The interrelation between premenstrual syndrome and major depression: Results from a population-based sample

Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH), Socinstr, 57, 4051 Basel, Switzerland.
BMC Public Health (Impact Factor: 2.26). 10/2011; 11(1):795. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-795
Source: PubMed


Research about the relationship between premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and major depression is limited. This study examined the relationship between moderate to severe PMS and major depression in a population-based sample of women of reproductive age. The objectives of the study were to assess the association between premenstrual syndrome and major depression, to analyse how PMS and major depression differ and to characterise the group of women who report both PMS and major depression.
Data were obtained from the Swiss Health Survey 2007. Included in the analysis was data from women under the age of 55 without hysterectomy and who answered the questions on PMS symptoms. The population-based sample consisted of 3518 women. Weighted prevalence rates were calculated and relative risk ratios for PMS, major depression and women who reported both PMS and major depression, were calculated with logistic multinominal logit regression.
The prevalence of major depression was 11.3% in women screening positive for moderate PMS and 24.6% in women screening positive for severe PMS. Compared to women without any of these conditions, women who reported moderate to severe alcohol consumption had a lower risk for PMS. Women reporting use of antidepressants, and use of oral contraceptives had a higher risk for major depression compared to women without any of these conditions. Women reporting work dissatisfaction had a higher risk for PMS. A higher relative risk to report both PMS and major depression compared to women without PMS or major depression was related to factors such as high psychological distress, low mastery, psychotropic drug consumption, and low self-rated health.
The results suggested that women who suffer from both PMS and major depression are more impaired compared to women with only one disorder. The results further indicated that PMS and major depression are different disorders that can, however, co-occur.

Download full-text


Available from: Sibil Tschudin, Jun 19, 2014
  • Source
    • "Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is known as the severe type of PMS which leads to the impairment of the individual's daily activities. It is observed in 3–5% of women [7] [9]. PMS is prevalent in Iran such that according to the results of the study done by Delara et al., 99.5% of adolescent girls reported at least one of these symptoms, and among these, 66.3% had mild symptoms, 31.4% had moderate symptoms, and 2.3% had severe symptoms [10]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Premenstrual syndrome is one of the most common problems for women during their reproductive age and has wider impacts affecting their family and their work. Herbal products are a suggested way of treating the syndrome. This research was carried out to identify whether saffron could have an effect on the severity of premenstrual syndrome among female students. Methods: This randomized triple-blind controlled clinical trial was carried out with 78 students aged 18-35 years residing in university accommodation. The intervention group received capsules containing 30. mg of dried extract of saffron stigma once a day and the control group received placebo capsules for two menstrual cycles. The data gathering instrument consisted of questionnaire, the DASS21 scale, and premenstrual symptoms assessment form. Results: At the beginning of the study, the two groups did not differ significantly in terms of their mean severity of PMS (P = 0.81). At the end of the study, the changes of the mean severity of PMS were significantly different compared with those in the beginning: P <. 0.001 for the intervention group, and p = 0.04 for the control group. In total, the two groups had significant differences in terms of changes in the mean severity of PMS over time (P <. 0.001). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that saffron reduces the severity of PMS symptoms, but in order to prove its effectiveness for the treatment of this syndrome, further research is warranted.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · European Journal of Integrative Medicine
  • Source
    • "In this study participated 3913 women aged 15-54. Results showed that 10 percent of all participants experienced some symptoms of PMS [18]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background and objectives: Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) is a common health problem in women in reproductive age. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of PMS using meta-analysis method. Methods: This meta-analysis systematically reviewed the prevalence of PMS. A search was conducted using keywords Premenstrual Syndrome, PMS, prevalence PMS and symptom of PMS in reliable English articles. The initial search 53 articles were available. After review of full-text articles, 17 articles were selected for analysis. Data were combined using meta-analysis (random effects model). Data were analyzed using STATA software, Version 11.1 RESULTS: Overall, 17 studies met our inclusion criteria. The pooled prevalence of PMS was 47.8% (95% CI: 32.6-62.9). The lowest and highest prevalence were reported in France 12% (95% CI: 11-13) and Iran 98% (95% CI: 97-100) respectively. However, meta-regression scatter plot showed an increasing trend in the prevalence of PMS during 1996-2011 but correlation between prevalence of PMS and year of study was not significance (p= 0.797). Interpretation and conclusions: Considering that different tools have been used in studies and many studies have been designed based on a limited sample, therefore, future research needs to consider the prevalence of PMS in different countries of world.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To examine the associations of menstrual-related problems with mental health and health behaviors in a U.S. population-based study. We analyzed data obtained from women aged 18-55 years (n = 11,648) who participated in the 2002 National Health Interview Survey, an ongoing, computer-assisted personal interview of the noninstitutionalized U.S. population. Approximately 19% of women aged 18-55 years reported experiencing menstrual-related problems (e.g., heavy bleeding, bothersome cramping, or premenstrual syndrome [PMS]). These women were significantly more likely than those without menstrual-related problems to report frequent anxiety and depression, insomnia, excessive sleepiness, and pain over the past 12 months. Women with menstrual-related problems were also significantly more likely to report feeling sad, nervous, restless, hopeless, or worthless and that everything was an effort all or most of the time during the past 30 days. Cigarette smoking, drinking heavily, and being overweight or obese were also more frequently reported among women with menstrual-related problems than those without. Menstrual-related problems pose substantial implications for public health. Healthcare providers should examine mental health concerns in women reporting menstrual-related problems.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2005 · Journal of Women's Health
Show more