Generation of a Genotype VII Newcastle Disease Virus Vaccine Candidate with High Yield in Embryonated Chicken Eggs
Animal Infectious Disease Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, 12 East Wenhui Road, Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province 225009, China. Avian Diseases
(Impact Factor: 1.24).
09/2011; 55(3):391-7. DOI: 10.1637/9798-963311-DIGEST.1
To generate a genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine with high yield in embryonated chicken eggs, we selected genotype VII NDV strain JS5/05, which possesses a high virus titer in embryos as the parental virus. Using reverse genetics, we generated a genetically tagged derivative (NDV/AI4) of JS5/05 by changing the amino acid sequence of the cleavage site of the F0 protein. Pathogenicity tests showed that NDV/AI4 was completely avirulent. NDV/AI4 was genetically stable and replicated efficiently during 10 consecutive passages in embryos. More importantly, serologic assays showed that oil-emulsion NDV/AI4 induced higher hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers against the prevalent virus than oil-emulsion LaSota vaccine in chickens and geese. Moreover, NDV/AI4-induced HI titers rose faster than those elicited by LaSota in chickens. Both NDV/AI4 and LaSota provided protection against clinical disease and mortality after the challenge with the genotype VII NDV strain JS3/05. However, NDV/AI4 significantly reduced virus shedding from the vaccinated birds compared to LaSota. Taken together, these results suggest that NDV/AI4 can provide better protection than LaSota and is a promising vaccine candidate against genotype VII NDV.
Available from: Zhiqiang Duan
- "And the cytopathic effect and expression of GFP in rZJ1GFP-M/R42A-infected cells were much slighter than rZJ1GFP and rZJ1GFP-M/R45A at 36 h p.i. (Fig. 2b). Moreover, plaque assays were used to evaluate the pathogenicity of the mutant viruses as previously described (Hu et al., 2011). The plaques produced by the viruses were measured using the GNU image manipulation program version 2.8 (http://www.gimp.org) "
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ABSTRACT: The Newcastle disease virus (NDV) matrix (M) protein is a highly basic and nucleocytoplasmic shuttling viral protein. Previous study has demonstrated that the N-terminal 100 amino acids of NDV M protein are somewhat acidic overall, but the remainder of the polypeptide is strongly basic. In this study, we investigated the role of the N-terminal basic residues in the subcellular localization of M protein and in the replication and pathogenicity of NDV. We found that mutation of the basic residue arginine (R) to alanine (A) at position 42 disrupted M's nuclear localization. Moreover, a recombinant virus with R42A mutation in the M protein reduced viral replication in DF-1 cells and attenuated the virulence and pathogenicity of the virus in chickens. This is the first report to show that a basic residue mutation in the NDV M protein abrogates its nuclear localization and attenuates viral replication and pathogenicity.
Available from: Swee Keong Yeap
- "Among the factors that may contribute to this are the presence of concurrent infections, including immunosuppressive diseases , inadequate vaccination  and poor cross-reactivity between the vaccine and field challenge virus strains  . In addition, those chickens that have been vaccinated with a genotype-matched vaccine are better protected against virulent genotype VII NDV challenge and have significantly reduced viral shedding  . "
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ABSTRACT: Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious avian disease and one of the major causes of economic losses in the poultry industry. The emergence of virulent NDV genotypes and repeated outbreaks of NDV in vaccinated chickens have raised the need for fundamental studies on the virus-host interactions. In this study, the profiles of B and T lymphocytes and macrophages and differential expression of 26 immune-related genes in the spleen of specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens, infected with either the velogenic genotype VII NDV strain IBS002 or the genotype VIII NDV strain AF2240, were evaluated. A significant reduction in T lymphocyte population and an increase in the infiltration of IgM(+) B cells and KUL01(+) macrophages were detected in the infected spleens at 1, 3 and 4 days post-infection (dpi) (P<0.05). The gene expression profiles showed an up-regulation of CCLi3, CXCLi1, CXCLi2 (IL-8), IFN-γ, IL-12α, IL-18, IL-1β, IL-6, iNOS, TLR7, MHCI, IL-17F and TNFSF13B (P<0.05). However, these two genotypes showed different cytokine expression patterns and viral load. IBS002 showed higher viral load than AF2240 in spleen at 3 and 4dpi and caused a more rapid up-regulation of CXCLi2, IFN-γ, IL-12α, IL-18, IL-1β, iNOS and IL-10 at 3dpi. Meanwhile, the expression levels of CCLI3, CXCLi1, IFN-γ, IL-12α, IL-1β and iNOS genes were significantly higher in AF2240 at 4dpi. In addition, the expression levels of IL-10 were significantly higher in the IBS002-infected chickens at 3 and 4dpi. Hence, infection with velogenic genotype VII and VIII NDV induced different viral load and production of cytokines and chemokines associated with inflammatory reactions.
Available from: plosone.org
- "The recent outbreaks of ND in different parts of the world highlight the inadequacy of currently used vaccines. In contrast, recent studies indicated that inactivated vaccines , , , ,  or a live attenuated vaccine  developed from currently circulating genotype strains had increased effectiveness. "
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ABSTRACT: Newcastle disease virus (NDV) can cause severe disease in chickens. Although NDV vaccines exist, there are frequent reports of outbreaks in vaccinated chickens. During 2009-2010, despite intense vaccination, NDV caused major outbreaks among commercial poultry farms in Indonesia. These outbreaks raised concern regarding the protective immunity of current vaccines against circulating virulent strains in Indonesia. In this study, we investigated whether a recombinant attenuated Indonesian NDV strain could provide better protection against prevalent Indonesian viruses. A reverse genetics system for the highly virulent NDV strain Banjarmasin/010/10 (Ban/010) isolated in Indonesia in 2010 was constructed. The Ban/010 virus is classified in genotype VII of class II NDV, which is genetically distinct from the commercial vaccine strains B1 and LaSota, which belong to genotype II, and shares only 89 and 87% amino acid identity for the protective antigens F and HN, respectively. A mutant virus, named Ban/AF, was developed in which the virulent F protein cleavage site motif "RRQKR↓F" was modified to an avirulent motif "GRQGR↓L" by three amino acid substitutions (underlined). The Ban/AF vaccine virus did not produce syncytia or plaques in cell culture, even in the presence of added protease. Pathogenicity tests showed that Ban/AF was completely avirulent. Ban/AF replicated efficiently during 10 consecutive passages in chickens and remained genetically stable. Serological analysis showed that Ban/AF induced higher neutralization and hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers against the prevalent viruses than the commercial vaccines B1 or LaSota. Both Ban/AF and commercial vaccines provided protection against clinical disease and mortality after challenge with virulent NDV strain Ban/010 (genotype VII) or GB Texas (genotype II). However, Ban/AF significantly reduced challenge virus shedding from the vaccinated birds compared to B1 vaccine. These results suggest that Ban/AF can provide better protection than commercial vaccines and is a promising vaccine candidate against NDV strains circulating in Indonesia.
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