Increasing Incidence and Prevalence of the Inflammatory Bowel Diseases With Time, Based on Systematic Review

Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
Gastroenterology (Impact Factor: 16.72). 01/2012; 142(1):46-54.e42; quiz e30. DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2011.10.001
Source: PubMed


We conducted a systematic review to determine changes in the worldwide incidence and prevalence of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) in different regions and with time.
We performed a systematic literature search of MEDLINE (1950-2010; 8103 citations) and EMBASE (1980-2010; 4975 citations) to identify studies that were population based, included data that could be used to calculate incidence and prevalence, and reported separate data on UC and/or CD in full manuscripts (n = 260). We evaluated data from 167 studies from Europe (1930-2008), 52 studies from Asia and the Middle East (1950-2008), and 27 studies from North America (1920-2004). Maps were used to present worldwide differences in the incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs); time trends were determined using joinpoint regression.
The highest annual incidence of UC was 24.3 per 100,000 person-years in Europe, 6.3 per 100,000 person-years in Asia and the Middle East, and 19.2 per 100,000 person-years in North America. The highest annual incidence of CD was 12.7 per 100,000 person-years in Europe, 5.0 person-years in Asia and the Middle East, and 20.2 per 100,000 person-years in North America. The highest reported prevalence values for IBD were in Europe (UC, 505 per 100,000 persons; CD, 322 per 100,000 persons) and North America (UC, 249 per 100,000 persons; CD, 319 per 100,000 persons). In time-trend analyses, 75% of CD studies and 60% of UC studies had an increasing incidence of statistical significance (P < .05).
Although there are few epidemiologic data from developing countries, the incidence and prevalence of IBD are increasing with time and in different regions around the world, indicating its emergence as a global disease.

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    • "Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic gastrointestinal disorder with debilitating symptoms such as abdominal cramps, rectal bleeding, diarrhoea, urgency in bowel movement, weight loss, and extraintestinal manifestations . Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) are the most studied types of IBD, having the highest prevalence and constituting an important global public health problem with increasing and varied incidence worldwide (Molodecky et al., 2012). The etiology of UC and CD is multifactorial and is mainly driven by an abnormal immune response to gut microbes in a genetically predisposed host (Abraham & Cho, 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic illness characterized by gross inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract that can result in symptoms such as abdominal pain, cramping, diarrhea, and bloody stools. IBD is believed to be influenced by psychological factors such as stress and anxiety. Therefore, a yoga intervention that reduces stress and anxiety may be an effective complementary treatment for these disorders. Material and methods: A total of 100 IBD patients [ulcerative colitis (UC) n = 60 and Crohn's disease (CD) n = 40] during the clinical remission phase of disease were included in the study. These patients were allocated randomly to either the yoga group that underwent an 8-week yoga intervention (physical postures, pranayama, and meditation) 1- hour/day in addition to standard medical therapy (UC, n = 30; CD, n = 20) or the control group (UC, n = 30; CD n = 20), which continued with standard medical therapy alone. The main outcome measures were cardiovascular autonomic functions, serum eosinophilic cationic protein, interleukin- 2 soluble receptors, Speilberger's State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) scores, and clinical symptoms. Results: Before the intervention, all the outcome measures were comparable in the two groups. After the 8-week yoga intervention, fewer UC patients reported arthralgia. The number of patients reporting intestinal colic pain in the control group was higher. State and trait anxiety levels were significantly reduced in patients with UC. However, no significant changes were observed in cardiovascular autonomic functions, eosinophilic cationic proteins, or interleukin-2 soluble receptors. Conclusions: A simplified yoga-based regimen is a safe and effective complementary clinical treatment modality for patients with inflammatory bowel disease during the clinical remission phase.
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    • "Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) encompass at least two forms of intestinal inflammation: Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC). Both types are chronic and inflammatory disorders in the gastrointestinal tract, with an increasing prevalence associated with the industrialization of nations and rising in developing countries [1]. The pathogenesis of IBD remains unclear, but imbalances between proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-12, and antiinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-4, IL-10, and IL-11, are believed to play a central role in modulating inflammation [2] [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) encompass at least two forms of intestinal inflammation: Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC). Both conditions are chronic and inflammatory disorders in the gastrointestinal tract, with an increasing prevalence being associated with the industrialization of nations and in developing countries. Patients with these disorders are 10 to 20 times more likely to develop cancer of the colon. The aim of this studywas to characterize the effects of a naturally occurring polyphenol, gallic acid (GA), in an experimental murine model of UC. A significant blunting of weight loss and clinical symptoms was observed in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-exposed, GA-treated mice compared with control mice. This effect was associated with a remarkable amelioration of the disruption of the colonic architecture, a significant reduction in colonic myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and a decrease in the expression of inflammatory mediators, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, GA reduced the activation and nuclear accumulation of p-STAT3Y705, preventing the degradation of the inhibitory protein IκB and inhibiting of the nuclear translocation of p65-NF-κB in colonic mucosa. These findings suggest that GA exerts potentially clinically useful anti-inflammatory effects mediated through the suppression of p65-NF-κBand IL-6/p-STAT3Y705 activation.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · International immunopharmacology
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    • "These proteins cause damage to the small intestine of patients with CD which results in malabsorption of nutrients (McGough, 2005; Thompson, 1997). The incidence of CD is approximately 1% in both the United States and Europe (Molodecky et al., 2012; Rubio-Tapia, Ludvigsson, Brantner, Murray, & Everhart, 2012). The disease is of considerable interest in those countries in which the offending cereals are consumed. "
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    ABSTRACT: Enriched caricain was able to detoxify a major proportion of the gliadin in wholemeal wheat dough by allowing it to react for 5h at 37°C during the fermentation stage. A reduction of 82% in toxicity, as determined by the rat-liver lysosome assay, was achieved using 0.03% enzyme on weight of dough. Without enzyme, only 26% reduction occurred. The difference in reduction of toxicity achieved is statistically significant (p<0.01). The results are very similar to those obtained in our previous work using an immuno assay and the same enzyme preparation. They confirm the value of caricain as a means of reducing the toxicity of gliadin and open the way for enzyme therapy as an adjunct to the gluten free diet. This approach should lead to better control over the elimination of dietary gluten intake in conditions such as coeliac disease and dermatitis herpetiformis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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