Article

Wolbachia Enhance Drosophila Stem Cell Proliferation and Target the Germline Stem Cell Niche

Department of Biology, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA.
Science (Impact Factor: 33.61). 11/2011; 334(6058):990-2. DOI: 10.1126/science.1209609
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Wolbachia are widespread maternally transmitted intracellular bacteria that infect most insect species and are able to alter the reproduction
of innumerous hosts. The cellular bases of these alterations remain largely unknown. Here, we report that Drosophila mauritiana infected with a native Wolbachia wMau strain produces about four times more eggs than the noninfected counterpart. Wolbachia infection leads to an increase in the mitotic activity of germline stem cells (GSCs), as well as a decrease in programmed
cell death in the germarium. Our results suggest that up-regulation of GSC division is mediated by a tropism of Wolbachia for the GSC niche, the cellular microenvironment that supports GSCs.

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Available from: Horacio Frydman, Oct 23, 2014
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    • "increasing survival time, enhancing reproduction, provisioning nutrition or protection against viruses), which may sometimes allow infected individuals to outcompete uninfected counterparts[26]. For example, in D. mauritiana, Wolbachia infection leads to a decrease of apoptosis and an increase of mitotic divisions in germ line stem cells of infected female ovaries, resulting in more eggs produced than in uninfected ovaries[27]. Lack of any of the suggested effects on the host can potentially lead to loss of infection from a population[28,29,30]. Overall, the infection dynamics of Wolbachia depend on the bacterial strain, host species, genetic background, environmental conditions and interactions among these factors[31]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The invasive pest Drosophila suzukii is characterized by a specific fresh-fruit targeting behavior and has quickly become a menace for the fruit economy of newly infested North American and European regions. D. suzukii carries a strain of the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia, named wSuz, which has a low infection frequency and no reproductive manipulation capabilities in American populations of D. suzukii. To further understand the nature of wSuz biology and assess its utility as a tool for controlling this pest's populations, we investigated the prevalence of Wolbachia in 23 European D. suzukii populations, and compared our results with those available in American populations. Our data showed a highly variable infection frequency with a mean prevalence of 46%, which is significantly higher than the 17% found in American populations. Based on Multilocus Sequence Typing analysis, a single wSuz strain was diagnosed in all European populations of D. suzukii. In agreement with American data, we found no evidence of cytoplasmic incompatibility induced by wSuz. These findings raise two questions: a) why Wolbachia is maintained in field populations of D. suzukii and b) what are the selective forces responsible for the variation in prevalence within populations, particularly between European and American continents? Our results provide new insights into the D. suzukii-Wolbachia association and highlight regional variations that await further investigation and that should be taken into account for using Wolbachia-based pest management programs.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · PLoS ONE
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    • "In addition, manipulation of reproduction by Wolbachia includes feminizing genetic males, causing parthenogenesis, and killing male progenies (Stouthamer et al. 1999; Werren et al. 2008). Recent studies found that Wolbachia benefits insect hosts by providing essential nutrition (Hosokawa et al. 2010), enhancing host stem cell's proliferation (Fast et al. 2011), and protecting insect from pathogenic RNA viruses (Hedges et al. 2008). The genus Wolbachia is highly divergent and has so far been divided into 13 supergroups (A-N, except for G which is a combination of A and B) (Lo et al. 2002, 2007; Baldo and Werren 2007; Haegeman et al. 2009; Ros et al. 2009; Augustinos et al. 2011). "

    Full-text · Dataset · Jul 2015
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    • "Wolbachia affect host gene expression 5 D . mauritiana and the mitotic activity of germline stem cells , as well as decreases programmed cell death in the germarium ( Fast et al . , 2011 ) . The strength of CI induced by Wolbachia infection dramatically decreased with both male age ( Reynolds & Hoffmann , 2002 ) and larval stage development ( Yamada et al . , 2007 ) . As a result , we hypothesized that Wolbachia would strongly affect female fecundity and early spermatogenesis in T . urticae ."
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    ABSTRACT: Wolbachia is an intracellular bacterium that has aroused intense interest because of its ability to alter the biology of its host in diverse ways. In the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, Wolbachia can induce complex cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) phenotypes and fitness changes, although little is known about the mechanisms. In the present study, we selected a strain of T. urticae, in which Wolbachia infection was associated with strong CI and enhanced female fecundity, to investigate changes in the transcriptome of T. urticae in Wolbachia-infected vs. uninfected lines. The responses were found to be sex-specific, with the transcription of 251 genes being affected in females and 171 genes being affected in males. Some of the more profoundly affected genes in both sexes were lipocalin genes and genes involved in oxidation reduction, digestion and detoxification. Several of the differentially expressed genes have potential roles in reproduction. Interestingly, unlike certain Wolbachia transinfections in novel hosts, the Wolbachia–host association in the present study showed no clear evidence of host immune priming by Wolbachia, although a few potential immune genes were affected.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Insect Molecular Biology
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