Green synthesis of biogenic metal nanoparticles by terrestrial and aquatic phototrophic and heterotrophic eukaryotes and biocompatible agents. Adv Colloid Interface Sci
The size, shape and controlled dispersity of nanoparticles play a vital role in determining the physical, chemical, optical and electronic properties attributing its applications in environmental, biotechnological and biomedical fields. Various physical and chemical processes have been exploited in the synthesis of several inorganic metal nanoparticles by wet and dry approaches viz., ultraviolet irradiation, aerosol technologies, lithography, laser ablation, ultrasonic fields, and photochemical reduction techniques. However, these methodologies remain expensive and involve the use of hazardous chemicals. Therefore, there is a growing concern for the development of alternative environment friendly and sustainable methods. Increasing awareness towards green chemistry and biological processes has led to a necessity to develop simple, cost-effective and eco-friendly procedures. Phototrophic eukaryotes such as plants, algae, and diatoms and heterotrophic human cell lines and some biocompatible agents have been reported to synthesize greener nanoparticles like cobalt, copper, silver, gold, bimetallic alloys, silica, palladium, platinum, iridium, magnetite and quantum dots. Owing to the diversity and sustainability, the use of phototrophic and heterotrophic eukaryotes and biocompatible agents for the synthesis of nanomaterials is yet to be fully explored. This review describes the recent advancements in the green synthesis and applications of metal nanoparticles by plants, aquatic autotrophs, human cell lines, biocompatible agents and biomolecules.
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