Molecular Imaging: A Promising Tool to Monitor Islet Transplantation

Molecular Imaging Laboratory, MGH/MIT/HMS Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, 02129, USA.
Journal of Transplantation 10/2011; 2011(6):202915. DOI: 10.1155/2011/202915
Source: PubMed


Replacement of insulin production by pancreatic islet transplantation has great potential as a therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus. At present, the lack of an effective approach to islet grafts assessment limits the success of this treatment. The development of molecular imaging techniques has the potential to fulfill the goal of real-time noninvasive monitoring of the functional status and viability of the islet grafts. We review the application of a variety of imaging modalities for detecting endogenous and transplanted beta-cell mass. The review also explores the various molecular imaging strategies for assessing islet delivery, the metabolic effects on the islet grafts as well as detection of immunorejection. Here, we highlight the use of combined imaging and therapeutic interventions in islet transplantation and the in vivo monitoring of stem cells differentiation into insulin-producing cells.

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    ABSTRACT: Type 1 diabetes (T1D), also known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, is a chronic disorder that results from autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing β cells in the islets of Langerhans within the pancreas ( Atkinson and Maclaren 1994). This disease becomes clinically apparent only after significant destruction of the β-cell mass, which reduces the ability to maintain glycemic control and metabolic function. In addition, it continues for years after clinical onset until, generally, there is complete destruction of insulin secretory capacity. Because prevention and therapy strategies are targeted to this pathologic process, it becomes imperative to have methods with which it can be monitored. This work discusses current research-based approaches to monitor the autoimmunity and metabolic function in T1D patients and their potential for widespread clinical application.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: The major aim of this paper is to review the present status of the techniques for the non-invasive imaging and quantification of insulin-producing pancreatic islet β-cells. Emphasis is placed on both the expansion of prior work already considered in a prior review and novel achievements. Thus, the use of d-mannoheptulose analogs, hypoglycemic sulfonylureas and glinides, neural imaging agents, neuro-hormonal receptor ligands and nanoparticles is first dealt with. Thereafter, consideration is given on optical imaging technologies, the identification of new β-cells specific binding and target proteins, the functional imaging of islets transplanted into the eye anterior chamber and in vivo manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Diabetes research and clinical practice
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