Psychosocial Factors Related to Cannabis Use Disorders

ArticleinSubstance Abuse 32(4):242-51 · October 2011with9 Reads
DOI: 10.1080/08897077.2011.605696 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
The objective of this study was to explore the association between psychosocial risk and protective factors and cannabis use disorders (CUDs) in a cohort of African American and Puerto Rican young adults. A representative sample (N = 838) from the East Harlem area of New York City was assessed at 4 points in time (at mean ages 14.1, 19.2, 24.5, and 29.2). The psychosocial measures came from 6 domains: personality attributes, family, peer, work, neighborhood, and substance use. The psychosocial measures were assessed at each of the first 3 waves of the study, and CUDs were assessed at the fourth and final wave of the study. Multivariate logistic regression and a cumulative risk analysis were conducted. Increased psychological symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.39; P < .01), problems resulting from cannabis use (OR = 2.69; 95% CI, 1.33-5.46; P < .01), frequent arguments with one's partner (OR = 1.84; 95% CI, 1.09-3.10; P < .05), high levels of deviance (OR = 1.81; 95% CI, 1.21-2.71; P < .01), and frequent acts of violence directed toward the participant (OR = 1.19; 95% CI, 1.01-1.42; P < .05) were all associated with an increased risk for CUDs. An increase in the number of risks was associated with an increase in the probability of having CUDs at the fourth wave (again, at a mean age of 29.2). A decrease in the number of risk factors may lead to a decrease in CUDs.
    • "We also found that the effects of symptoms of mental disorders were marginally significant. These results suggest that more symptoms of mental disorder are associated with an increased risk of drug misuse, a finding that is in line with previous studies (Amaro et al., 1999; Brook et al., 2011; Vega, Sribney, & Achara-Abrahams, 2003) that found that some individuals take nonprescribed sedatives to cope with problems such as major depressive disorder . Results support ongoing efforts to reduce substance misuse through addressing mental disorders among adult Latinas (Ritsher, McKellar, Finney, Otilingam, & Moos, 2002). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Few studies have examined the socio-cultural determinants of alcohol and drug misuse trajectories among adult Latinas. To assess the associations between socio-cultural determinants and alcohol and drug misuse, we used a longitudinal design to follow a sample of adult Latina mother-daughter-dyads (N = 267) for ten years, and collected four waves of data. They were adult Latinas of Caribbean, South and Central American descent. Specifically, this study investigated the effects of the following factors: (1) Individual Determinants (e.g., socioeconomic conditions, mental health, and medical status); (2) Cultural Determinants (e.g., acculturation to US culture); (3) Interpersonal Determinants (e.g., interpersonal support, relationship stress, mother-daughter attachment, intimate partner violence); (4) Community Determinants (e.g., neighborhood related stress); and (5) Institutional Determinants (e.g., religious involvement, involvement with the criminal justice system). Using hierarchical modeling, we found that taking prescribed medication on a regular basis for a physical problem, religious involvement, and mother-daughter attachment were negatively associated with drug misuse, while involvement in criminal activity was positively associated with drug misuse. Regarding alcohol misuse, results showed that age at arrival in the United States, number of years in the United States, and religious involvement were negatively associated with alcohol misuse, while involvement in criminal activity was positively associated with alcohol misuse. Based on our findings, explicit implications are provided for culturally relevant interventions.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2016
    • "These analyses offer insight about the relationship between depressive symptoms, marijuana initiation, and CUD. Depressive symptoms did not predict CUD in this study, although in other studies, researchers have found a significant positive association between marijuana use and depression (Brook et al., 2011; Degenhardt et al., 2003; Fergusson & Horwood, 1997; SAMHSA, 2007). However, in this prospective analysis, depressive symptoms predicted early initiation, which in turn predicted CUD. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Earlier studies reported an association between prenatal marijuana exposure (PME) and cognitive and behavioral problems in the offspring.A recent publication demonstrated the relation between PME and offspring marijuana use at age 22.There are no reports of the association between PME and Cannabis Use Disorder (CUD) at 22years, the age when use of marijuana and CUD peak. Methods: Subjects are from the Maternal Health Practices and Child Development Study, a longitudinal study of PME and other exposures during pregnancy.The cohort of mothers and their offspring has been followed since the fourth prenatal month through 22years of age.A path analysis was conducted on 590 mother-child pairs, representing 77% of the birth cohort, to examine potential pathways from PME to CUD in offspring at 22years of age. Results: There is no direct effect of PME on CUD.There are, however, two indirect pathways from PME to CUD.In the first, the pathway from PME to CUD goes through offspring early age of marijuana onset.In the second, offspring depression at age 10 and early age of marijuana onset predict CUD. Conclusions: Although there is no direct effect of PME on CUD, there are significant indirect pathways from PME to CUD that affect the rate of CUD in the population.Thus, PME, offspring depression, and an early age of marijuana initiation, are significant points for intervention.As marijuana is legalized in more states, the rates of marijuana use will increase significantly, including during pregnancy, and the consequences of the association between PME and CUD will become even more significant from a public health perspective.
    Full-text · Article · May 2016
    • "The involvement of cannabis use in various psychiatric disorders has been established in many studies, including in schizophrenia [14,15], mood disorders16171819, depression202122, anxiety [6] and behavioral disorders among young people. Brook [23,24] examined the association between psychosocial risk and protective factors and cannabis use disorders. They showed, among other things, that the increase in psychological symptoms (through personality attributes) is associated with an increased risk for cannabis use disorders. "
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Neurotoxicology and Teratology
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