Epidemiology of Critical Care Syndromes, Organ Failures, and Life-Support Interventions in a Suburban US Community

ArticleinChest 140(6):1447-55 · December 2011with8 Reads
DOI: 10.1378/chest.11-1197 · Source: PubMed
ICU services represent a significant and increasing proportion of medical care. Population-based epidemiologic studies are essential to inform physicians and policymakers about current and future ICU demands. We aimed to determine the incidence of critical care syndromes, organ failures, and life-support interventions in a defined US suburban community with unrestricted access to critical care services. This population-based observational cohort from January 1 to December 31, 2006, in Olmsted County, Minnesota, included all consecutive critically ill adult residents admitted to the ICU. Main outcomes were incidence of critical care syndromes, life-support interventions, and organ failures as defined by standard criteria. Incidences are reported per 100,000 population (95% CIs) and were age adjusted to the 2006 US population. A total of 1,707 ICU admissions were identified from 1,461 patients. Incidences of critical care syndromes were respiratory failure, 430 (390-470); acute kidney injury, 290 (257-323); severe sepsis, 286 (253-319); all-cause shock, 194 (167-221); acute lung injury, 86 (68-105); all-cause coma, 43 (30-55); and overt disseminated intravascular coagulation, 18 (10-26). Incidence of mechanical ventilation was invasive, 310 (276-344); noninvasive, 180 (154-206); vasopressors and inotropes, 183(155-208). Renal replacement therapy incidence was 96 (77-116). Of the cohort, 1,330 patients (91%) survived to hospital discharge. Short- and long-term survival decreased by the number of failing organs. In a suburban US community with high access to critical care services, cumulative incidences of critical care syndromes and life-support interventions were higher than previously reported. The results of this study have important implications for future planning of critical care delivery.
    • "Data were gathered from the inpatient practice, which consists of 1 tertiary hospital with 2 main campuses located in Rochester, Minnesota. The characteristics of these hospitals have been described elsewhere [22]. The afferent component of the RRS relies on bedside care providers to assess the patient and determine the need for assistance through use of objective bedside criteria based primarily on physiologic characteristics . "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study is to evaluate the impact of primary service involvement on rapid response team (RRT) evaluations. The study is a combination of retrospective chart review and prospective survey-based evaluation. Data included when and where the activations occurred and the patient's code status, primary service, and ultimate disposition. These data were correlated with survey data from each event. A prospective survey evaluated the primary team's involvement in decision making and the overall subjective quality of the interaction with primary service through a visual analog scale. We analyzed 4408 RRTs retrospectively and an additional 135 prospectively. The primary team's involvement by telephone or in person was associated with significantly more transfers to higher care levels in retrospective (P < .01) and prospective data sets. Code status was addressed more frequently in primary team involvement, with more frequent changes seen in the retrospective analysis (P = .01). Subjective ratings of communication by the RRT leader were significantly higher when the primary service was involved (P < .001). Active primary team involvement influences RRT activation processes of care. The RRT role should be an adjunct to, but not a substitute for, an engaged and present primary care team. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014
    • "In the last two decades [21] , NIV had been used extensively in the ICU settings especially among patients with ARF because of hypercapnia and cardiogenic pulmonary edema [5,6,8,11,20,222324. However, very few studies had discussed the use of NIV in a population-based sample [14,25]. In this population-based study, we showed that NIV was frequently used in the ICUs. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) is a front-line therapy for the management of acute respiratory failure (ARF) in the intensive care units. However, the data on factors and outcomes associated with the use of NIV in ARF patients is lacking. Therefore, we aimed to determine the utilization of NIV for ARF in a population-based study. Methods We conducted a populated-based retrospective cohort study, where in all consecutively admitted adults (≥18 years) with ARF from Olmsted County, Rochester, MN, at the Mayo Clinic medical and surgical ICUs, during 2006 were included. Patients without research authorization or on chronic NIV use for sleep apnea were excluded. Results Out of 1461 Olmsted County adult residents admitted to the ICUs in 2006, 364 patients developed ARF, of which 146 patients were initiated on NIV. The median age in years was 75 (interquartile range, 60–84), 48% females and 88.7% Caucasians. Eighteen patients (12%) were on Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) mode and 128 (88%) were on noninvasive intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (NIPPV) mode. Forty-six (10%) ARF patients were put on NIV for palliative strategy to alleviate dyspnea. Seventy-six ARF patients without treatment limitation were given a trial of NIV and 49 patients succeeded, while 27 had to be intubated. Mortality was similar between the patients initially supported with NIV versus invasive mechanical ventilation (33% vs 22%, P=0.289). In the multivariate analysis, the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and higher APACHE III scores were associated with the failure of initial NIV treatment. Conclusions Our results have important implications for a future planning of NIV in a suburban US community with high access to critical care services. The higher APACHE III scores and the development of ARDS are associated with the failure of initial NIV treatment.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013
    • "Acute respiratory failure is one of the most common causes for the emergency admission of patients to intensive care units [1]. Epidemiological studies have estimated the annual incidence of acute respiratory failure in the United States (US) to be between 77.6 and 430 patients per 100,0001234. The mortality rates of acute respiratory failure in western countries ranged from 41% to 44%345 and rise with the increase in severity and number of organ dysfunction [6]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine early predictors of outcomes of adult patients with severe acute respiratory failure. Method: 100 consecutive adult patients with severe acute respiratory failure were evaluated in this retrospective study. Data including comorbidities, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, Acute Physiological Assessment and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score, PaO2, FiO2, PaO2/FiO2, PEEP, mean airway pressure (mPaw), and oxygenation index (OI) on the 1st and the 3rd day of mechanical ventilation, and change in OI within 3 days were recorded. Primary outcome was hospital mortality; secondary outcome measure was ventilator weaning failure. Results: 38 out of 100 (38%) patients died within the study period. 48 patients (48%) failed to wean from ventilator. Multivariate analysis showed day 3 OI (P=0.004) and SOFA (P=0.02) score were independent predictors of hospital mortality. Preexisting cerebrovascular accident (CVA) (P=0.002) was the predictor of weaning failure. Results from Kaplan-Meier method demonstrated that higher day 3 OI was associated with shorter survival time (log-Rank test, P<0.001). Conclusion: Early OI (within 3 days) and SOFA score were predictors of mortality in severe acute respiratory failure. In the future, prospective studies measuring serial OIs in a larger scale of study cohort is required to further consolidate our findings.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013
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