Epidemiology of Injuries Requiring Surgery Among High School Athletes in the United States, 2005 to 2010
Center for Injury Research and Policy, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, and Division of Epidemiology, The Ohio State University, College of Public Health, Columbus, Ohio 43205, USA. The Journal of trauma
(Impact Factor: 2.96).
10/2011; 71(4):982-9. DOI: 10.1097/TA.0b013e318230e716
The proportion of high school sports-related injuries requiring surgery, which pose monetary and time loss burdens, has significantly increased during the last decade. The objective was to investigate the epidemiology of high school athletic injuries requiring surgery.
High school sports-related injury data were collected for nine sports from 2005 to 2010 from 100 nationally representative US high schools.
Athletes sustained 1,380 injuries requiring surgery for a rate of 1.45 injuries per 10,000 athlete exposures. Boys' football had the highest injury rate (2.52) followed by boys' wrestling (1.64). Among gender comparable sports, girls' sports has a higher injury rate (1.20) than boys' (0.94) (rate ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.51; p=0.004). The rate of injuries was higher in competition (3.23) than practice (0.79) (rate ratio, 4.08; 95% confidence interval, 3.67-4.55; p<0.001) overall and in each sport. Commonly injured body sites were the knee (49.4%), head/face/mouth (9.7%), and shoulder (8.7%). Common diagnoses were complete ligament strain (32.1%) and fracture (26.4%). Nearly half (48.0%) resulted in medical disqualification for the season.
Rates and patterns of injuries requiring surgery differ by sport, type of exposure, and gender. Future studies should identify sport-specific risk factors to drive effective interventions to decrease the incidence and severity of such injuries.
Available from: Nicola Maffulli
- "Although gridiron football was associated with the highest rate of ACL injuries among high school athletes, of particular interest are the higher rates of ACL injury seen in adolescent female athletes compared to males in sports like soccer, basketball and baseball/softball
. For example, Rechel et al.
 reported that U.S. high school girls sustained more than twice as many complete ligament sprains than boys. "
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ABSTRACT: The increased participation of children and adolescents in organized sports worldwide is a welcome trend given evidence of lower physical fitness and increased prevalence of overweight in this population. However, the increased sports activity of children from an early age and continued through the years of growth, against a background of their unique vulnerability to injury, gives rise to concern about the risk and severity of injury. Three types of injury-anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, concussion, and physeal injury - are considered potentially serious given their frequency, potential for adverse long-term health outcomes, and escalating healthcare costs. Concussion is probably the hottest topic in sports injury currently with voracious media coverage and exploding research interest. Given the negative cognitive effects of concussion, it has the potential to have a great impact on children and adolescents during their formative years and potentially impair school achievement and, if concussion management is not managed appropriately, there can be long term negative impact on cognitive development and ability to resume sports participation. Sudden and gradual onset physeal injury is a unique injury to the pediatric population which can adversely affect growth if not managed correctly. Although data are lacking, the frequency of stress-related physeal injury appears to be increasing. If mismanaged, physeal injuries can also lead to long-term complications which could negatively affect ability to participate in sports. Management of ACL injuries is an area of controversy and if not managed appropriately, can affect long-term growth and recovery as well as the ability to participate in sports. This article considers the young athlete's vulnerability to injury, with special reference to ACL injury, concussion, and physeal injury, and reviews current research on epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these injury types. This article is intended as an overview of these injury types for medical students, healthcare professionals and researchers.
Available from: Steven D Stovitz
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ABSTRACT: Recording exact amounts of exposure time in sport events is overly cumbersome for many sports injury surveillance projects. When individual-level data are unavailable, sports injury epidemiologists currently use one of two main methods to assess overall exposure time. The AAR method includes only the number of athletes at risk on the field during the respective sporting events. This method closely replicates the results of the individual-level exposure time calculations if studies have full team enrolment and games are played with a consistent number of players. In contrast, the AP method applies a full unit of exposure time to everyone who plays in a game, however briefly, or to everyone on the game roster whether they participate or not. Consequently, the AP method underestimates game injury rates (because it overestimates exposure time) with a magnitude related to the proportion of players on the field (ie, those at risk) divided by the number of players on the team who are considered to have participated. Recognising this is necessary to properly assess risk factors for injuries in team sport events, appropriately target injury prevention efforts and accurately combine studies using different methods in systematic reviews or meta-analyses.
Available from: Matthew Sweeney
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ABSTRACT: The The kinematic interrelationships between the lower limbs, pelvis, trunk, and racquet in the performance of the high velocity tennis serve were investigated for 10 participants using a 12 camera opto-reflective Vicon MX
system, operating at 250Hz. The average absolute peak racquet centre velocity was 34.0m∙s-1, which is comparable to previous studies using high performance players. Peak vertical linear velocity of the right shoulder was highly correlated with this maximum pre-impact racquet resultant velocity (MRV: r = 0.808, p < .001), yet horizontal velocity of the same shoulder shared no relationship with MRV. The vertical drive of the hitting shoulder was strongly associated with drive from both trunk and lower limbs, in particular on the hitting side. The results
highlighted the importance of creating a large upward drive of the hitting shoulder in the high performance tennis serve with contributions from both the trunk and the lower limbs playing key roles.
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