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An evaluation of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antinociceptive activities of essential oil from Curcuma longa. L

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This study was aimed to evaluate the chemical composition, antioxidant potential in vitro and in vivo, anti-inflammatory, and antinociceptive activity of turmeric oil. Chemical analysis of turmeric oil was done by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Antioxidant activities in vitro was done by six different methods and in vivo antioxidant activity was determined by measuring superoxide generation from macrophages treated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) as well as determining antioxidant level after feeding the oil orally for one month. Anti-inflammatory activity was studied in mice using carrageenan, dextran, and formalin. Antinociceptive activity was evaluated by using acetic acid-induced writhing movement in mice. The main constituent of essential oil of turmeric was found to be ar-turmerone (61.79%), curlone (12.48%), and ar-curcumene (6.11%). Turmeric oil was found to have in vitro antioxidant activity and IC(50) for scavenging superoxides, hydroxyl radicals, and lipid peroxidation were 135 μg/ml, 200 μg/ml, and 400 μg/ml, respectively. The ferric-reducing activity for 50 μg of turmeric essential oil was found to be 5 mM. Intraperitoneal administration of oil was found to inhibit PMA-induced superoxide radicals elicited by macrophages. Oral administration of turmeric oil for one month to mice significantly increased superoxide dismutase, glutathione, and glutathione reductase enzyme levels in blood and glutathione-S-transferase and superoxide dismutase enzymes in liver. Turmeric oil showed significant reduction in paw thickness in carrageenan, dextran-induced acute inflammation, and formalin-induced chronic inflammation. The drug produced significant antinociceptive activity (P < 0.001) at all doses studied. These results demonstrated that turmeric oil has potential health benefits as it can scavenge the free radicals and produce significant anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities.
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... Additionally, oral administration of TO for 30 days prompted a relevant increase in glutathione and antioxidant enzyme concentrations of superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase in plasma (p < 0.001). In the liver, glutathione-S-transferase and superoxide dismutase concentrations were increased by TO's influence (p < 0.01) [19]. TO decreased nitric oxide (NO) synthase expression and displayed immune-modulatory properties since it restricted neutrophil infiltration in the ischemic area of a murine cerebral focal ischemia model. ...
... In all cases, the oil reduced paw thickness. In the chronic model, the effect observed with TO was comparable to that obtained with diclofenac [19]. Accordingly, TO administration in rats significantly decreased paw edema in the carrageenan-induced inflammation model (76%) compared to aspirin. ...
... An antinociceptive evaluation in mice exhibited a significant writhing reduction (p < 0.001) after treatment with TO. This effect was comparable to the response triggered by aspirin [19]. Accordingly, the tail-flick model evidenced the analgesic properties of TO in rats [23]. ...
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The pharmacological attributes of turmeric have been extensively described and frequently related to the action of curcuminoids. However, there is also scientific evidence of the contribution of turmeric oil. Since the oil does not contain curcuminoids in its composition, it is crucial to better understand the therapeutic role of other constituents in turmeric. The present review discusses the pharmacokinetics of turmeric oil, pointing to the potential application of its active molecules as therapeutic compounds. In addition, the bioactivities of turmeric oil and its safety in preclinical and clinical studies were revised. This literature-based research intends to provide an updated overview to promote further research on turmeric oil and its constituents.
... The EO of Indian C. longa has been studied for its in vitro antioxidant properties advising its potential health benefits as a radical scavenger, but also for its significant antiinflammatory and antinociceptive activities [26]. Similarly, a publication on the EO from Brazilian C. longa cultivated plants underlines a good antioxidant activity emerged with the same methods used for our samples using BHT (Butylated hydroxytoluene) as a positive control but detecting radical scavenging values similar to ours [27]. ...
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Essential oils (EOs) and their vapour phase of Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae), Cymbopogon citratus (Poaceae), Ocimum campechianum (Lamiaceae), and Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) of cultivated plants grown in an Amazonian Ecuador area were chemically characterised by Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID), Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), and Head Space–Gas Chromatograph-Flame Ionization Detector–Mass Spectrometry (HS-GC-FID-MS).figure The EOs analyses led to the identification of 25 compounds for C. longa (99.46% of the total; ar-turmerone: 23.35%), 18 compounds for C. citratus (99.59% of the total; geraniol: 39.43%), 19 compounds for O. campechianum (96.24% of the total; eugenol: 50.97%), and 28 for Z. officinale (98.04% of the total; α-Zingiberene: 15.45%). The Head Space fractions (HS) revealed C. longa mainly characterised by limonene and 1,8-cineole (37.35%) and α-phellandrene (32.33%); Z. officinale and C. citratus showed camphene (50.39%) and cis-Isocitral (15.27%) as the most abundant compounds, respectively. O. campechianum EO revealed a higher amount of sesquiterpenes (10.08%), mainly characterised by E-caryophyllene (4.95%), but monoterpene fraction remained the most abundant (89.94%). The EOs were tested for antioxidant, antimicrobial, and mutagen-protective properties and compared to the Thymus vulgaris EO as a positive reference. O. campechianum EO was the most effective in all the bioactivities checked. Similar results emerged from assaying the bioactivity of the vapour phase of O. campechianum EO. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activity evaluation of O. campechianum EO were repeated through HP-TLC bioautography assay, pointing out eugenol as the lead compound for bioactivity. The mutagen-protective evaluation checked through Ames’s test properly modified evidenced a better capacity of O. campechianum EO compared with the other EOs, reducing the induced mutagenicity at 0.1 mg/plate. However, even with differences in efficacy, the overall results suggest important perspectives for the functional use of the four studied EOs.
... Curcumin (Yellow) Anti-inflammatory, pain reliever, heart disease preventative and antioxidant (Liju et al., 2011) ...
... Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a perennial rhizomatous herbaceous plant. Turmeric essential oil has been shown to have potent antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities (Liju et al., 2011). The objective of the current experiment was to evaluate the impact of dietary thyme and turmeric essential oils supplementation on hematobiochemical profile of Japanese quails. ...
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This experiment was undertaken to assess the influence of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) essential oils on hematobiochemical parameters of Japanese quails. One hundred eighty, 6-day old Japanese quail chicks were subjected to five weeks trial. Quail chicks were distributed at random into five dietary treatment groups each with three replicates of 12 quails per treatment. Quails of T0 group fed diet without essential oils (Basal diet), T1 group fed basal diet with 0.2 % thyme essential oil, T2 group fed basal diet with 0.3% turmeric essential oil, T3 group fed basal diet with combination of 0.125 % thyme essential oil and 0.075 % turmeric essential oils, T4 group fed basal diet with combination of 0.075% thyme essential oil and 0.125 % turmeric essential oils. The results revealed that Japanese quails of essential oils supplemented groups had significantly higher (p<0.05) red blood cell count, packed cell volume, haemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, serum protein, albumin globulin and high-density lipoprotein concentrations with best results found in T4 group. Supplementing Japanese quails with thyme and turmeric essential oils significantly lowered serum uric acid, creatinine, total bilirubin, glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, SGOT and SGPT activity. It can be concluded that nutritional supplementation of thyme and turmeric essential oils at 0.075 % and 0.125 % in combination improved haematological indices and most of the serum biochemical parameters in Japanese quails.
... Ar-turmerone, α-turmerone, curlone, and ar-curcumene Commercial SD [72] Elettaria cardamomum (Leaves and rhizomes) ...
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Essential oils (EOs) are chemical substances, mostly produced by aromatic plants in response to stress, that have a history of medicinal use for many diseases. In the last few decades, EOs have continued to gain more attention because of their proven therapeutic applications against the flu and other infectious diseases. Influenza (flu) is an infectious zoonotic disease that affects the lungs and their associated organs. It is a public health problem with a huge health burden, causing a seasonal outbreak every year. Occasionally, it comes as a disease pandemic with unprecedentedly high hospitalization and mortality. Currently, influenza is managed by vaccination and antiviral drugs such as Amantadine, Rimantadine, Oseltamivir, Peramivir, Zanamivir, and Baloxavir. However, the adverse side effects of these drugs, the rapid and unlimited variabilities of influenza viruses, and the emerging resistance of new virus strains to the currently used vaccines and drugs have necessitated the need to obtain more effective anti-influenza agents. In this review, essential oils are discussed in terms of their chemistry, ethnomedicinal values against flu-related illnesses, biological potential as anti-influenza agents, and mechanisms of action. In addition, the structure-activity relationships of lead anti-influenza EO compounds are also examined. This is all to identify leading agents that can be optimized as drug candidates for the management of influenza. Eucalyptol, germacrone, caryophyllene derivatives, eugenol, terpin-4-ol, bisabolene derivatives, and camphecene are among the promising EO compounds identified, based on their reported anti-influenza activities and plausible molecular actions, while nanotechnology may be a new strategy to achieve the efficient delivery of these therapeutically active EOs to the active virus site.
... These results agree with Saccheti et al., 2005 who analysed the essential oil of C. longa was dominated by α-phellandrene (20.4%), α-turmerone (19.8%), 1,8-cineole (10.3%), γ-terpinene (6.1%) and β-turmerone (7.4%) [37]. The essential oil isolated from rhizomes grown in Kerala (India) was rich in ar-turmerone (61.8%), curlone (12.5%) and arcurcumene (6.1%) [38] while that from Mysore (India) was dominated by ar-turmerone (21.0- 30.3%), α-turmerone (26.5-33.5%) and β-turmerone (18.9-21.1%) ...
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Abstract—The ringworm of domestic animals (dogs, cats, and other animals) could be a potential source of zoonotic infections and causing a major health problems. Almost 20–50% human skin infections were from zoonotic dermatophytes mainly found in pet animals which can be easily spread to other animals and humans also. The pet owners are more susceptible to get this infection from their pets, because of the close contact with them as dermatophytosis is very much prevalent in those pets. So, this study was aimed to study the effect of essential oils on the dermatophytes isolated from dogs, cats, and in pet owners to control the dermatophytosis. The essential oil was obtained from rhizome of Zingiber officinale and Curcuma longa by standard hydrodistillation method, Clevenger’s apparatus. Chemical composition of C. longa and Z. officinale essential oil was determined by Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In C.longa, thirty four compounds and Z. officinale essential oil, fourty three compounds were identified by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry. The antidermatophytic activity of Zingiber officinale and Curcuma longa were screened against two zoonotic dermatophytes isolated from the domestic pet owners namely Trichophyton verrucosum and Microsporum canis by using Disc Diffusion and modified micro dilution method. Combination of essential oils showed excellent additive, synergistic and antidermatophytic activity as compared to single oils and references antibiotics i.e. Clotrimazole and Ketoconazole. These results conclude that mixture of oils can be used as excellent antidermatophytic agent for the treatment of zoonotic dermatophytosis. Keywords: essential oil, zoonotic, dermatophytes, synergistic activity
... Indeed, turmeric has some beneficial effects on skin health [35][36][37], including its use in topical galenic form for the treatment of atopic dermatitis [38]. Additionally, wintergreen oil has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties [39][40][41][42][43][44]. ...
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Skin barrier restoration is an important part of atopic dermatitis therapy. We investigated the effect of a spot-on containing plant-based essential fatty acids and essential oils on skin barrier parameters in a dog model of acute skin barrier disruption, using five healthy beagle dogs maintained in a laboratory setting. Four test sites on the dorsum and a control site on the abdomen were defined on each dog. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin surface hydration (SSH) were measured before and after tape stripping on the first day and then for three consecutive days, over four consecutive weeks. The spot-on was applied at the end of each of the first three weeks. The increase in TEWL after tape stripping was reduced after the spot-on application and reached control values in Weeks 3 and 4. SSH after tape stripping was reduced in Week 4 compared with the baseline. Thus, the ATOP 7® spot-on significantly reduced acute skin barrier impairment in a dog model. The use of this product should be further evaluated as a potential treatment for skin barrier defects such as canine atopic dermatitis.
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