Discrepancy Between Heart Rate and Makers of Hypoperfusion Is a Predictor of Mortality in Trauma Patients
Osaka Prefectural Senshu Critical Care Medical Center, Osaka, Japan. The Journal of trauma
(Impact Factor: 2.96).
10/2011; 71(4):789-92. DOI: 10.1097/TA.0b013e31822f7bbd
Tachycardia is an important early sign of shock in trauma. Although the base deficit (BD) and lactate are indicative of hypoperfusion and known to predict mortality, some cases show a discrepancy between heart rate (HR) and BD or lactate; such cases have poor prognosis. The objective of this study was to examine whether lack of tachycardia after hypoperfusion is associated with increased mortality.
Retrospective data were collected on 1,742 adult trauma patients. Mortality was compared with different levels of BD, lactate, and HR on admission. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify significant risk factors for mortality.
Significantly increased mortality was observed in patients with hypoperfusion (BD less than -5 mmol/L or lactate more than 5 mmol/L). Among these patients, those with a normal HR (<80 bpm) were associated with a higher mortality rate than those with tachycardia (HR, 80-100 or>100 bpm). However, systolic blood pressure (SBP) was not significantly different between the different HR groups. Logistic regression analysis revealed that discrepancy between HR and indicators of hypoperfusion (Dis BD: BD less than -5 mmol/L and HR less than 80 bpm; or Dis lac: lactate more than 5 mmol/L and HR less than 80 bpm) are independent predictors of mortality after controlling for age, SBP, Injury Severity Score, head Abbreviated Injury Scale, HR, and BD or lactate (Dis BD: odds ratio, 2.67; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-6.61; p<0.05 and Dis lac: odds ratio, 4.11; 95% confidence interval, 1.57-10.74; p<0.01, respectively).
The lack of tachycardia in the presence of hypoperfusion is associated with poor prognosis independent of injury severity, SBP, and head injury. A discrepancy between HR and indicators of hypoperfusion could be considered as a predictor of mortality in trauma patients.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "In addition, individual components of the system appear to be poor predictors of hemorrhage. For example, tachycardia (one of the earliest signs of shock in the ATLS system) has been shown to be an inaccurate predictor of hypovolemic shock in several studies [7,8]. The ATLS classification system, either in part or as a whole, may not accurately reflect a patient's degree of hypovolemic shock. "
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ABSTRACT: Base deficit has frequently been utilized as an informal adjunct in the initial evaluation of trauma patients to assess the extent of their physiologic derangements. However, the current Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) classification system for hypovolemic shock does not include base-deficit measurements and relies primarily on alterations in vital signs (heart rate, systolic blood pressure) and mental status (Glasgow Coma Scale) to estimate blood loss. The authors of this paper propose that the current ATLS system may not accurately reflect the degree of hypovolemic shock in many patients and that base-deficit measurements should be used in its place. The proposed system showed a greater correlation with transfusion requirements, need for massive transfusion, and mortality when compared with the ATLS classification system. Based on these findings, base-deficit measurement should be strongly considered during the initial trauma evaluation to identify the presence of hypovolemic shock and to guide blood product administration.
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