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Mere Belonging: The Power of Social Connections

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Abstract

Four experiments examined the effect on achievement motivation of mere belonging, a minimal social connection to another person or group in a performance domain. Mere belonging was expected to increase motivation by creating socially shared goals around a performance task. Participants were led to believe that an endeavor provided opportunities for positive social interactions (Experiment 1), that they shared a birthday with a student majoring in an academic field (Experiment 2), that they belonged to a minimal group arbitrarily identified with a performance domain (Experiment 3), or that they had task-irrelevant preferences similar to a peer who pursued a series of goals (Experiment 4). Relative to control conditions that held constant other sources of motivation, each social-link manipulation raised motivation, including persistence on domain-relevant tasks (Experiments 1-3) and the accessibility of relevant goals (Experiment 4). The results suggest that even minimal cues of social connectedness affect important aspects of self.

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... Many of these studies have used the sense of belonging as a variable to explain the attrition of women in different STEM careers. However, the notion of belonging is either taken for granted or understood as Baumeister and Leary do, that is, as "the perception of social connectedness in groups, that is, of fitting in socially with others" [20,21] (as cited in [22]). Valuable though it has been, this conception of the term overlooks the analysis of the discourses of different agents in addition to the individual-such as institutional discourse, that of teachers and that of peers-which shape the different axes of the experience of belonging. ...
... It should be noted that in the aforementioned studies, the notion of belonging is understood as "the perception of social connectedness in groups" [20,21] (as cited in [22]) or it is assumed that the lack of a sense of belonging is directly implicated by the isolation of women due to the low female enrollment numbers [46]. In this article we propose to understand belonging not only as being part of a certain community (membership), but to work with this concept as Yuval-Davis [23] and Antonsich [24] do, distinguishing two analytical levels of this concept, which we will develop in the following section. ...
... As we saw in the previous section, there is a variety of research on the link between belonging (or the lack of it) and the gender gap in some STEM disciplines. However, the notion of belonging is either taken for granted or understood as "the perception of social connectedness in groups" [20,21] (cited in [22]). This notion of belonging, while useful, does not incorporate the formal-contextual dimension proposed by Yuval-Davis and Antonsich [23,24], i.e., "belonging as a discursive resource that constructs, claims, justifies, or resists forms of socio-spatial inclusion and exclusion" [52]. ...
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The low participation of women in STEM fields is well-known and has been well documented around the world. Closing this gap plays a central role in achieving a more equal society and thus sustainable development. The gender gap in STEM must be understood as a complex problem which can be explained through various factors (cultural, economic, and social) and therefore requires the efforts of different disciplines and actors. This article proposes that the hegemonic masculinity theory together with the concept of belonging, understood from the point of view of feminist studies and cultural studies, can contribute a necessary conceptual framework for understanding the causes behind the gender gap in engineering
... We approach the present research from the perspective of social, developmental, and educational psychology. Our interest in developing a measure of HSPP arose from the body of evidence suggesting that college students, like people in general, are often exquisitely attuned to signals of belonging in their environments (e.g., Baumeister & Leary, 1995;Walton et al., 2012). People respond to subtle belonging cues in their social environments-such as the ethnic composition of their small workgroups (e.g., , the ethnic makeup of their university (e.g., Binning & Unzueta, 2013), and the perceived inclusivity of organizational norms and structures (e.g., Murphy et al., 2007)-in the service of a fundamental need to belong (Baumeister & Leary, 1995). ...
... Having a connection to others in academic settings, even simple acquaintances, enhances academic motivation. Walton et al. have termed the superficial connections people share with others in performance domains "mere belonging" (Walton & Cohen, 2011;Walton et al., 2012). Distinct from social belonging, which connotes deeper feelings of acceptance and security, mere belonging describes minimal, chance, trivial, or superficial connections that people share with other people (Walton et al., 2012). ...
... Walton et al. have termed the superficial connections people share with others in performance domains "mere belonging" (Walton & Cohen, 2011;Walton et al., 2012). Distinct from social belonging, which connotes deeper feelings of acceptance and security, mere belonging describes minimal, chance, trivial, or superficial connections that people share with other people (Walton et al., 2012). These connections include things like sharing a birthday with another student, sharing the same taste in food as another student, and coming from the same high school as another student. ...
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The social experience of transitioning to a 4-year university varies widely among students. Some attend with few or no prior contacts or acquaintances from their hometown; others attend with a large network of high school alumni. Using a sample (N = 43,240) of undergraduates spanning 7.5 years at a public university, we examine what factors predict high school peer prevalence (HSPP) on campus and whether HSPP predicts college achievement above and beyond such factors. Analyses found that HSPP was predicted by variables associated with societal privilege (e.g., being White, continuing generation). Above and beyond these variables, HSPP independently predicted higher grades in gateway STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) courses and, among first-generation college students, higher retention. The role of HSPP in fostering equity and inequity is discussed. A preprint of this article is available at https://psyarxiv.com/xhpuc/ .
... Finally, while there is significant evidence regarding a person's strong desire to form and retain social bonds and how that impacts that person's motivated behavior (Cohen and Spencer, 2012), little is known about how that behavior is translated into successful outcomes for senior executive women. Extant research on employee motivation theories and the implications of retention do not narrow the audience's focus specifically on women in senior leadership roles (Ramlall, 2004). ...
... Another gap identified in the literature relates to how social bonds are connected to motivated behavior (Cohen et al., 2012). Participants identified social bonds at work sparingly as they described their lived experiences of belonging. ...
... Participants identified social bonds at work sparingly as they described their lived experiences of belonging. In previous literature, researchers have identified significant evidence regarding a person's strong desire to form and retain social bonds and how that impacts a person's motivated behavior (Cohen et al., 2012). However, this study shows that even when there are limited social bonds in a work environment, there is still evidence of motivated behavior contrary to existing research (Ramlall, 2004). ...
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There is a clear relationship between diversity and financial performance in business. Because diversity and inclusion initiatives continue to be a major focus for organizations, there is a need to better understand how to retain and foster professional women in leadership roles. This study aims to examine how a sense of belonging influences a woman’s successful career progression. Belonging is defined as a feeling of comradery, connection, or community. Specifically, this study investigates how professional women define belonging in a work environment, how they perceive a sense of belonging has fostered or hindered their career progression, and whether company-led efforts have any impact on a woman’s sense of belonging. To test these assumptions, a mixed methods approach was used to examine belonging. First, a survey using a modified version of the General Belongingness Scale was distributed to a group of 30 professional women leaders ranging in ages from 25 to 65 in different industries and functions. Following the completion of the survey, the same group of women were interviewed regarding how they have experienced belonging in a work environment. The results of the analyses showed that belonging has little influence on a woman’s career progression. While the GBS survey indicated that women experienced a strong sense of belonging, the interview results point towards different findings. In fact, women leaders define belonging differently than the common definition and do not identify company-led interventions as having any influence on their achieved sense of belonging. This is particularly true for women more senior in careers. The results also suggest that there are other factors than belonging that significantly influence a woman’s career progression. On this basis, organizations should reconsider how resources allocated to diversity and inclusion programs and practices could be leveraged to have more impact in retaining and promoting women leaders.
... Attitudinal similarity has been found to produce large increases in attraction, as well as higher evaluations of intelligence and morality (17). Sharing biographical features, such as a birthday or letters of one's name, has been found to increase compliance with a request (18), to increase motivation on some achievement-oriented tasks, such as solving a math problem (19), or to improve group performance (20). And sharing idiosyncratic interests (e.g., favorite book, band, or food) has been found to lead to shared emotional stress (21), increased interest in an out-group's culture (22), and greater trust in negotiations (23). ...
... Overall, our findings are consistent with recent work showing how incidental processes based on shared relationships and other characteristics may play a powerful role in shaping political discussions (11). What is more, they also extend previous work regarding the effects of incidental similarity (16,17,19,23) and shared identity (24,25,29) on affect into the domain of opinion change. ...
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In a large-scale, preregistered experiment on informal political communication, we algorithmically matched participants, varying two dimensions: 1) the degree of incidental similarity on nonpolitical features; and 2) their stance agreement on a contentious political topic. Matched participants were first shown a computer-generated social media profile of their match highlighting all the shared nonpolitical features; then, they read a short, personal, but argumentative, essay written by their match about the reduction of inequality via redistribution of wealth by the government. We show that support for redistribution increased and polarization decreased for participants with both mild and strong views, regardless of their political leaning. We further show that feeling close to the match is associated with an 86% increase in the probability of assimilation of political views. Our analysis also uncovers an asymmetry: Interacting with someone with opposite views greatly reduced feelings of closeness; however, interacting with someone with consistent views only moderately increased them. By extending previous work about the effects of incidental similarity and shared identity on affect into the domain of political opinion change, our results bear real-world implications for the (re)-design of social media platforms. Because many people prefer to keep politics outside of their social networks, encouraging cross-cutting political communication based on nonpolitical commonalities is a potential solution for fostering consensus on potentially divisive and partisan topics.
... a variety of interpersonal similarity domains, including personality traits, attitudes, values, physical characteristics, preferred activities, demographic variables, socioeconomic status, occupation, and fleeting subjective experiences (Bond et al., 1968;Byrne, 1961Byrne, , 1971Byrne et al., 1967;Curry & Emerson, 1970;DeBruine, 2002;Griffit, 1966;Lemay & Clark, 2008;Montoya & Horton, 2012;Montaya et al., 2008;Murray et al., 2002;Pinel & Long, 2012;Rokeach et al., 1960;Walton et al., 2012). ...
... and to improve relations between individuals from same-race and other-race categories. Because the eyes are critical to understanding others (Adams & Kleck, 2003;Baron-Cohen et al., 1997;Henderson et al., 2005;Macrae et al., 2002), this work offers important insights into potential interventions related to perceived similarity to decrease miscommunication and misperceptions between races and to facilitate social interactions (Guéguen et al., 2011;Walton et al., 2012;West et al., 2014aWest et al., , 2014b. ...
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One reason for the persistence of racial discrimination may be anticipated dissimilarity with racial outgroup members that prevent meaningful interactions. In the present research, we investigated whether perceived similarity would impact the processing of same-race and other-race faces. Specifically, in two experiments, we varied the extent to which White participants were ostensibly similar to targets via bogus feedback on a personality test. With an eye tracker, we measured the effect of this manipulation on attention to the eyes, a critical region for person perception and face memory. In Experiment 1, we monitored the impact of perceived interpersonal similarity on White participants’ attention to the eyes of same-race White targets. In Experiment 2, we replicated this procedure, but White participants were presented with either same-race White targets or other-race Black targets in a between-subjects design. The pattern of results in both experiments indicated a positive linear effect of similarity—greater perceived similarity between participants and targets predicted more attention to the eyes of White and Black faces. The implications of these findings related to top-down effects of perceived similarity for our understanding of basic processes in face perception, as well as intergroup relations, are discussed.
... Hernandez et al. (2017) found perceived similarity and not demographic similarity (race or gender) served as the dominant dimension influencing the quality of mentoring, highlighting the value of peer mentoring. Quality relationships with fellow students can foster social integration, contributing to academic persistence and success (Tinto, 1993;Walton, Cohen, Cwir, & Spencer, 2012;Yomtov, Plunkett, Efrat, & Marin, 2017). While traditional mentoring is typically hierarchical, peer mentoring pairs a novice with a more advanced peer (Terrion & Dominique Leonard, 2007). ...
... Students who have a sense of belonging to an intellectual task can demonstrate an increase in motivation. Additionally, if students learn that their group belongs in a specific context, there is a large increase in motivation (Walton et al., 2012). For these reasons, networking events included introducing REM DPT students (both first and second-year students) to an interprofessional group of REM leaders in the health sciences field. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine whether a networked mentoring program aligned with the racial/cultural identity development model could mitigate social isolation and promote a sense of belonging among first-year racial and ethnic minority Doctor of Physical Therapy students. Mentoring teams consisted of a first-year minority student, a faculty mentor, and a second-year minority peer mentor. First-year mentees described feeling more connected to the institution through interactions with peer and faculty mentors in mentoring sessions and networking events. Faculty mentors demonstrated a significant increase in cross-cultural psychological capital throughout the six-month intervention period. Peer mentors articulated their professional growth through participating in the networked mentoring model, highlighting the reciprocal benefits associated with mentoring.
... Cognitive maturity allows for stronger racial-ethnic identity (Umaña- Taylor et al., 2014), and the more an individual derives a sense of identity from a group, the more susceptible they become to a stereotype threat impacting that social group (Wout et al., 2008). The existence of subtle and overt biased attributions of negative characteristics to minoritized groups cannot be denied, a fact which has serious implications for achievement and other outcomes (Thoman et al., 2013;Walton et al., 2012). Racial priming, or bringing one's own race into awareness, occurs daily in the lives of stereotyped individuals through interactions with teachers, peers and colleagues, physical surroundings, media, and society (Owens & Massey, 2011;Umaña-Taylor et al., 2014). ...
... Findings from past and current research have consistently demonstrated the power of self-affirmation, with an emphasis on its applicability to minoritized populations in K-12 education. (Binning et al., 2021;Cohen & Sherman, 2014;Walton et al., 2012;Yeager et al., 2013). Cohen et al. (2006Cohen et al. ( , 2009 conducted research to see the effects of psychosocial interventions (i.e., self-affirmation intervention) on performance of minoritized students by removing the stereotype threat. ...
Article
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Disparity exists between racially minoritized students and their White student counterparts in academic achievement. This discrepancy engenders the difference with which students will have opportunities in advanced courses; rates of high school graduation, college acceptance, and completion rates; and salary and quality of life. The academic disparity between the two groups has been found to have roots in stereotype threat, which causes anxiety where the individual’s behavior may confirm the negative stereotypes of one’s in-group. Reducing stereotype threat has been theorized to allow minoritized students and those in negatively stereotyped groups to enhance their academic performance by removing levels of anxiety hampering their performance. Following previous work, whereby the academic achievement gap between Black and White middle school students were reduced, this study examines the effectiveness of such an intervention on 4th grade, elementary students’ reading achievement levels.
... Fourth, by engaging with each other outside of the normal classroom, students create deeper bonds with one another and a new sense of connection within their learning community. In addition to the tangible and pragmatic benefits of opening up new channels of collaboration, feedback, and support, connection aids their sense of belonging in that particular class, a demonstrable pedagogical advantage (Walton et al. 2011). The sharing in experiential exercises leads students to identify psychologically as a member of that course, which positively impacts student motivation. ...
Chapter
Online learning is increasing in popularity, and human ecology and ethnobiology represent disciplines that have not yet been widely available in this unique format. We foresee this changing soon and see many potential benefits and challenges to teaching human ecology and ethnobiology online. Here, we share our experience of developing and offering the online, undergraduate lesson Culture, Ecology, and Health in Mesoamerica. The lesson describes and links the culture and ecology in Mesoamerica to the study and practice of traditional medicine, and explores ways for students to engage in finding creative solutions to issues of traditional ecological knowledge loss and culturally appropriate medical care. In this chapter, we reflect on pedagogical theories relevant to online learning and teaching in hopes of drawing critical attention to factors that influence student success and satisfaction. Based on our experience, we offer suggestions for developing lessons on human ecology and ethnobiology in the online environment.
... A robust empirical finding is that representing the objects of experience as being shared by a collective agent (rather than simply an individual agent) increases the amount of elaborative processing that the target receives. Information under collective attention is remembered better (Elekes et al., 2016;Eskenazi et al., 2013;He et al., 2011;Shteynberg, 2010;Shteynberg et al., 2016;Wagner et al., 2017), felt more intensely (Boothby et al., 2014(Boothby et al., , 2016(Boothby et al., , 2017, pursued more arduously (Shteynberg & Galinsky, 2011;Walton et al., 2012), and enacted more faithfully (Shteynberg & Apfelbaum, 2013). ...
Preprint
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Contemporary research on human sociality is heavily influenced by the social identity approach, positioning social categorization as the primary mechanism governing social life. Building on the distinction between agency and identity in the individual self (“I” versus “Me”), we emphasize the analogous importance of distinguishing collective agency from collective identity (“We” versus “Us”). While collective identity is anchored in the unique characteristics of group members, collective agency involves the adoption of a shared subjectivity that is directed toward some object of our attention, desire, emotion, belief, or action. These distinct components of the collective self are differentiated in terms of their mental representations, neuro-cognitive underpinnings, conditions of emergence, mechanisms of social convergence, and functional consequences. Overall, we show that collective agency provides a useful complement to the social categorization approach, with unique implications for multiple domains of human social life, including collective action, responsibility, dignity, violence, dominance, ritual, and morality.
... We investigated these questions in a longitudinal study of children aged 5-6 years old who were followed across three time-points until age 10 years using a minimal group assignment paradigm, which is often used to create the minimal conditions necessary for people to form groups and to instantiate intergroup bias in evaluation and resource allocation (Otten & Moskowitz, 2000;Otten & Wentura, 1999). Much evidence supports that random assignment of an individual to a novel group is sufficient to trigger in-group favoritism towards that group among children and adults, suggesting in-group affiliation as a rapid, implicit process addressing VIOLENCE EXPOSURE, INTERGROUP BIAS, & PSYCHOPATHOLOGY 8 basic needs for belonging and social wellbeing (Cvencek, Greenwald, & Meltzoff, 2016;Dunham et al., 2011;Dunham & Emory, 2014;Halevy et al., 2012;Otten & Moskowitz, 2000;Otten & Wentura, 1999;Van Bavel et al., 2008;Walton et al., 2012). We focus on childhood, when out-group vigilance is high (Baltazar et al., 2012;Baron & Dunham, 2015;Liberman et al., 2018;Rhodes & Chalik, 2013), and the neural systems underlying social categorization processes are still maturing. ...
Preprint
Strong in-group bonds may promote mental health across development. Violence exposure influences social information processing biases and may also relate to social categorization processes. We examined associations of violence exposure with psychopathology and behavioral and neural indices of implicit and explicit in-group bias after minimal group assignment in children followed longitudinally across three time points from ages 5 to 10 years old (n = 101). In a pre-registered analysis, violence exposure was associated with lower implicit in-group bias, which in turn was associated prospectively with higher internalizing symptoms and mediated the longitudinal association between violence exposure and internalizing symptoms. Violence-exposed children did not exhibit the negative functional coupling between the left vmPFC and left amygdala when classifying in-group vs. out-group members that was observed in children without violence exposure. Reduced implicit bias for one’s in-group may represent a novel mechanism linking violence exposure with the development of internalizing symptoms.
... When students develop a feeling of acceptance in the school environment through healthy relationship with peers and lecturers, it triggers change in their belief about their potential to succeed academically (Yeager & Walton, 2011) when a habitus enters an unfamiliar social setting and is not given adequate support, it could result in disjuncture that could generate insecurity, uncertainty and disquiet ambivalence (Reay, 2005). Therefore, a sense of social connectedness increases the achievement motivation of individuals (Walton et al., 2012) while peer mentoring could enhance students' sense of belonging (Egege & Kutieleh, 2015). Drawing from the literature reviewed, this study hypothesises that cross-cultural interaction influences students' transition experiences. ...
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Worldwide changes in the demography of students and competition in meeting the knowledge and skills needs of students have led to emerging discourse on how universities can enhance the transition experiences of first year students. Consequent to this call, the current study examines the perceptions of first year students about their transition experiences in a university in South Africa. Data were gathered using a survey from a sample of first year students (n = 1538) and evaluated by way of multiple regression analysis. Results revealed that students' sense of belonging, intellectual engagement and supportive campus environment serve as strong predictors of the transition experiences of first year students. The study further highlights the importance of enhancing the transition experiences of first year students by means of strong institutional academic and social support systems and the maintenance of institutional culture that builds a sense of belonging among first year students.
... They may also be guided by cues they observe in their academic environment, cues that could affect their sense of belonging in academia (Walton and Cohen, 2007;Purdie-Vaughns et al., 2008) and their perceived social support in their department. Cues that signal belonging foster greater connection to an academic setting and shape an individual's self-concept (Cohen and Garcia, 2008;Walton et al., 2012), and interventions that secure belonging in potentially threatening academic environments can lead to long term positive outcomes (see Walton and Brady, 2020 for review). For URM students 1 and those who are the first of their family to attend college (hereafter first-generation students or FG), there may be additional uncertainty surrounding their graduate school experiences that may further impact their feelings of belonging in academia (Walton and Cohen, 2007;Byars-Winston, 2014;Mosley and Hargrove, 2014;Council of Graduate Schools, 2015). ...
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The landscape of graduate science education is changing as efforts to diversify the professoriate have increased because academic faculty jobs at universities have grown scarce and more competitive. With this context as a backdrop, the present research examines the perceptions and career goals of advisors and advisees through surveys of PhD students (Study 1, N = 195) and faculty mentors (Study 2, N = 272) in science, technology, engineering, and math disciplines. Study 1 examined actual preferences and career goals of PhD students among three options: research careers, teaching careers, and non-academic careers in industry, and compared the actual preferences of students with what they perceived as being the normative preferences of faculty. Overall, students had mixed preferences but perceived that their advisors had a strong normative preference for research careers for them. Moreover, students who ranked research positions as most desirable felt the most belonging in their academic departments. Further analyses revealed no differences in career preferences as a function of underrepresented minority (URM) student status or first-generation (FG) status, but URM and FG students felt less belonging in their academic departments. Study 2 examined faculty preferences for different careers for their advisees, both in general and for current students in particular. While faculty advisors preferred students to go into research in general, when focusing on specific students, they saw their preferences as being closely aligned with the career preference of each PhD student. Faculty advisors did not perceive any difference in belonging between their students as a function of their URM status. Discrepancies between student and faculty perceptions may occur, in part, because faculty and students do not engage in sufficient discussions about the wider range of career options beyond academic research. Supporting this possibility, PhD students and faculty advisors reported feeling more comfortable discussing research careers with each other than either non-academic industry positions or teaching positions. Discussion centers on the implications of these findings for interpersonal and institutional efforts to foster diversity in the professoriate and to create open communication about career development.
... There is a great amount of literature designed to answer the question of why there is an achievement gap between immigrant and non-immigrant students [1,67,68]. A comparatively new line of research points at students' sense of belonging as a main explanation for minority students' lack of success in academia [49,[69][70][71]. Students who do not feel that they belong might unconsciously distance themselves from the educational do-main. ...
Article
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In the course of their acculturation process, minority students need to negotiate the adaption to the host society’s culture and the maintenance of the culture of their country of origin. This identity construction is complex and may encompass contradicting and competing goals. The adjustment to school is seen as a relevant acculturation marker. An increasingly prominent multidimensional construct is students’ school engagement because it can provide an insight into the way students feel and interact with the emotional, cognitive, and behavioral domains of school. Successful adjustment to school culture, and acculturation in general, can be closely related to school engagement. There is yet no common knowledge about the role bicultural national and/or ethnic identity plays for the three dimensions of school engagement. The present study focusses on minority students in Germany who report a strong bicultural identity (in comparison with single stronger ethnic or national identities, as well as weaker bicultural identification) to explain students’ emotional, cognitive, and behavioral school engagement when controlling for gender, SES, and cultural capital. Data is derived from paper–pencil questionnaires administered in secondary schools in Germany. Regression analyses show that students with a stronger bicultural identity have a significantly higher emotional, cognitive, and behavioral school engagement than their peers with a weaker bicultural identity, when controlling for gender, SES, and cultural capital. The results hint at the relevance of fostering students’ ethnic, but also their national, cultural identity to support their school engagement. Implications for teacher education are discussed.
... konnte jedoch die Bedeutung von sozialem Eingebundenheitserleben von Lernenden für deren Leistung, Motivation und Wohlbefinden nachgewiesen werden (z. B. Marksteiner et al. 2019;Walton und Cohen 2011;Walton et al. 2012). ...
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Zusammenfassung Implizite Theorien, i.e. subjektive Überzeugungen, über die Veränderbarkeit von Eigenschaften spielen im Unterrichtsgeschehen eine entscheidende Rolle, da sie Motivation und Lernerfolg sowie Wohlbefinden von Schüler:innen beeinflussen. Bisherige Forschung hat insbesondere implizite Theorien über die Veränderbarkeit von Intelligenz und Fähigkeiten in den Blick genommen. Wenig Beachtung fanden bislang implizite Theorien über emotionales Erleben wie Gefühle sozialer Eingebundenheit. Die vorliegende Studie untersucht erstmals implizite Theorien über soziale Eingebundenheit bei Lehramtsstudierenden. In zahlreichen Studien konnte bereits die Bedeutung von Gefühlen sozialer Eingebundenheit von Studierenden für deren akademische Leistung, Motivation und Wohlbefinden nachgewiesen werden. Der Untersuchungsbedarf im Lehramtsstudium kann insbesondere vor dem Hintergrund der mit dem Lehramtsstudium verbundenen spezifischen Herausforderungen begründet werden. Ausgehend von bisherigen Befunden wurde angenommen, dass das soziale Eingebundenheitserleben durch die subjektive Überzeugung, dass man selbst beeinflussen kann, wie sehr man akzeptiert und wertgeschätzt wird, gesteigert wird. In einem längsschnittlich angelegten Design wurden N = 68 Lehramtsstudierende während ihres ersten Studienjahrs befragt. Zu vier Messzeitpunkten machten die Proband:innen Angaben zu ihren impliziten Theorien sozialer Eingebundenheit sowie ihrem Eingebundenheitserleben. Entgegen der Annahmen deuten die Befunde manifester autoregressiver Modellanalysen an, dass das Eingebundenheitserleben die impliziten Überzeugungen über soziale Eingebundenheit beeinflussen – wobei die Richtung des Einflusses situationsabhängig ist. Die Befunde werden im Hinblick auf theoretische und praktische Implikationen diskutiert.
... The quality and frequency of our social interactions have strong cognitive, emotional and behavioural consequences, and affect our well-being and health (Baumeister & Leary, 1995). Even short, seemingly impersonal, contact can have significant effects on how we perceive and behave in our surroundings (Walton et al., 2012). Whether we perceive the people around us as friendly, sympathetic, and caring is thus a central aspect of our social cognition, meaning the processes we employ to understand and meaningfully interact with others . ...
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Understanding one's sense of belonging is a central part of identity formation and self-awareness; feeling safe somewhere, with specific people is identified as a basic human need. This paper explores the ideas of children from three age groups in five different European as they discussed the concepts of ‘home’ and ‘belonging’. Findings showed that the children's ideas could be organised into six interrelated aspects: Spatiality, Materiality, Multiplicity, Social Relations, Affect, and Dislocation. Whilst there were differences in the ways that the children conceptualised home across the classes, even the youngest children were able to describe their ideas using metaphors and abstract concepts, and they agreed that a home was more than just a building.
... According to Nuñez (2005), the campus community is established through interactions and gaining knowledge and experience to understand better where a student fits in within the community. Therefore, even minimal social connections can influence students' motivation and persistence (Walton et al., 2012). However, the experiences promoting a sense of community were severely limited or eliminated due to We speculated that the absence of traditional classroom interactions and opportunities for campus involvement because of the COVID-19 pandemic has most likely negatively affected first-year students' sense of belonging. ...
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We explored the challenges with the unplanned change of abruptly shifting to online learning that the COVID-19 pandemic mitigation had on first-year students' perceptions of learning, their connection to the university, and the general college experience. We used a cross-sectional method to gather quantitative and qualitative data using an online survey. More than 200 participating first-year college students indicated concerns with making connections, feeling challenged and unfulfilled with their educational experience, and struggling to adjust to the pandemic-mandated changes. Additionally, we found that students experienced challenges accepting ownership of their learning and navigating ambiguous situations.
... A robust empirical finding is that representing the objects of experience as being shared by a collective agent (rather than simply an individual agent) increases the amount of elaborative processing that the target receives. Information under collective attention is remembered better (Elekes et al., 2016;Eskenazi et al., 2013;He et al., 2011;Shteynberg, 2010;Shteynberg et al., 2016;Wagner et al., 2017), felt more intensely (Boothby et al., 2014(Boothby et al., , 2016(Boothby et al., , 2017, pursued more arduously (Shteynberg & Galinsky, 2011;Walton et al., 2012), and enacted more faithfully (Shteynberg & Apfelbaum, 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
Contemporary research on human sociality is heavily influenced by the social identity approach, positioning social categorization as the primary mechanism governing social life. Building on the distinction between agency and identity in the individual self (“I” vs. “Me”), we emphasize the analogous importance of distinguishing collective agency from collective identity (“We” vs. “Us”). While collective identity is anchored in the unique characteristics of group members, collective agency involves the adoption of a shared subjectivity that is directed toward some object of our attention, desire, emotion, belief, or action. These distinct components of the collective self are differentiated in terms of their mental representations, neurocognitive underpinnings, conditions of emergence, mechanisms of social convergence, and functional consequences. Overall, we show that collective agency provides a useful complement to the social categorization approach, with unique implications for multiple domains of human social life, including collective action, responsibility, dignity, violence, dominance, ritual, and morality.
... When there aren't minor cues of social connection, self-regulation declines and can lead to boorish behavior or major health risk behaviors such as smoking and drug use (Cacioppo & Patrick, 2008). Even minimal social connectedness, defined as "mere belonging" can influence and inspire significant changes in attitudes and behaviors (Walton et al., 2012). ...
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Social innovation can be defined as a more effective solution to a social problem that positively impacts society. The following manuscript is a conceptual discussion where the authors propose a five-stage approach to utilizing social innovation in designing and implementing innovative programming to address complex social issues. The authors provide a unique example that applies this process as the foundation, within a unique musical context. Ultimately, it is hoped by utilizing social innovation concepts within the programming foundation, it will lead to alternative perspectives when addressing complex social issues. ARTICLE HISTORY
... For instance, feeling included or connected to others is associated with better health outcomes (Walton and Cohen, 2011), subjective well-being (King, 2015;Schmidt et al., 2020) and life-satisfaction (Rodríguez-Meirinhos et al., 2020). Additionally, belonging in class affects academic outcomes such as motivation (Walton et al., 2012), engagement (Furrer and Skinner, 2003;King, 2015), and achievement (Buhs and Ladd, 2001;Martin and Dowson, 2009) and additionally can buffer the negative effects of being bullied at school (Marksteiner et al., 2020). Being excluded in contrast, can have severe consequences for an individual's health and well-being . ...
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Given the high numbers of refugees from Syria entering Germany in the recent years, the social integration of refugee youth has become an increasingly important issue in Germany. Thus, the current study examines adolescents’ decisions and reasoning around the inclusion of Syrian peers in Germany. Using a hypothetical scenario, we assessed adolescents’ ( N = 100, M = 13.65 years, SD = 1.93, 51 females, 49 males) peer inclusion decisions and reasoning with attention to comparing inclusion of a Syrian refugee peer and a German peer. Given the importance of group norms for adolescents, we assessed not only adolescents’ own inclusion decisions, but also what they would expect their peer group to decide and what they think their peer group should do. Moreover, adolescents’ underlying reasoning was assessed. The analyses revealed that adolescents thought they would be more inclusive of a Syrian peer than a German peer and that their peer group should be more inclusive of a Syrian peer than a German peer. These tendencies toward including refugees were justified with references to morality as well as social-conventions. In contrast to their own decisions and to what they think their peer group should , participants expected their group would be more inclusive toward a German peer than a Syrian peer. This was mainly justified by referencing aspects of group functioning and psychological information about the peers, whereas moral and prosocial reasoning was very rarely used for the expected group decision. In sum, these findings document that adolescents in Germany wish to be inclusive regarding refugee peers and that they balance attention to morality and other domains of social reasoning when thinking about inclusion decisions while they expect that their peers will not consider morally relevant information when making these decisions. These findings have important practical implications as they indicate the importance of interventions that focus on promoting inclusive peer group norms.
... Such virtual social connections saw a sharp rise during the pandemic (e.g., Felder, 2020). Studies in pre-COVID times have established the power of social connecting in building positive mental health (e.g., Walton et al., 2012). And in a survey of Australians during the height of the pandemic restrictions (April-May 2020), online social connections reduced health anxiety and depression among individuals who were highly isolated (Stuart et al., 2021). ...
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COVID‐19 turned the lives of all people across the world upside down. Everyone faced the threat of catching the virus and denial of access to the physical marketplace. For many, it also brought the threat of partial or full unemployment. This trinity of upheaval produced heightened anxiety. The purpose of this paper is to understand how consumers coped with anxiety during the pandemic and lockdown periods. We hypothesized that consumers coped with such anxiety by engaging in diverse creative and productive activities, which served as anxiety suppressors. In addition, we hypothesized that one’s enduring mind positivity provided resilience and helped consumers mitigate their anxiety. In survey data from a random sample of 550 consumers in U.S., we found support for these hypotheses. Consumers who engaged in voluntary productive activities suffered less anxiety. And consumers with higher resilience levels also felt lower levels of anxiety. Additionally, we found that enjoyment of shopping intensified the experience of COVID‐19‐induced anxiety. The research framework linking this specific set of antecedents to COVID‐induced anxiety and its affirmation in this study are new to the literature and therefore offer a notable contribution to it. These findings show two pathways to marketers: Organize and promote voluntary productive activities and offer means for consumers to cultivate personal resilience, on for‐profit and not‐for‐profit platforms. Also, we suggest a future consumer research agenda for when fate again brings us face‐to‐face with similar or even lesser catastrophes, which, according to scientific forecasters, it sadly but surely will.
... The theory of social exchange offers the explanation that satisfied consumers feel an obligation to reciprocate by engaging in beneficial behavior for the other party in the exchange process (Homans, 1958). Satisfied students are consistently reported to exhibit advocacy and referral behavior (Walton et al., 2012). Since involved parents have a natural interest in their children's future, parents who have favorable evaluative university experiences will aim to steer their children towards familiar educational prospects that offer their children the best chance in life. ...
Conference Paper
This study aims to investigate the impact of involved parents campus site visit on high school student enrollment. We develop a model that draws on concepts from service marketing and sociology for empirical testing. Data was obtained from 339 parents of final-year high school students’ immediately after their campus site visits and analyzed using SEM. The results indicate that antecedents of parent satisfaction include human encounters, university reputation, and physical setting. Satisfaction was found to drive intention to advocate to children and brand preference. These two outcomes were found to affect enrollment, which is operationalized as tuition payment behavior. The results offer managerial implications for university administrators in their quest to augment student recruitment processes.
... More precisely, needs for relatedness can function as a powerful motivational force that favors interpersonal relationships (e.g. Walton, Cohen, Cwir, & Spencer, 2012). With warm relationships with teachers, students are more generally motivated to learn (Wentzel, Battle, Russell, & Looney, 2010) and show greater engagement (Claessens et al., 2017;White, 2013). ...
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The present study investigated whether students' motivational beliefs act as a mediator in the association between teacher-student relationships (TSRs) and foreign language performance with a multiple mediation model. Furthermore, this research examined whether mediating roles of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation differ. A total of 1171 eighth graders (583 male, 588 female) were chosen with purposive sampling in China. Student-reported measures of TSRs, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and English as a Foreign Language (EFL) test based on national curriculum were administrated in October 2017. Results showed that the positive link between TSRs and foreign language performance is partially mediated by intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and the mediation effect of intrinsic motivation is significantly greater than that of extrinsic motivation, controlling for gender and socioeconomic status. The results indicated that supportive TSRs can help learners to improve their foreign language proficiency by promoting their motivation, especially intrinsic motivation. The present results may have substantive theoretical and practical implications for teacher education and foreign language learning. El rol de la motivación en los efectos de las relaciones profesor-estudiante en el rendi-miento de la lengua extranjera. RESUMEN: El presente estudio investigó si las creencias motivacionales de los estudiantes actúan como mediadores en la asociación entre las relaciones profesor-alumno (TSR) y el rendimiento de un idioma extranjero con un modelo de mediación múltiple. Además, esta investigación examinó si los roles mediadores de la motivación intrínseca y extrínseca difie-ren. Se eligieron 1171 alumnos de octavo grado (583 hombres, 588 mujeres) con muestreo intencional en China. En octubre de 2017, se aplicaron a los estudiantes las pruebas de TSR, la motivación intrínseca y extrínseca y la prueba de inglés como idioma extranjero (EFL) ba-sadas en el plan de estudios nacional. Los resultados mostraron que el vínculo positivo entre TSR y el desempeño de un idioma extranjero está parcialmente mediado por la motivación intrínseca y extrínseca, y el efecto de mediación de la motivación intrínseca es significativa-mente mayor que el de la motivación extrínseca, controlando el género y el estatus socioeco-Porta Linguarum Nº 33, enero 2020 130 nómico. Los resultados indicaron que los TSR de apoyo pueden ayudar a los alumnos a me-jorar su dominio del idioma extranjero ya que promueven su motivación, especialmente la motivación intrínseca. Los resultados actuales pueden tener importantes implicaciones teó-ricas y prácticas para la formación del profesorado y el aprendizaje de lenguas extranjeras. Palabras clave: relaciones profesor-alumno; motivación intrínseca; motivación extrínseca; teoría de la autodeterminación; modelo de mediación múltiple
... The theory of social exchange offers the explanation that satisfied consumers feel an obligation to reciprocate by engaging in beneficial behavior for the other party in the exchange process (Homans, 1958). Satisfied students are consistently reported to exhibit advocacy and referral behavior (Walton et al., 2012). In many cases, parents have attended university themselves and wish for their children to relive their experiences (Eldegwy et al., 2022). ...
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This study drew on different streams in the literature to theorize a power shift in favor of parents in the post Covid-19 era. We investigated the impact of parents’ campus site visits on university enrollment decisions by empirically testing a model that draws on concepts from service marketing and sociology and links university enrollment to parents’ evaluative and intentional constructs. Data were obtained from 339 parents of final-year high school students immediately after their campus site visits and analyzed using structural equation modelling. The results indicate that antecedents of parent university satisfaction include human encounters, university reputation, and physical setting. Satisfaction was found to drive intention to advocate to children and brand preference. These two outcomes affected enrollment. The results offer important theoretical contributions to the field of higher education marketing and present managerial implications for university administrators in their quest to augment student recruitment processes.
... Greater familiarity generates what Horgan (2012, p. 619) referred to as "soft solidarity, " a form of mutuality recognized and sustained by apparent strangers without a requirement of explicit recognition. It also, at a minimum, engenders the surprisingly health sustaining feeling of mere belonging, a minimal social connection to another person or group (Walton et al., 2012). Irrespective of the outcome, neighborhood walking expands our imagined geographies, making our neighborhoods better places to live. ...
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Neighborhood social ties matter crucially, especially during stressful life events like a global pandemic, for they represent vital sources of wellbeing and community capacity. Activities that enable community members to engage in incidental sociability and acts of “neighboring”—that is, authentic social interactions with their neighbors—warrant attention from sport and active living researchers because of their potential to bolster the social fabric of our neighborhoods and facilitate neighbors' access to important resources, such as information, material resources, and social support. Though perhaps dismissed as trivial, neighborhood walking represents a valuable and underappreciated everyday activity that fits this description, especially in an age characterized by an epidemic of social isolation and loneliness. Despite its vast potential to address the quasi-anonymity of urban life, neighborhood walking remains surprisingly underexamined as a facilitator for fostering social connectedness, the sense of connection and social bond people feel toward others. The goal of this manuscript, therefore, is to establish the conceptual grounding for how neighborhood walking strengthens social ties among neighbors to facilitate access to important coping resources. In doing so, it aims to advance a research agenda on walking that moves beyond the benefits of physical activity.
... Consistent with many research studies demonstrating the importance of students having a sense of belonging in their classes (Master & Walton, 2013;Walton et al., 2012), in zero-order correlations, we found that our measures of GI were all related in expected ways to school belongingness measures, with inclusion and social costs concerning other-gender peers being more strongly related than was efficacy. However, when we controlled for the same-gender variables, stability of constructs, and other covariates, we found that only other-gender inclusion predicted later school-related outcomes. ...
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Most US students attend coeducational classes, but to what extent do students feel integrated into the entire classroom of their peers, especially with other-gender peers? The major goal of this research was to investigate how variations in gender integration (GI), measured by students’ expectancies about inclusion, efficacy, and social costs of interacting with other-gender (OG) peers, predicted school liking and classroom supportiveness over an academic year, using a short-term longitudinal design. We also explored how students’ expectancies changed over the year. Participants included elementary school students (515 school-age children; 51% boys, Mage = 9.08 years, SD = 1.00; 3-5th grade; 26 classrooms). A two-wave latent change score model showed that changes over the year varied depending on type of expectancy, grade, and gender, with decreases in inclusion and efficacy for boys. Longitudinal path analyses conducted to assess whether GI expectancies predicted school belongingness showed that students’ levels of other-gender inclusion in the Fall uniquely predicted changes in levels of school liking and classroom community over the year, even with many controls in the model. The findings demonstrate that students’ relationships with other-gender peers matter for having a sense of belonging in school, and educators should support and encourage these relationships.
... In high fear of authority situations, individuals often have increased fear of negative evaluations and social anxiety, which weaken their self-esteem [47,48]. Seeking consistency with authority is a means of obtaining connections and improving self-esteem [49]. Even if individuals have doubts about their superiors' decisions, they may be unwilling to express this doubt and even persuade themselves that the decision is correct to address the cognitive dissonance. ...
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Power distance is the degree of acceptance of unequal distribution of power in societies. In a high power distance context, the acceptance of inequality conflicts with the operation of modern organizations, which causes obstacles to workplace communication or even triggers workplace accidents due to ineffective communication. We conducted four studies (N = 1063) to explore the relations between and mechanisms of power distance belief and workplace communication. In Study 1, the participants with high power distance belief had ineffective workplace communication—specifically ineffective communication with superiors—but no difference in communication with subordinates and colleagues. We further focused on the mechanism underlying the relationship between power distance belief and communication with superiors. A questionnaire study (Study 2) was conducted in three stages over a three-month period, and an experimental study (Study 3) indicated that fear of authority mediated the negative effect of high power distance on communication with superiors. A cross-culture study (Study 4) re-tested the hypotheses among Chinese and U.S. participants. This research provides insight into the mechanisms that explain the relationship between power distance belief and workplace communication, indicating that fear of authority is significant. Organizations should pay attention to power distance belief and fear of authority, as they may lead to workplace accidents due to communication disasters.
... Even symbolic cues of social connection can facilitate the sharing of motivation from one person to another. In one study, undergraduates worked 50% longer on a math puzzle when they believed they shared a birthday with a math major than when they were exposed to the same person with a different birthday (Walton, Cohen, Cwir, & Spencer, 2012; see also Fitzsimons & Bargh, 2003;Shteynberg & Galinsky, 2011). ...
Article
A common method to promote behavior change, particularly in contexts related to collective action, is to reference a social norm and ask people to comply with it. We argue that such appeals will be more effective when they couch the norm as an invitation to work with others toward a common goal. In six experiments, we found that working-together normative appeals, which invited people to "join in" and "do it together," increased interest in (Experiments 1, 4, and 5) and actual charitable giving (Experiment 2), reduced paper-towel use in public restrooms (Experiment 3), and increased interest in reducing personal carbon emissions (Experiment 6). By contrast, normative-information appeals, which included the same normative information but no reference to working together, did not affect interest or behavior. Mediation analyses suggest that working-together normative appeals were more effective because they fostered a feeling in participants that they were working together with others, which increased motivation, while inducing less social pressure, which undermined effectiveness. Results show how the very collective nature of collective action problems can be leveraged to promote personal behavior change and help solve societal problems. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... In this study, participants questioned whether they belonged in their health sciences field, but felt validated by mentors who role-modeled perseverance. Peer mentors served as relatable mentors who role-modeled success, highlighting that quality relationships with fellow students can foster social integration and contribute to academic persistence and success [44][45][46]. Qualitative data revealed that participants felt less isolated after interacting with mentors and grew more confident in their ability to succeed in their chosen professions. These findings replicate those of the pilot study, which was implemented in person [18], again highlighting the value of virtual mentoring. ...
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Minoritized health sciences students report experiencing social isolation and discrimination, and cite the lack of faculty representation as barriers to their success. While virtual mentoring can increase sense of belonging and connectedness, these effects have not been examined in minoritized health sciences students. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether virtual mentoring from faculty and peers could decrease social isolation and promote social belonging among minoritized first-year physical therapy and nursing students. Using a mixed methods explanatory sequential design, racial and ethnic minority physical therapy and nursing students (n = 8) received virtual mentoring and attended virtual networking events while students from across the health profession programs served as a comparison group (n = 16). While virtual mentoring relationships took longer to establish, there was an increase in satisfaction with mentoring for the intervention group compared with no improvement for the comparison group who received traditional academic advising. Qualitative data analysis revealed that mentors served as role models who had overcome barriers and persevered, decreasing feelings of isolation, and bolstering mentee confidence. A virtual multiple-mentor model can decrease isolation and promote social belonging for minoritized students and offer support for students even after the pandemic.
... IN THE CLASSROOM 5 So, how can instructors provide relatedness support? The literature has demonstrated the "what"instructor involvement and respect for students that promote relatedness (Niemiec & Ryan, 2009;Walton et al., 2012), but not as much the "how"evidence-based teaching strategies that enhance these elements. Through our experiences as a psychology instructor and SDT scholar (second author) and an undergraduate TA (first author), we connect theory to practice in this article by summarizing relevant research, proposing four relatedness-supportive strategies in the college classroom, and providing examples of corresponding practical activities in a physiological psychology course. ...
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Introduction Relatedness—a sense of meaningful connectedness and belonging—is one of the basic psychological needs proposed by self-determination theory. Statement of the Problem The current literature lacks evidence-based strategies that support student relatedness in the college classroom. In education, research has indicated what strategies support relatedness, but not how to implement this well-established and important concept in the college classroom. Literature Review Self-determination theory suggests that supporting relatedness between the instructor and students, and among students, can foster intrinsic motivation, internalization of extrinsic motivation, and performance in educational settings. Teaching Implications We present four evidence-based relatedness-supportive strategies—facilitating learning connections, preventing student self-silencing, providing and receiving feedback, and developing a student-centered classroom—to help promote greater student engagement and success in the classroom. We also share our examples and experiences applying these strategies as an instructor and an undergraduate teaching assistant in a physiological psychology course. Conclusion Feedback from students and our reflections suggest that the four strategies are effective, which can be adopted and adapted by other instructors to implement in their classrooms.
Article
Background and purpose Supporting clinician mental health and well-being must start in the learning environment, especially as health profession students have been shown to have higher rates of mental illness than their peers pursuing other careers. This project aimed to support positive mental health in pharmacy students through small changes that faculty implemented both inside and outside of the classroom. Educational activity and setting In partnership with the Counseling and Mental Health Center, faculty received training, resources, and (in some cases) classroom observation and feedback on how to incorporate small changes that support student well-being. Assessments were performed each semester beginning in spring 2018 and ending in spring 2020. These included the Mental Health Continuum – Short Form (measuring positive mental health and well-being), the Theories of Intelligence Scale – Self Form for Adults (measuring growth mindset), the Sense of Belonging Scale (measuring five domains of social connectedness), and the Brief Resilience Scale (measuring resilience). Participating faculty were surveyed regarding how frequently selected activities were incorporated into their practice and how comfortable they felt supporting student mental health. Findings Positive trends were seen throughout the project on the scales assessing growth mindset and sense of belonging. Summary Supporting positive mental health in pharmacy students in the learning environment is important for both students and the quality and safety of the health care system. Future efforts should expand on this work by refining the measurements used, identifying more interventions, and evaluating the impact these efforts have as students become pharmacists.
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At Disney World, the name tags of Cast Members (as they like to call themselves) are magical. I remember laying eyes on these name tags on a family vacation and thinking, in a flash, that Walt Disney was a psychological genius. Why? Well, for one thing, right off the bat, my family was on a first-name basis with every Cast Member we met. This subtle cue was one a way for Walt to make the millions of Disney World visitors—including us—feel at home. Even better, right under their first name, printed in bold, capital letters, was each Cast Member's hometown or college. This small detail had the effect of turning a total stranger into a real person, with a childhood and a life story. What's more, it led effortlessly to connections like these: “Detroit! My Aunt Sue lived near there. Do you know a little town called Pinckney?” In other words, the name tags of Disney Cast Members are, effectively, a social belonging intervention. Because a big part of social belonging is feeling like you have something in common with the people around you.
Article
The present study investigates the role of sense of belonging on dropout intention in teacher education with a special focus on immigrant teacher students. We present data from a survey of 925 German teacher students using two times of measurement. The results confirm the significance of sense of belonging for the dropout rate among students in teacher education and support our hypotheses that immigrant students show a lower sense of belonging and higher dropout intentions.
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This research examines the effect of a contagion threat on consumers' social connectedness. Across two experiments, we show that when consumers are near others in public places during a pandemic (but not before or after), they psychologically distance themselves by perceiving lower social connectedness. This reduction in social connectedness is higher when consumers have more (vs. less) psychological ownership of the public place (Study 1). Further, the negative effect of psychological ownership on social connectedness found during (but not after) a pandemic is attenuated when consumers do not believe the disease is a severe threat to their own health (Study 2). We examine downstream effects by illustrating that both individual psychological ownership and social connectedness contribute to collective psychological ownership, which in turn enhances stewardship of the public place. The interacting effects of a contagion threat and psychological ownership on stewardship are not explained by territorial infringement, self-esteem, perceived crowding, positive or negative affect, hope or nostalgia.
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One reason for the persistence of racial inequality may be anticipated dissimilarity with racial outgroups. In the present research, we explored the impact of perceived similarity with White and Black targets on facial identity recognition accuracy. In two studies, participants first completed an ostensible personality survey. Next, in a Learning Phase, Black and White faces were presented on one of three background colours. Participants were led to believe that these colours indicated similarities between them and the target person in the image. Specifically, they were informed that the background colours were associated with the extent to which responses by the target person on the personality survey and their own responses overlapped. In actual fact, faces were randomly assigned to colour. In both studies, non‐Black participants (Experiment 1) and White participants (Experiment 2) showed better recognition of White than Black faces. More importantly in the present context, a positive linear effect of similarity was found in both studies, with better recognition of increasingly similar Black and White targets. The independent effects for race of target and similarity, with no interaction, indicated that participants responded to Black and White faces according to category membership as well as on an interpersonal level related to similarity with specific targets. Together these findings suggest that while perceived similarity may enhance identity recognition accuracy for Black and White faces, it may not reduce differences in facial memory for these racial categories.
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The increase in student diversity, legislative changes and shift towards the social model of disability has led to greater emphasis on inclusive curricula within Higher Education (HE). Whilst there are good examples for changes in assessment, delivery and student support, specific challenges faced by Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics students in relation to laboratory teaching are less well understood. A questionnaire approach was used to determine barriers that students face within laboratory teaching. Questionnaire invitations were distributed by email to undergraduate students at institutions within the United Kingdom with a total of 232 responses. Results indicated a lower sense of belonging for female students and those with a disability. Differences between ethnic groups could not be identified due to low numbers of Black Asian, Minority Ethnic students, which highlights broader issues of participation in STEM subjects. Prior experience of students in relation to the number of labs, rather than subject, was also important, emphasising the critical link between school and HE. Communication of information was critical for learning with students often requiring multiple methods; timing and structure of this were important. A more inclusive lab environment can be developed through the use of online support, better structuring of labs and changes to assessment.
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Many studies have discussed how motivation in task‐related groups is affected by culture. Despite this, the psychological processes underlying these cultural differences have not yet been fully investigated. This study examined the effects of self‐construal on social compensation, that is, motivation gain caused by the expectation of coworkers' poor performance. Participants were 111 Japanese undergraduate students. They were asked to engage in nine tasks as a team with a coworker whose intelligence was inferior or superior and allocate tasks between themselves and their coworkers. We measured the number of tasks that participants selected as their own work as a dependent measure. The results showed that those with interdependent selves were less likely to engage in social compensation even when their coworkers' capability was low.
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Sleep has strong influences on affective and social experiences. However, less is known about the reciprocal effects of sleep, affect, and social experiences at a daily level, and little work has considered racial/ethnic minorities at high risk for social disconnection and discrimination. A 7-day daily experience study assessed the bidirectional relationships between daily sleep quality, affect, social experiences, and overall well-being among a sample of Latinx undergraduates (N = 109). Each morning, participants reported on their previous night's sleep. Each evening, they reported their positive and negative affect, experiences of belonging and unfair treatment, and overall well-being that day. Results indicate that, at a daily level, sleep quality predicts next-day affect, belonging, and well-being. Reciprocally, only daily well-being predicts sleep quality. Findings highlight sleep as a potentially powerful antecedent of affective and social experiences likely to be particularly potent for underrepresented minority groups.
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Background As a versatile and dynamic process, classroom climate directly affects the learning levels of students and their quality of life while in school. Objectives The study was conducted to explore and compare nursing students' perceptions of classroom climate throughout four years of university education and to evaluate the influencing factors. Design and settings The longitudinal study was conducted between 2017 and 2020 in the nursing department of a university in Turkey. Participants The study was carried out with 134 nursing students who enrolled in their first year and agreed to participate in the study. Methods The data were collected at the end of the fall semester of each of the four years using the Student Information Form and the Classroom Climate Inventory. Results The mean score of students' perceptions of classroom climate was 2.88 ± 0.83 for all academic years. The classroom climate inventory mean scores of fourth-year students were statistically significantly higher than their scores in the first and third years (p = 0.000). The students' classroom climate levels were statistically significantly affected by the positive classroom communication among students in all academic years in a positive direction. Statistically significant effective factors in students' classroom climate perceptions by year were as follows: the sense of belongingness to the class in the second and third years (although significantly lower in the first year), socio-cultural activities organized at school the second and fourth years (p < 0.05), instructors' attitudes supporting classroom communication in the first year, and opportunities supporting communication in the school environment in the fourth year (p < 0.05). Conclusions Students' perception of the classroom climate was moderate overall and affected by positive classroom communication among students in all academic years. School administrators and educators can develop strategies and organize activities to increase positive communication in the classroom.
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This article presents a grounded model of how educators earn students’ trust in a high performing U.S. urban high school. This long-term anthropological project set out to understand the beliefs and practices of experienced teachers and staff members nominated by students as helping them feel like they belonged in school. Analysis of study data revealed a process of mutual discernment whereby adults and young people were reading one another as they explored the possibilities of entering into learning partnerships. For the educators, study data led us to infer that their trust building strategies were largely based on imagining the student discernment process, and responding to a set of unspoken queries about them that, over time, they seem to have learned were often on the minds of students (e.g. “Why are they here?” “How much do they respect me?”). The grounded model and practice-based evidence presented here summarize the strategies and approaches educators used to respond to these unspoken queries and communicate to students various aspects of their selves and their stance, including their motivation, empathy and respect for students, self-awareness and credibility, their professional ability, and finally, their commitment to helping students and investing emotional labor in them. Throughout, data are also presented regarding how students perceived and experienced these strategies, and ultimately how they interpreted and appraised their relationships with educators, as trusting relationships were developed.
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Statistics is not the subject most psychology students are feverishly looking forward to. Fears and doubts about its relevance are quite common. This is especially pronounced at our institution, a large distance-teaching university with highly heterogeneous students. We recognized three clusters of students that might need special support: (1) students with fear of statistics, (2) students whose school time was a long time ago, (3) students who already failed the statistics exam. We gave those students the opportunity to participate in small, supervised groups to discuss learning strategies, problems, or fears. Students who did not participate served as a control group. We exploratively evaluated which kind of students were interested, and if the groups affected attitudes towards statistics, general self-efficacy, and exam-related variables. Interest and activity in the groups were low. No unique effect of participation in the groups on attitudes and grades were observable. Students stated that the groups did not help them to deal with the course. If these results prove stable in further studies with an improved design, one might conclude that setting up such small groups is not worth the effort.
Thesis
Kelangkaan studi tentang fanboy K-Pop menjadikannya fenomena yang menarik diteliti, terlebih karena mereka tak jarang dikaitkan dengan tuduhan homoseksualitas seperti, “laki-laki kok suka laki-laki". Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kualitatif dengan pendekatan fenomenologi. Teori utama yang digunakan adalah fenomenologi Schutz dan fan studies yaitu Becoming A Fan dari Cavicchi dan budaya penggemar. Subjek penelitian adalah tujuh fanboy NCT, mengingat popularitas boygroup NCT saat ini. Subjek penelitian ini didapat melalui metode purposive dan snowball. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa para fanboy NCT dalam penelitian ini memiliki kesamaan dan perbedaan dalam hal pengalaman, budaya penggemar yang dikembangkan, stok pengetahuan, dan pemaknaan sebagai fanboy sehingga menghasilkan kategori yang bersifat kolektif dan individual yang khas. Selain itu penelitian ini menemukan adanya tipe-tipe fanboy yang khas dengan budaya penggemar masing-masing yang ditonjolkan seperti fanboy dance cover, fanboy online, fanboy yang menyukai acara gathering, dan fanboy yang menjadi collector. Terdapat tiga kategori proses menjadi fanboy NCT yaitu pengaruh orang lain, ketidaksengajaan, dan sebagai SM stan. Banyaknya member membuat banyaknya bias yang dimiliki sehingga makin membuat fanboy terikat dengan NCT. Ketertarikan fanboy pada NCT lebih bersifat platonis dibanding melihat dalam kerangka orientasi romantis. Budaya penggemar berupa budaya konsumsi meliputi konsumsi fisik seperti mengoleksi photocard; konsumsi konten seperti metode khusus dalam streaming MV; konsumsi fanwork seperti fan-theories dan MV reaction; budaya partisipasi berupa dance cover, berdonasi atas nama NCT, dan menjadi fantrepreneur; mengembangkan jejaring penggemar dengan sesama NCTzen dan penggemar KPop lain baik melalui tatap muka maupun online, membuat fan-account, menjadi roleplayer, dan mengikuti NCT Selca Day; dan mengembangkan fan-knowledge. Fanboy juga memiliki shipping di NCT. Makna menjadi fanboy dari rangkaian pengalaman pribadi fanboy berupa menantang, biasa saja, dan susah. Menjadi fanboy juga membawa pengalaman yang khas berkaitan dengan kategori penggemar berdasarkan gender bagi mereka. Selain itu, subjek penelitian mengembangkan maskulinitas positif setelah menjadi fanboy NCT.
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Purpose The purpose of this research is to outline and investigate a set of five experience elements from neuroscience research labeled SCARF that could impact the quality of perception, evaluation and engagement of executives, managers and employees in business-to-business (B2B) companies during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. The proposed experience elements are perceived status, certainty, autonomy, relatedness and fairness. The authors demonstrate that all five elements are influential factors in B2B employees’ workplace environment during the COVID-19 pandemic. The authors outline several specific managerial implications and describe how companies can make better decisions related to several important market crisis decisions via a growth mindset built on the five experience elements. The authors also pay attention to implications to several B2B areas of research focus, including salesforce management and buying/supplier relationships. Design/methodology/approach The authors first examine existing B2B research to gauge if the five elements have been examined in B2B business contexts. They then analyze a combination of quantitative and qualitative survey data from 335 employees of different B2B companies to see if the five experience elements surface in discussion on how the pandemic has impacted their work experience and careers. Findings The authors find that several B2B research studies have looked at each of the individual components of the SCARF model, but none of them have yet included all five elements together in research or looked at them in the context of COVID-19. The results of analysis of surveys from employees in 335 B2B companies provide strong evidence that all five elements are influential factors in B2B employees workplace environment during the COVID-19 pandemic. Originality/value This study contributes to prior research focusing on how B2B companies can thrive during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. The research offers valuable practical insights and detailed examples of how to apply a set of five elements/experiences that industrial and business-to-business organization leaders should adopt in their conscious decision-making evaluation and in their communications with employees, suppliers and customers during and after the pandemic.
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Objectives Combined pediatrics-anesthesiology programs uniquely prepare residents to care for critically ill children, but trainees in these combined programs face challenges as residents within two specialties. Social belonging predicts motivation and achievement and protects against burnout. The objective of our study was to evaluate sense of belonging and self-identified professional identity of current combined pediatrics-anesthesiology residents. Methods All current residents in combined pediatrics-anesthesiology programs were invited to participate in an anonymous survey assessing sense of belonging and professional identity. Open-ended responses were qualitatively analyzed using an inductive coding process and thematic analysis. Likert questions were analyzed using paired t-tests. Results 32/36 residents completed the survey (89% response rate). 92% of respondents had a lower sense of belonging in pediatrics than anesthesiology (3.32 vs 3.94) and more self-identified as anesthesiologists than pediatricians. Thematic analysis yielded five themes: (1) the team-based nature of pediatrics results in strong initial bonds, but feelings of isolation as training pathways diverge; (2) the individual nature of anesthesiology results in less social interaction within daily work, but easier transitions in and out of anesthesiology; (3) divergent training timelines result in feeling left behind socially and academically; (4) residents identify different professional and personal characteristics of pediatricians and anesthesiologists that impact their sense of belonging; and (5) the structure of the combined program results in experiences unique to combined residents. Conclusions Most residents in combined pediatrics-anesthesiology programs had a higher sense of belonging and self-identification in anesthesiology than pediatrics. Program structure and autonomy had significant impacts.
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Two studies investigate how science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) professors’ fixed mindsets—the belief that intelligence is fixed and unchangeable—may induce stereotype threat and undermine women’s performance. In an experiment ( N = 217), we manipulated professors’ mindset beliefs (fixed vs. growth) within a course syllabus. While both men and women perceived the fixed mindset professor to endorse more gender stereotypes and anticipated feeling less belonging in the course, women reported these effects more than men. However, only for women did this threat undermine performance. In a 2-year longitudinal field study (884 students enrolled in 46 STEM courses), students who perceived their professor to endorse a fixed (vs. growth) mindset thought the professor would endorse more gender stereotypes and experienced less belonging in those courses. However, only women’s grades in those courses suffered as a result. Together, these studies demonstrate that professors’ fixed mindset beliefs may trigger stereotype threat among women in STEM courses.
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A Monte Carlo study compared 14 methods to test the statistical significance of the intervening variable effect. An intervening variable (mediator) transmits the effect of an independent variable to a dependent variable. The commonly used R. M. Baron and D. A. Kenny (1986) approach has low statistical power. Two methods based on the distribution of the product and 2 difference-in-coefficients methods have the most accurate Type I error rates and greatest statistical power except in 1 important case in which Type I error rates are too high. The best balance of Type I error and statistical power across all cases is the test of the joint significance of the two effects comprising the intervening variable effect.
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We propose that to some extent, people treat the resources, perspectives, and identities of close others as their own. This proposal is supported by allocation, attribution, response time, and memory experiments. Recently, we have applied this idea to deepening understanding of feeling “too close” (including too much of the other in the self leading to feeling controlled or a loss of identity), the effects of relationship loss (it is distressing to the extent that the former partner was included in the self, liberating to the extent that the former partner was preventing self-expansion), ingroup identification (including ingroup in the self), and the effect of outgroup friendships on outgroup attitudes (including outgroup member in the self entails including outgroup member's identity in the self).
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We propose that the crucial difference between human cognition and that of other species is the ability to participate with others in collaborative activities with shared goals and intentions: shared intentionality. Participation in such activities requires not only especially powerful forms of intention reading and cultural learning, but also a unique motivation to share psychological states with others and unique forms of cognitive representation for doing so. The result of participating in these activities is species-unique forms of cultural cognition and evolution, enabling everything from the creation and use of linguistic symbols to the construction of social norms and individual beliefs to the establishment of social institutions. In support of this proposal we argue and present evidence that great apes (and some children with autism) understand the basics of intentional action, but they still do not participate in activities involving joint intentions and attention (shared intentionality). Human children's skills of shared intentionality develop gradually during the first 14 months of life as two ontogenetic pathways intertwine: (1) the general ape line of understanding others as animate, goal-directed, and intentional agents; and (2) a species-unique motivation to share emotions, experience, and activities with other persons. The developmental outcome is children's ability to construct dialogic cognitive representations, which enable them to participate in earnest in the collectivity that is human cognition.
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People in different cultures have strikingly different construals of the self, of others, and of the interdependence of the 2. These construals can influence, and in many cases determine, the very nature of individual experience, including cognition, emotion, and motivation. Many Asian cultures have distinct conceptions of individuality that insist on the fundamental relatedness of individuals to each other. The emphasis is on attending to others, fitting in, and harmonious interdependence with them. American culture neither assumes nor values such an overt connectedness among individuals. In contrast, individuals seek to maintain their independence from others by attending to the self and by discovering and expressing their unique inner attributes. As proposed herein, these construals are even more powerful than previously imagined. Theories of the self from both psychology and anthropology are integrated to define in detail the difference between a construal of the self as independent and a construal of the self as interdependent. Each of these divergent construals should have a set of specific consequences for cognition, emotion, and motivation; these consequences are proposed and relevant empirical literature is reviewed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Children's sense of relatedness is vital to their academic motivation from 3rd to 6th grade. Children's (n = 641) reports of relatedness predicted changes in classroom engagement over the school year and contributed over and above the effects of perceived control. Regression and cumulative risk analyses revealed that relatedness to parents, teachers, and peers each uniquely contributed to students' engagement, especially emotional engagement. Girls reported higher relatedness than boys, but relatedness to teachers was a more salient predictor of engagement for boys. Feelings of relatedness to teachers dropped from 5th to 6th grade, but the effects of relatedness on engagement were stronger for 6th graders. Discussion examines theoretical, empirical, and practical implications of relatedness as a key predictor of children's academic motivation and performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Past research has generated mixed support among social scientists for the utility of social norms in accounting for human behavior. We argue that norms do have a substantial impact on human action; however, the impact can only be properly recognized when researchers (a) separate 2 types of norms that at times act antagonistically in a situation—injunctive norms (what most others approve or disapprove) and descriptive norms (what most others do)—and (b) focus Ss' attention principally on the type of norm being studied. In 5 natural settings, focusing Ss on either the descriptive norms or the injunctive norms regarding littering caused the Ss' littering decisions to change only in accord with the dictates of the then more salient type of norm. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Research has shown that mimicry increases the social influence of the mimicker and leads to greater liking of the mimicker. It has been proposed that mimicry is exhibited to create affiliation and rapport during social interaction. In two experiments (total N = 95) we manipulated the role of incidental similarity between two individuals on mimicry behavior. Undergraduates who believed they had (vs. did not have) the same first name (Study 1) or same subject of study (Study 2) as a target presented on videotape were more likely to mimic the target’s nonverbal behavior. Results support the notion that mimicry helps to create affiliation and rapport because the desire to build such a relationship is higher in the similarity condition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A model is presented to account for the natural selection of what is termed reciprocally altruistic behavior. The model shows how selection can operate against the cheater (non-reciprocator) in the system. Three instances of altruistic behavior are discussed, the evolution of which the model can explain: (1) behavior involved in cleaning symbioses; (2) warning cries in birds; and (3) human reciprocal altruism. Regarding human reciprocal altruism, it is shown that the details of the psychological system that regulates this altruism can be explained by the model. Specifically, friendship, dislike, moralistic aggression, gratitude, sympathy, trust, suspicion, trustworthiness, aspects of guilt, and some forms of dishonesty and hypocrisy can be explained as important adaptations to regulate the altruistic system. Each individual human is seen as possessing altruistic and cheating tendencies, the expression of which is sensitive to developmental variables that were selected to set the tendencies at a balance ap...
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A signature feature of self-regulation is that once a goal is satiated, it becomes deactivated, thereby allowing people to engage in new pursuits. The present experiments provide evidence for vicarious goal satiation, a novel phenomenon in which individuals experience "post-completion goal satiation" as a result of unwittingly taking on another person's goal pursuit and witnessing its completion. In Experiments 1 and 2, the observation of a goal being completed (vs. not completed) led to less striving by the observer on the same task. Given that an actor's strength of commitment affects goal contagion, we hypothesized that such commitment would be an important boundary condition for vicarious goal satiation. The results of Experiment 2 showed that observing stronger (vs. weaker) goal commitment lowered accessibility of goal-related words, but only when the goal being observed was completed. Implications of vicarious goal satiation for goal pursuit in everyday environments are discussed.
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From the perspective of implicit egotism people should gravitate toward others who resemble them because similar others activate people's positive, automatic associations about themselves. Four archival studies and 3 experiments supported this hypothesis. Studies 1-4 showed that people are disproportionately likely to marry others whose first or last names resemble their own. Studies 5-7 provided experimental support for implicit egotism. Participants were more attracted than usual to people (a) whose arbitrary experimental code numbers resembled their own birthday numbers, (b) whose surnames shared letters with their own surnames, and (c) whose jersey number had been paired, subliminally, with their own names. Discussion focuses on implications for implicit egotism, similarity, and interpersonal attraction.
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A brief intervention aimed at buttressing college freshmen's sense of social belonging in school was tested in a randomized controlled trial (N = 92), and its academic and health-related consequences over 3 years are reported. The intervention aimed to lessen psychological perceptions of threat on campus by framing social adversity as common and transient. It used subtle attitude-change strategies to lead participants to self-generate the intervention message. The intervention was expected to be particularly beneficial to African-American students (N = 49), a stereotyped and socially marginalized group in academics, and less so to European-American students (N = 43). Consistent with these expectations, over the 3-year observation period the intervention raised African Americans' grade-point average (GPA) relative to multiple control groups and halved the minority achievement gap. This performance boost was mediated by the effect of the intervention on subjective construal: It prevented students from seeing adversity on campus as an indictment of their belonging. Additionally, the intervention improved African Americans' self-reported health and well-being and reduced their reported number of doctor visits 3 years postintervention. Senior-year surveys indicated no awareness among participants of the intervention's impact. The results suggest that social belonging is a psychological lever where targeted intervention can have broad consequences that lessen inequalities in achievement and health.
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This study examines the effects of incidental similarity shared between a salesperson and a potential customer. We show that an incidental similarity, such as a shared birthday or birthplace, can result in a more favorable attitude and a higher intention to purchase. We argue and find that the need for connectedness underlies its persuasive effects in an interpersonal context. In addition, we show that the valence of the salesperson's behavior and the possibility of an extended service relationship moderate the process. When the need for connectedness is mitigated, the positive effects of incidental similarity can be lost or even reversed. (c) 2009 by JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH, Inc..
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People can make decisions to join a group based solely on exposure to that group's physical environment. Four studies demonstrate that the gender difference in interest in computer science is influenced by exposure to environments associated with computer scientists. In Study 1, simply changing the objects in a computer science classroom from those considered stereotypical of computer science (e.g., Star Trek poster, video games) to objects not considered stereotypical of computer science (e.g., nature poster, phone books) was sufficient to boost female undergraduates' interest in computer science to the level of their male peers. Further investigation revealed that the stereotypical broadcast a masculine stereotype that discouraged women's sense of ambient belonging and subsequent interest in the environment (Studies 2, 3, and 4) but had no similar effect on men (Studies 3, 4). This masculine stereotype prevented women's interest from developing even in environments entirely populated by other women (Study 2). Objects can thus come to broadcast stereotypes of a group, which in turn can deter people who do not identify with these stereotypes from joining that group.
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Social identity threat is the notion that one of a person's many social identities may be at risk of being devalued in a particular context (C. M. Steele, S. J. Spencer, & J. Aronson, 2002). The authors suggest that in domains in which women are already negatively stereotyped, interacting with a sexist man can trigger social identity threat, undermining women's performance. In Study 1, male engineering students who scored highly on a subtle measure of sexism behaved in a dominant and sexually interested way toward an ostensible female classmate. In Studies 2 and 3, female engineering students who interacted with such sexist men, or with confederates trained to behave in the same way, performed worse on an engineering test than did women who interacted with nonsexist men. Study 4 replicated this finding and showed that women's underperformance did not extend to an English test, an area in which women are not negatively stereotyped. Study 5 showed that interacting with sexist men leads women to suppress concerns about gender stereotypes, an established mechanism of stereotype threat. Discussion addresses implications for social identity threat and for women's performance in school and at work.
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A hypothesized need to form and maintain strong, stable interpersonal relationships is evaluated in light of the empirical literature. The need is for frequent, nonaversive interactions within an ongoing relational bond. Consistent with the belongingness hypothesis, people form social attachments readily under most conditions and resist the dissolution of existing bonds. Belongingness appears to have multiple and strong effects on emotional patterns and on cognitive processes. Lack of attachments is linked to a variety of ill effects on health, adjustment, and well-being. Other evidence, such as that concerning satiation, substitution, and behavioral consequences, is likewise consistent with the hypothesized motivation. Several seeming counterexamples turned out not to disconfirm the hypothesis. Existing evidence supports the hypothesis that the need to belong is a powerful, fundamental, and extremely pervasive motivation.
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In this article, the authors reflect on the lessons of their Stanford Prison Experiment, some 25 years after conducting it. They review the quarter century of change in criminal justice and correctional policies that has transpired since the Stanford Prison Experiment and then develop a series of reform-oriented proposals that still can be drawn from this and related studies on the power of social situations and institutional settings and can be applied to the current crisis in American corrections.
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A meta-analysis of 128 studies examined the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. As predicted, engagement-contingent, completion-contingent, and performance-contingent rewards significantly undermined free-choice intrinsic motivation (d = -0.40, -0.36, and -0.28, respectively), as did all rewards, all tangible rewards, and all expected rewards. Engagement-contingent and completion-contingent rewards also significantly undermined self-reported interest (d = -0.15, and -0.17), as did all tangible rewards and all expected rewards. Positive feedback enhanced both free-choice behavior (d = 0.33) and self-reported interest (d = 0.31). Tangible rewards tended to be more detrimental for children than college students, and verbal rewards tended to be less enhancing for children than college students. The authors review 4 previous meta-analyses of this literature and detail how this study's methods, analyses, and results differed from the previous ones.
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Using a newspaper questionnaire, a door-to-door survey, and 3 laboratory experiments, the authors examined a proposed effect of shared participation in novel and arousing activities on experienced relationship quality. The questionnaire and survey studies found predicted correlations of reported shared "exciting" activities and relationship satisfaction plus their predicted mediation by relationship boredom. In all 3 experiments, the authors found predicted greater increases in experienced relationship quality from before to after participating together in a 7-min novel and arousing (vs. a more mundane) task. Comparison with a no-activity control showed the effect was due to the novel-arousing task. The same effect was found on ratings of videotaped discussions before and after the experimental task. Finally, all results remained after controlling for relationship social desirability. Results bear on general issues of boredom and excitement in relationships and the role of such processes in understanding the typical early decline of relationship quality after the honeymoon period.
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Three studies examined the effects of randomly assigned messages of social exclusion. In all 3 studies, significant and large decrements in intelligent thought (including IQ and Graduate Record Examination test performance) were found among people told they were likely to end up alone in life. The decline in cognitive performance was found in complex cognitive tasks such as effortful logic and reasoning; simple information processing remained intact despite the social exclusion. The effects were specific to social exclusion, as participants who received predictions of future nonsocial misfortunes (accidents and injuries) performed well on the cognitive tests. The cognitive impairments appeared to involve reductions in both speed (effort) and accuracy. The effect was not mediated by mood.
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Four studies examined the effect of an incidental similarity on compliance to a request. Undergraduates who believed they shared a birthday (Study 1), a first name (Study 2), or fingerprint similarities (Study 3) with a requester were more likely to comply with a request than participants who did not perceive an incidental similarity with the requester. The findings are consistent with past research demonstrating that people often rely on heuristic processing when responding to requests and with Heider's description of unit relationships in which perceived similarities lead to positive affect. Consistent with the unit relation interpretation, participants did not increase compliance when hearing about an incidental similarity with someone other than the requester or when they believed the feature they shared with the requester was common.
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Six studies examined the goal contagion hypothesis, which claims that individuals may automatically adopt and pursue a goal that is implied by another person's behavior. Participants were briefly exposed to behavioral information implying a specific goal and were then given the opportunity to act on the goal in a different way and context. Studies 1-3 established the goal contagion phenomenon by showing that the behavioral consequences of goal contagion possess features of goal directedness: (a) They are affected by goal strength, (b) they have the quality of goal appropriateness, and (c) they are characterized by persistence. Studies 4-6 show that people do not automatically adopt goals when the observed goal pursuit is conducted in an unacceptable manner, because the goal will then be perceived as unattractive. The results are discussed in the context of recent research on automatic goal pursuits.
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This chapter discusses, improving the academic performance of college students with brief attributional interventions. Attribution theory originated in the late 1950s and these theorists advocated a phenomenological approach to the study of human behavior. Consistent with a phenomenological approach, the focus is on the way the students perceive the causes of their poor performance because these attributions are believed to have important consequences that are independent of the actual causes. Attribution theory assumes that within this range of abilities, the explanation people make for their performance is crucial. The chapter reviews attempts to use attribution therapy to help college students improve their academic performance, beginning with a brief review of the history of attribution therapy. Re-attribution approach arose from a confluence of different research traditions. The chapter concludes that, re-attribution is a technique that attempts to change people's explanations about the dysfunctional behavior itself, regardless of whether that behavior is accompanied by physiological arousal.
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Education is an essentially social process, and the understanding of social contexts and reciprocal interpersonal and group processes as they are likely to occur in schools and classes is an important part of educational psychology. Focusing on selected topics originating in social psychology and sociology, this article advocates greater research attention to such factors as the social dimensions of self or identity, social support and belonging in educational settings, and group dynamics as influences on individual learning and motivation.
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Goal contagion is the automatic adoption of a goal upon perceiving another’s goal-directed behavior (Aarts, H., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Hassin, R. R. (2004). Goal contagion: Perceiving is for pursuing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87(1), 23–37). This paper tests the hypothesis that goal contagion is more likely between people who belong to the same groups. Because past work on goal contagion has required participants to read about the behavior of others, we also test whether goals are caught when one sees rather than reads about another’s motivated behavior. Across three studies, this ecologically valid methodology reliably produced goal contagion, and this effect was more likely to emerge when participants shared a group membership with those they observed. In Study 1, participants were more likely to take on the goal of individuals who belonged to their same university. Study 2 demonstrated that this effect occurred even when participants were not explicitly focused on the group membership of others. A final study verified that our effects were motivational by demonstrating that failing at a goal relevant task increased negative affect, but only for those who viewed the motivated behavior of someone from their own group.
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Two experiments tested the hypothesis that cues of social connectedness could lead even new interaction partners to experience shared emotional and physiological states. In Experiment 1, a confederate prepared for a stress-inducing task. Participants who had been led to feel socially connected to the confederate reported feeling greater stress than participants who had not. In Experiment 2, a confederate ran vigorously in place. Socially-connected participants had greater cardiovascular reactivity (heart rate and blood pressure) than controls. Each study held constant exposure to the confederate. The results suggest that the sharing of psychological and physiological states does not occur only between long-standing relationship partners, but can also result from even subtle experiences of social connectedness. These findings illustrate the dynamic and fluid ways in which important aspects of self can change in response to cues of social relatedness.
Article
Drawing on recent analyses of the self in many cultures, the authors suggest that the cultural ideal of independence of the self from the collective has dominated European-American social psychological theorizing. As a consequence, the existence of considerable interdependence between the self and the collective has been relatively neglected in current conceptual analysis. The authors (a) argue that a group's cultural ideal of the relation between the self and the collective is pervasive because it is rooted in institutions, practices, and scripts, not just in ideas and values; (b) show how a given cultural ideal whether it is independence or interdependence, can shape the individual's experience and expression of the self; and (c) discuss how a comparative approach may enrich and expand current theory and research on the interdependence between the self and the collective.
Article
When women perform math, unlike men, they risk being judged by the negative stereotype that women have weaker math ability. We call this predicamentstereotype threatand hypothesize that the apprehension it causes may disrupt women's math performance. In Study 1 we demonstrated that the pattern observed in the literature that women underperform on difficult (but not easy) math tests was observed among a highly selected sample of men and women. In Study 2 we demonstrated that this difference in performance could be eliminated when we lowered stereotype threat by describing the test as not producing gender differences. However, when the test was described as producing gender differences and stereotype threat was high, women performed substantially worse than equally qualified men did. A third experiment replicated this finding with a less highly selected population and explored the mediation of the effect. The implication that stereotype threat may underlie gender differences in advanced math performance, even those that have been attributed to genetically rooted sex differences, is discussed.
Article
We hypothesize that sharing a birthday is suÅcient to create a unit relationship. Two studies demonstrated that individuals cooperated more in a prisoners dilemma game when their (fictitious) opponent shared their birthday. They also reacted more negatively to betrayal and were less sensitive to relative gains for self versus other. #1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
The initiation and subsequent development of what I once immodestly labeled `the attraction paradigm' are described. Though an after-the-fact reconstruction of a given program of research and theory may appear to result from planful, rational, insightful, and even prescient actions, the actual process is more often a combination of multiple personal motives, semi-random input from a wide variety of sources, sheer luck, and semi-delusional tenacity. In any event, some highlights and landmarks of over 35 years of attraction research are summarized. The story includes the initial decision to investigate the effect of attitude similarity-dissimilarity on attraction, the gradual development of the linear function that specifies the relationship between seemingly diverse stimulus events and evaluative responses such as attraction, and the construction of a theoretical model that began with a focus on conditioning but was eventually expanded as `the behaviour sequence', incorporating cognitive constructs in order to deal with such interpersonal complexities as love. As a postscript, I describe our current efforts to place the components of adult attachment patterns within this model in an effort to predict more precisely various aspects of interpersonal relationships.
Article
Attempts to achieve cognitive consistency often entail at least some distortion of reality. Individuals who find themselves committed to an objectively unpleasant course of action, for example, may reduce their commitment-aroused dissonance by distorting the attractiveness of the commitment. To test whether or not such distortions increase the likelihood that individuals will voluntarily commit themselves to a similar course of action in the future, college females were led to anticipate being paired with either a positive or negative stimulus girl in discussions of an intimate nature. Ss were then informed of a "procedural error" and allowed to choose either of the 2 stimulus persons as a partner. Ss who had previously been paired with the negative girl exhibited a tendency to distort the extent to which she possessed certain important traits, and showed a greater likelihood of voluntarily choosing her as a partner than did either positively paired Ss or control Ss who had not previously been paired with either girl. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Investigated whether children would re-enact what an adult actually did or what the adult intended to do. In Experiment, 1 children were shown an adult who tried, but failed, to perform certain target acts. Completed target acts were thus not observed. Children in comparison groups either saw the full target act or appropriate controls. Results showed that children could infer the adult's intended act by watching the failed attempts. Experiment 2 tested children's understanding of an inanimate object that traced the same movements as the person had followed. Children showed a completely different reaction to the mechanical device than to the person: They did not produce the target acts in this case. Eighteen-mo-olds situate people within a psychological framework that differentiates between the surface behavior of people and a deeper level involving goals and intentions. They have already adopted a fundamental aspect of folk psychology—persons (but not inanimate objects) are understood within a framework involving goals and intentions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study is concerned with the way in which 14 subjects co-operated in performing 18 simple tasks, selected to resemble tasks used by Zeigarnik, when a "planted co-worker" asked them to "come and help her do some work." In some of the tasks the co-worker interrupted the task and proceeded to finish it herself; in the other tasks the co-worker withdrew, leaving the subject to finish the task. Provisional conclusions are that task completion by another person than oneself can be satisfactory, that motivation in work need not necessarily be egotistical (hedonistic theory), and that, on the contrary, the person is frequently motivated directly by the demands of the objective situation, including the requirements of another person. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The authors propose that superstars are most likely to affect self-views when they are considered relevant. Relevant superstars provoke self-enhancement and inspiration when their success seems attainable but self-deflation when it seems unattainable. Participants' self-views were affected only when the star's domain of excellence was self-relevant. Relevant stars provoked self-enhancement and inspiration when their success seemed attainable in that participants either still had enough time to achieve comparable success or believed their own abilities could improve over time. Open-ended responses provided rich evidence of inspiration in these circumstances. Relevant stars provoked, if anything, self-deflation when their success seemed unattainable in that participants either had already missed the chance to achieve comparable success or viewed their abilities as fixed and so unlikely to improve. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of self-affirmation theory. Self-affirmation theory asserts that the overall goal of the self-system is to protect an image of its self-integrity, of its moral and adaptive adequacy. When this image of self-integrity is threatened, people respond in such a way as to restore self-worth. The chapter illustrates how self-affirmation affects not only people's cognitive responses to threatening information and events, but also their physiological adaptations and actual behavior. It examines the ways in which self-affirmations reduce threats to the self at the collective level, such as when people confront threatening information about their groups. It reviews factors that qualify or limit the effectiveness of self-affirmations, including situations where affirmations backfire, and lead to greater defensiveness and discrimination. The chapter discusses the connection of self-affirmations theory to other motivational theories of self-defense and reviews relevant theoretical and empirical advances. It concludes with a discussion of the implications of self-affirmations theory for interpersonal relationships and coping.
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