The genus Desmodium (Fabaceae)-traditional uses in Chinese medicine, phytochemistry and pharmacology

ArticleinJournal of ethnopharmacology 138(2):314-32 · November 2011with112 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2011.09.053 · Source: PubMed
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Plants of the genus Desmodium (Fabaceae), such as Desmodium styracifolium (Osbeck) Merr. and Desmodium gyrans (L. f.) DC., have a long history of medical use in Traditional Chinese Medicine to treat various ailments including rheumatism, pyrexia, dysentery, wounds, cough, malaria, hepatitis, hemoptysis, etc. In the theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine, most species have the effect of relieving internal heat or fever, neutralizing toxins, inhibiting pain, invigorating blood circulation, suppressing cough and alleviating dyspnea. Materials and methods: A bibliographic investigation was accomplished by analyzing secondary sources including Chinese Herbal Classics, and worldwide accepted scientific databases (Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science, SciFinder) were scrutinized for the available information on the ethnopharmacological uses in Chinese medicine, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of Desmodium species. Results: The genus Desmodium is a large member of the Papilionaceae (Fabaceae) family. It contains about 350 plant species used for both feeding stuffs and herbal medicines, of which only about 30 species have been phytochemically or pharmacologically investigated. Desmodium plant extracts, as well as the active principles, have been experimentally studied for their anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, antidiabetic, antinephrolithic, antibacterial, and nootropic activities in vitro or in vivo. And so far, a total of 212 compounds have been isolated from 15 Desmodium species and characterized mainly as flavonoids and alkaloids, followed by terpenoids, steroids, phenols, phenylpropanoids, glycosides and a number of volatile oils. The remaining unrevealed species are recorded chiefly in Asia and Africa being used in empirical treatment for various diseases. Conclusions: Desmodium species have long been used in TCM to treat various ailments. Available scientific references revealed that the traditional medical uses of some important Desmodium species in TCM have been evaluated by modern pharmacological studies. As literature demonstrated, flavonoids and alkaloids are perhaps responsible for most of the activities shown by the plants of this genus. Further studies are still required to reveal the structure-activity relationship of these active constituents.
    • " wound healing effect for which it is commonly used in traditional medicine. [9] D. gyrans has a long history of use in Chinese traditional medicine to treat various ailments. [10] Phytochemical screening and pharmacognostical studies done in the plant have revealed the presence of medicinally significant phytochemicals. [11] It should also be noted that a closely related species, Desmodium gangeticum has proven hypolipidemic, cardio protective properties and give protection against cardiac reperfusion injury. [11"
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Desmodium gyrans DC (Fabaceae) has been used in traditional medicine as cardiotonic and for wound healing. The present study aimed to evaluate anti-atherogenic effect of methanolic extract of Desmodium gyrans (MDG) in rabbits fed high fat diet (HFD). MDG (200 mg/kg b. wt) was administered to New Zealand white rabbits simultaneous with HFD for 90 days and lipid profile, malondialdehyde (MDA), high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), Apolipoprotein A-I and paraoxonase enzyme activity were assessed in serum. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation were assayed in liver tissue. Aorta was stained using Oil red O stain to asses extend of fatty streak formation and liver histopathological examination was performed to study development of fatty liver. The results showed significant elevation of HDL-cholesterol and improved atherogenic index in MDG treated animals, indicating its effectiveness against atherogenesis. Apolipoprotein A-I and paraoxonase enzyme activity were found significantly elevated in the extract administered group. Atherogenic fatty lesions which were evident in the HFD fed controls, significantly reduced with simultaneous treatment of MDG. There was reduction in fat deposition in liver of MDG treated group. Conclusion: MDG may enhance Reverse Cholesterol Transport (RCT) since it has an effect in elevating functional HDL cholesterol W WO OR RL LD D J JO OU UR RN NA AL L O OF F P PH HA AR RM MA AC CY Y A AN ND D P PH HA AR RM MA AC CE EU UT TI IC CA AL L S SC CI IE EN NC CE ES S S SJ JI IF F I Im mp pa ac ct t F Fa ac ct to or r 2 2. .7 78 86 6 V Vo ol lu um me e 4 4, , I Is ss su ue e 0 01 1, , 1 16 63 31 1-1 16 64 46 6.. R Re es se ea ar rc ch h A Ar rt ti ic cl le e I IS SS SN N 2278 – 4357 Sivaram et al. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences and its associated molecules. The findings thus suggest therapeutic potential of D. gyrans against vascular intimal damage and atherogenesis.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Journal of Ethnopharmacology
    • "Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) are generally economical and plentiful, while showing very low toxicity or side effects in clinical practice. Hence, TCMs have been applied worldwide for the treatment of cancers3456. Furthermore, TCM have been one of the most important sources for seeking new leading compounds that possess significant cytotoxicity789. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new compound and seven known compounds were isolated from Murraya tetramera Huang for the first time, and they were identified with NMR and MS spectral analysis. It was confirmed that the new compound was 10-methoxy-7-methyl-2H-benzo[g]chromen-2-one (3) and the others were β-eudesmol (1), trans-3β-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-8aβ-methyl-5-methylenedecalin-2-one (2), 5,7-dimethoxy-8-[(Z)-3'-methyl-butan-1',3'-dienyl]coumarin (4), 7-geranyloxy-6-methoxycoumarin (5), 5,7-dimethoxy-8-(3-methyl-2-oxo-butyl)coumarin (6), murrangatin acetate (7) and toddalenone (8). Furthermore, the cytotoxic activity against human lung adenocarcinoma (A549), human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (SMMC-7721), human bladder tumor cells (EJ), human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa), and human B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia 1 cells (BALL-1) was evaluated for all compounds. It was found that five of them displayed various degrees of cytotoxicity against different testing targets. Compound 1 showed significant cytotoxic activity against the five cell lines (A549, SMMC-7721, EJ, Hela and BALL-1). Compounds 2 and 5 showed significant cytotoxicity against three cell lines (A549, SMMC-7721 and BALL-1). Compound 4 showed significant cytotoxicity against three cell lines (A549, EJ and BALL-1). However, compound 3 only showed fair cytotoxicity against the BALL-1 cell line. The structure-active relationships were investigated as well. These active compounds might be potential lead compounds for the treatment of cancer.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014
    • "Thus far, few reports have suggested any components of this plant (Chidambaram et al., 2013 ), and similarly , no reports have defined any active anti-inflammatory components in Codariocalyx motorius as of yet. In fact, only a few alkaloids, including hypaphorine, phenethylamines, and 5-meth- oxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine have been reported, albeit without pharmacological profiling (Ma et al., 2011). By phytochemical study using HPLC and UV/MS spectroscopic analysis based on previous reports (Patora and Klimek, 2002; Xia et al., 2007; Ha et al., 2012), we were able to identify three glycosides, generated from luteolin, apigenin, and scutellarein, and one aglycone luteolin as major components of Codariocalyx motorius (Fig. 4A and B). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ethnopharmacological relevance: Codariocalyx motorius (Houtt.) H. Ohashi (Fabaceae) is one of several ethnopharmacologically valuable South Asian species prescribed as an herbal medicine for various inflammatory diseases. Due to the lack of systematic studies on this plant, we aimed to explore the inhibitory activity of Codariocalyx motorius toward inflammatory responses using its ethanolic extract (Cm-EE). Materials and methods: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated macrophages and a HCl/EtOH-induced gastritis model were used for evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of Cm-EE. HPLC and spectroscopic analysis were employed to identify potential active components. Mechanistic approaches to determine target enzymes included kinase assays, reporter gene assays, and overexpression of target enzymes. Results: Cm-EE strongly suppressed nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release. Cm-EE-mediated inhibition was observed at the transcriptional level in the form of suppression of NF-κB (p65) translocation and activation. This extract also lowered the levels of phosphorylation of Src and Syk, their kinase activity, and their formation of signalling complexes by binding to the downstream enzyme p85/PI3K. In accord with these findings, the phosphorylation of p85 induced by overexpression of Src or Syk was also diminished by Cm-EE. Orally administered Cm-EE clearly inhibited gastritic ulcer formation and the phosphorylation of IκBα and Src in HCl/EtOH-treated stomachs of mice. By phytochemical analysis, luteolin and its glycoside, apigenin-7-O-glucuronide, and scutellarein-6-O-glucuronide were identified as major components of Cm-EE. Among these, it was found that luteolin was able to strongly suppress NO and PGE2 production under the same conditions. Conclusion: Syk/Src-targeted inhibition of NF-κB by Cm-EE could be a major anti-inflammatory mechanism contributing to its ethno pharmacological role as an anti-inflammatory herbal medicine.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014
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