Phase II Study of the Effects of Ginger Root Extract on Eicosanoids in Colon Mucosa in People at Normal Risk for Colorectal Cancer

Department of Family Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.
Cancer Prevention Research (Impact Factor: 4.44). 11/2011; 4(11):1929-37. DOI: 10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-11-0224
Source: PubMed


Inhibitors of COX indicate that upregulation of inflammatory eicosanoids produced by COX, and in particular prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), are early events in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). Ginger has shown downregulation of COX in vitro and decreased incidence/multiplicity of adenomas in rats. This study was conducted to determine if 2.0 g/d of ginger could decrease the levels of PGE(2), 13-hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids, and 5-, 12-, and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-, 12-, and 15-HETE), in the colon mucosa of healthy volunteers. To investigate this aim, we randomized 30 subjects to 2.0 g/d ginger or placebo for 28 days. Flexible sigmoidoscopy at baseline and day 28 was used to obtain colon biopsies. A liquid chromatography mass spectrometry method was used to determine eicosanoid levels in the biopsies, and levels were expressed per protein or per free arachidonic acid. There were no significant differences in mean percent change between baseline and day 28 for any of the eicosanoids, when normalized to protein. There was a significant decrease in mean percent change in PGE(2) (P = 0.05) and 5-HETE (P = 0.04), and a trend toward significant decreases in 12-HETE (P = 0.09) and 15-HETE (P = 0.06) normalized to free arachidonic acid. There was no difference between the groups in terms of total adverse events P = 0.55). On the basis of these results, it seems that ginger has the potential to decrease eicosanoid levels, perhaps by inhibiting their synthesis from arachidonic acid. Ginger also seemed to be tolerable and safe. Further investigation in people at high risk for CRC seems warranted.

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Available from: Mack T Ruffin IV
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    • "Specific properties of these compounds that may be relevant to CINV include 5-HT 3 , substance P and acetylcholine receptor antagonism; anti-inflammatory properties; and modulation of cellular redox signalling, vasopressin release, gastrointestinal motility, and gastric emptying rate.(Abdel-Aziz et al., 2006; Prakash and Srinivasan, 2010; Wu et al., 2008; Zick et al., 2011) Whereas recent reviews have focused upon the clinical efficacy of ginger, this paper will focus on the potential mechanisms by which ginger could exert anti-CINV effects. "

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    • "The dosage of 1.2 g was selected for the following reasons: 1) it is within the typical dosage utilised in previous literature; 2) a lower dose, divided into multiple capsules, might not reach adequate concentrations to be effective; and 3) concerns that higher doses would reduce CINV control. Previous studies indicated higher doses were either less effective or possibly interfered with standard anti-emetic medications [38]. "
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