Resolving TRPV1- and TNF- -Mediated Spinal Cord Synaptic Plasticity and Inflammatory Pain with Neuroprotectin D1
Mechanisms of inflammatory pain are not fully understood. We investigated the role of TRPV1 (transient receptor potential subtype V1) and TNF-α, two critical mediators for inflammatory pain, in regulating spinal cord synaptic transmission. We found in mice lacking Trpv1 the frequency but not the amplitude of spontaneous EPSCs (sEPSCs) in lamina II neurons of spinal cord slices is reduced. Further, C-fiber-induced spinal long-term potentiation (LTP) in vivo is abolished in Trpv1 knock-out mice. TNF-α also increases sEPSC frequency but not amplitude in spinal outer lamina II (lamina IIo) neurons, and this increase is abolished in Trpv1 knock-out mice. Single-cell PCR analysis revealed that TNF-α-responding neurons in lamina IIo are exclusively excitatory (vGluT2(+)) neurons. Notably, neuroprotectin-1 (NPD1), an anti-inflammatory lipid mediator derived from ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (docosahexaenoic acid), blocks TNF-α- and capsaicin-evoked sEPSC frequency increases but has no effect on basal synaptic transmission. Strikingly, NPD1 potently inhibits capsaicin-induced TRPV1 current (IC(50) = 0.4 nm) in dissociated dorsal root ganglion neurons, and this IC(50) is ≈ 500 times lower than that of AMG9810, a commonly used TRPV1 antagonist. NPD1 inhibition of TRPV1 is mediated by GPCRs, since the effects were blocked by pertussis toxin. In contrast, NPD1 had no effect on mustard oil-induced TRPA1 currents. Spinal injection of NPD1, at very low doses (0.1-10 ng), blocks spinal LTP and reduces TRPV1-dependent inflammatory pain, without affecting baseline pain. NPD1 also reduces TRPV1-independent but TNF-α-dependent pain hypersensitivity. Our findings demonstrate a novel role of NPD1 in regulating TRPV1/TNF-α-mediated spinal synaptic plasticity and identify NPD1 as a novel analgesic for treating inflammatory pain.
Available from: You Wan
- "Previously, we and others have reported that sensory information processing in the spinal dorsal horn appears to undergo significant plastic changes e.g. long-term potentiation (LTP) in synaptic efficacy following peripheral nerve injury or inflammation (Park et al., 2011; Sandkuhler and Liu, 1998; Xing et al., 2007; Yang et al., 2014), which is well accepted as the underlying mechanisms of central sensitization and post-injury pain hypersensitivity (Ji et al., 2003; Latremoliere and Woolf, 2009; Sandkuhler, 2007; Woolf, 2011). Moreover, we have previously discovered that activation of spinal GluN2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (GluN2B-NMDA) receptors is required for the induction of dorsal horn LTP at C-fiber synapses after nerve injury, implying GluN2B-dependent LTP in the spinal dorsal horn plays a crucial role in the development of long-lasting spinal neurons hyperexcitability (i.e. "
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ABSTRACT: The pathogenic mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain still remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated whether spinal BDNF contributes to dorsal horn LTP induction and neuropathic pain development by activation of GluN2B-NMDA receptors via Src homology-2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP2) phosphorylation in rats following spinal nerve ligation (SNL). We first demonstrated that spinal BDNF participates in the development of long-lasting hyperexcitability of dorsal horn WDR neurons (i.e. central sensitization) as well as pain allodynia in both intact and SNL rats. Second, we revealed that BDNF induces spinal LTP at C-fiber synapses via functional up-regulation of GluN2B-NMDA receptors in the spinal dorsal horn, and this BDNF-mediated LTP-like state is responsible for the occlusion of spinal LTP elicited by subsequent high-frequency electrical stimulation (HFS) of the sciatic nerve in SNL rats. Finally, we validated that BDNF-evoked SHP2 phosphorylation is required for subsequent GluN2B-NMDA receptors up-regulation and spinal LTP induction, and also for pain allodynia development. Blockade of SHP2 phosphorylation in the spinal dorsal horn using a potent SHP2 protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor NSC-87877, or knockdown of spinal SHP2 by intrathecal delivery of SHP2 siRNA, not only prevents BDNF-mediated GluN2B-NMDA receptors activation as well as spinal LTP induction and pain allodynia elicitation in intact rats, but also reduces the SNL-evoked GluN2B-NMDA receptors up-regulation and spinal LTP occlusion, and ultimately alleviates pain allodynia in neuropathic rats. Taken together, these results suggest that the BDNF/SHP2/GluN2B-NMDA signaling cascade plays a vital role in the development of central sensitization and neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury.
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Available from: Yong-Jing Gao
- "A slice was then transferred into a recording chamber and perfused with oxygenated recording solution at 3 ml/min at room temperature. The recording solution (Mg 2+ free) was identical to the incubation solution except for (in mM): NaCl 127, CaCl 2 2.4, MgSO 4 0 and sucrose 0. The whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were made from lamina IIo neurons in voltage-clamp mode as we previously reported (Park et al., 2011). Under a dissecting microscope with transmitted illumination, the substantia gelatinosa (lamina II) is clearly visible as a relatively translucent band across the dorsal horn. "
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ABSTRACT: Recent studies have shown that CXCL1 upregulation in spinal astrocytes is involved in the maintenance of neuropathic pain. However, whether and how CXCL1 regulates inflammatory pain remains unknown. Here we show that intraplantar injection of CFA increased mRNA and protein expressions of CXCL1 and its major receptor CXCR2 in the spinal cord at 6 hours and 3 days after the injection. Immunofluorescence double staining showed that CXCL1 and CXCR2 were expressed in spinal astrocytes and neurons, respectively. Intrathecal injection of CXCL1 neutralizing antibody or CXCR2 antagonist SB225002 attenuated CFA-induced mechanical and heat hypersensitivity on post-CFA day 3. Patch-clamp recordings showed that CXCL1 potentiated NMDA-induced currents in lamina II neurons via CXCR2, and this potentiation was further increased in CFA-treated mice. Furthermore, intrathecal injection of CXCL1 increased COX-2 expression in dorsal horn neurons, which was blocked by pretreatment with SB225002 or MEK (ERK kinase) inhibitor PD98059. Finally, pretreatment with SB225002 or PD98059 decreased CFA-induced heat hyperalgesia and COX-2 mRNA/protein expression and ERK activation in the spinal cord. Taken together, our data suggest that CXCL1, upregulated and released by spinal astrocytes after inflammation, acts on CXCR2-expressing spinal neurons to increase ERK activation, synaptic transmission and COX-2 expression in dorsal horn neurons and contributes to the pathogenesis of inflammatory pain.
Available from: Jesmond Dalli
- "Along these lines, RvD1 (100 ng/kg) decreases TNBS-induced mechanical allodynia and blocked cytokine production in spinal dorsal horn (Quan-Xin et al. 2012), and RvD2 (0.01– 1 ng) prevents formalin-induced pain. As part of the molecular mechanisms, RvD2, RvE1, and RvD1 differentially regulated transient receptor potential (TRP) channels (Park et al. 2011). AT-RvD1 significantly reverses the thermal hypersensitivity, and knockdown of epidermal TRPV3 blunts these antinociceptive actions (Bang et al. 2012). "
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ABSTRACT: Mounting of the acute inflammatory response is crucial for host defense and pivotal to the development of chronic inflammation, fibrosis, or abscess formation versus the protective response and the need of the host tissues to return to homeostasis. Within self-limited acute inflammatory exudates, novel families of lipid mediators are identified, named resolvins (Rv), protectins, and maresins, which actively stimulate cardinal signs of resolution, namely, cessation of leukocytic infiltration, counterregulation of proinflammatory mediators, and the uptake of apoptotic neutrophils and cellular debris. The biosynthesis of these resolution-phase mediators in sensu stricto is initiated during lipid-mediator class switching, in which the classic initiators of acute inflammation, prostaglandins and leukotrienes (LTs), switch to produce specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs). In this work, we review recent evidence on the structure and functional roles of these novel lipid mediators of resolution. Together, these show that leukocyte trafficking and temporal spatial signals govern the resolution of self-limited inflammation and stimulate homeostasis.
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