extract elicited a concentration-dependent relaxation of aortic rings and induced a significant reduction on systolic blood pressure in L-NAME induced hypertensive rats after four weeks of treatment. Proximate analysis showed that black cherry fruits have high sugar, protein, and potassium contents. The results derived from this study indicate that black cherry fruits contain phenolic compounds which elicit significant antioxidant and antihypertensive effects. These findings suggest that these fruits might be considered as functional foods useful for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.0Comments 7Citations
- "Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are increasing throughout the world and are responsible for 34% of annual deaths that occur in low and middle-income countries . Hypertension and other factors associated with modern lifestyle markedly increase the risk of CVD [2,3]. Despite the existence of several pharmacological approaches, the control of these pathologies is low . "