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Adult Neurogenesis and Acupuncture Stimulation at ST36

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Abstract and Figures

Although it was believed that the brain was incapable of regeneration after embryonic development, neurogenesis is now known to occur into adulthood. Adult neurogenesis has been demonstrated in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Acupuncture has long been used to treat neurologic conditions, and recent reports suggest that neurogenesis may account for its beneficial effects. ST36 was the most often used acupoint in previous reports and was shown to enhance cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation. This acupoint may be linked to the brain through the primo vascular system, an anatomic structure thought to correspond to acupuncture meridians. This primitive vascular-like system appears to be involved in physiologic and pathologic processes by circulating substances throughout the body. The role of the primo vascular system as the link between the skin and brain underlying the beneficial effects of acupuncture requires further investigation.
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REVIEW ARTICLE
-
Adult Neurogenesis and Acupuncture Stimulation at
ST36
Min-Ho Nam
1,3
, Chang Shik Yin
2
, Kwang-Sup Soh
3
, Seung-hoon Choi
1,
*
1
Department of Pathology, College of Oriental Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
2
Acupuncture and Meridian Science Research Center, College of Oriental Medicine, Kyung Hee University,
Seoul, Republic of Korea
3
Nano Primo Research Center, Advanced Institute of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University,
Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea
Received: May 25, 2011
Accepted: Jun 21, 2011
KEYWORDS
acupuncture;
adult neurogenesis;
primo vascular system;
ST36
Abstract
Although it was believed that the brain was incapable of regeneration after embryonic
development, neurogenesis is now known to occur into adulthood. Adult neurogenesis
has been demonstrated in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the sub-
granular zone of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Acupuncture has long been used
to treat neurologic conditions, and recent reports suggest that neurogenesis may account
for its beneficial effects. ST36 was the most often used acupoint in previous reports and
was shown to enhance cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation. This acupoint may
be linked to the brain through the primo vascular system, an anatomic structure thought
to correspond to acupuncture meridians. This primitive vascular-like system appears to
be involved in physiologic and pathologic processes by circulating substances throughout
the body. The role of the primo vascular system as the link between the skin and brain
underlying the beneficial effects of acupuncture requires further investigation.
1. Introduction
Neurogenesis was traditionally thought to occur primarily
during embryonic development, and neuron loss in adult-
hood due to injury, disease, and aging was considered
permanent. Although neurogenesis is now known to
continue into the postnatal period [1], a decline in neuro-
genesis and regenerative capacity of the nervous system
contributes to age-related impairment [2]. Since the first
study demonstrating neurogenesis in the adult mammalian
brain was published in 1965 [3], research has focused on the
involvement of neural stem cells [4] and neurogenesis-
regulating factors [5] in this process. There is evidence to
suggest that neurogenesis is altered in individuals experi-
encing cognitive decline and neurodegenerative disorders
[6]. Although acupuncture has been widely used for
neurologic disorders in the East, its effectiveness for
treating stroke [7] and Alzheimer’s disease [8,9] remains
unclear. A recent study demonstrated that acupuncture
induces cell differentiation and neuroblast differentiation
* Corresponding author: Seung-hoon Choi, Department of Pathology, College of Oriental Medicine, Kyung Hee University, 1 Hoegi-dong,
Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul, 130-701, Republic of Korea.
E-mail: choish@khu.ac.kr (S.-h. Choi).
ª2011 Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute
doi:10.1016/j.jams.2011.09.001
J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2011;4(3):153e158
J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2011;4(3):153e158
Author's personal copy
in the rat hippocampus [10], providing evidence for its
utility as a neurogenesis-stimulating therapy. In this review,
we provide an overview of neurogenesis and acupuncture,
and discuss this topic in relation to the primo vascular
system (PVS), a proposed anatomic structure corresponding
to acupuncture meridians [11,12].
2. Adult Neurogenesis in Mammals
Adult neural stem cells can self-renew and differentiate
into all the major types of neural cells of the adult nervous
system, including neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendro-
cytes (Fig. 1)[13]. Because the stem cell properties of adult
neural stem cells were shown in vitro, but were not
demonstrated convincingly in vivo until recently, the term
“neural progenitors” is used to describe all dividing cells
with some capacity for differentiation [14].
The first study on adult neurogenesis, published in 1965,
used 3H-thymidine autoradiography to detect neuronal
proliferation in young adult rats [3]. These new cells
exhibited morphologic characteristics of granule neurons
and were detected in the olfactory bulb and dentate gyrus
(DG). Newer methods include the use of bromodeoxyuridine
(BrdU), which is incorporated along with 3H-thymidine into
cells during the S phase of the cell cycle to label prolifer-
ating cells and their progeny [15]. BrdU can be combined
with other immunohistochemical stains to identify specific
types of proliferating cells, such as neuronal nuclei,
neuron-specific enolase, and N-methyl-D-aspartate
receptor subunit NR1 [15].
Adult neurogenesis occurs in the subventricular zone
(SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone
(SGZ) of the DG in the hippocampus (Fig. 2)[14]. The SVZ is
a paired brain structure that lies adjacent to the lateral
walls of the lateral ventricles [16]. Neural stem cells of the
SVZ migrate to the olfactory bulb via the rostral migratory
stream, where they differentiate into interneurons [13].
Because neurogenesis in the adult central nervous system
appears to be restricted to the DG and SVZ, studies have
focused on these two areas as targets for neurogenesis-
stimulating treatment [9,17].
The hippocampus, which plays a central role in learning
and memory, demonstrates a high degree of structural
plasticity [18,19]. Among the hippocampal formations, only
the DG continues to develop through adulthood. Progenitor
cells in the germinal zone of the DG continuously generate
granule cells, which integrate into the existing neuronal
circuits [15]. Thus, DG cell proliferation, differentiation,
and survival influence adult hippocampal neurogenesis [20].
Impaired hippocampal neuron replacement in adulthood
is associated with a number of neurologic conditions,
including epilepsy [21], stroke [22], Alzheimer’s disease
[23], Parkinson’s disease [24], and inflammation of the
brain [25]. The reduced proliferative activity of brain cells
associated with aging appears to be specific to granule cells
in the DG [26]. Neurogenesis increases in the hippocampus
and SVZ in the wake of epileptic seizures and ischemic
stroke, but it is not clear whether the new cells survive and
integrate to compensate for the brain injury [14]. Changes
in the local environment, such as a reduction in peptide
growth factors, may also play a role in age-related
impairments. Thus stimulating neurogenesis may be a key
factor in recovering from these conditions.
3. Acupuncture and Neurogenesis
Acupuncture stimulation has been used for more than 2000
years in East Asian countries as an integral part of the
medical armamentarium [27]. Traditional indications cover
a wide range of conditions, and a recent report from
a Consensus Panel on Acupuncture indicated that
acupuncture may be an effective adjunctive therapy for
addiction, stroke rehabilitation, headaches, menstrual
cramps, epicondylitis, fibromyalgia, lower back pain, carpal
tunnel syndrome, and asthma [28].
Regarding neurologic conditions, acupuncture has been
reported to be an effective therapy for brain disorders such
as sequelae of stroke [7], Parkinson’s disease [29], dementia
[30], and epilepsy [31]; however, its effectiveness for these
conditions remains controversial [32,33]. Studies conducted
Figure 1 Adult neural stem cells can self-renew and differ-
entiate into all major types of neural cells, including neurons,
astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes.
Figure 2 Adult neurogenesis occurs in two locations of the
brain: the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the
subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus.
Neural stem cells of the subventricular zone migrate to the
olfactory bulb via the rostral migratory stream, where they
differentiate into interneurons. Therefore, the dentate gyrus
and olfactory bulb are considered two neurogenic areas of the
adult central nervous system.
154 M.-H. Nam et al.
Author's personal copy
in Korea and China suggest that acupuncture may have the
potential to be developed as an adjunct for managing brain
disorders [34,35]. Acupuncture has been investigated using
functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain [36,37],
electroencephalography [38], and physiological measure-
ments [39,40], but the precise mechanism underlying its
beneficial effects have not yet been elucidated.
Recent studies using rodent models have suggested that
acupuncture stimulates neurogenesis. In particular, stimu-
lating the following acupoints by acupuncture or electro-
acupuncture appears to induce neuronal proliferation: ST36
[41e43], GV20 [44], PC6 [45], HT7 [46], CV17, CV12, CV6,
SP10 [9], GV16, GV8 [47], LI11, SJ5, and GB30 [48]. Neuro-
genesis is regulated by a number of signaling pathways. In
rats, the cAMP response element-binding protein, a down-
stream target of cAMP signaling, is activated by electro-
acupuncture at ST36 and GV20. This transcription factor is
important in the proliferation,differentiation, and survival of
neuronal precursor cells, and directly regulates the expres-
sion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which supports the
growth, differentiation, and survival of neurons [49].
4. Neurogenesis effect of acupuncture
stimulation on ST36
ST36, an acupoint located on the anterior tibia muscle (Fig. 3),
is one of the most important acupoints in clinical acupuncture.
Simulation of ST36 is carried out for a wide range of conditions
affecting digestive system, cardiovascular system, and
immune system, and nervous system. Furthermore, ST36 is
one of the seven acupoints usedfor stroke treatment [50],and
has been widely used for brain disorders [30,51e53].
Recent studies have reported that acupuncture stimu-
lation may enhance adult neurogenesis at the SVZ and DG in
the brain (Table 1). In 2001, Kim et al provided the first
evidence for the increased generation of DG progenitor
cells after acupuncture treatment in ischemic gerbils (aged
11e13 weeks). Manual acupuncture at ST36 significantly
increased the number of BrdU-positive cells after ischemic
injury [42]. Subsequently, acupuncture stimulation at ST36
was reported to enhance cell proliferation in the DG a rat
model of diabetes [41]. In SAMP8 mice, which serve as
a model for Alzheimer’s disease, simulation of ST36, as well
as CV17, CV12, CV6, and SP10, induced cell proliferation in
different brain regions [9]. In healthy rats, acupuncture and
electroacupuncture stimulation at ST36 and GV20 signifi-
cantly increased cell proliferation in the SGZ of the DG [49],
and electroacupuncture stimulation at ST36, LI11, SJ5, and
GB30 produced a sustained effect on progenitor cell
proliferation and promoted cell differentiation in young
rats [48]. However, one study reported a beneficial effect
on neurogenesis with acupuncture stimulation at HT7, but
no effect at ST36 [46].
Several proteins found in the brain appear to be
increased by acupuncture therapy. Furthermore, stimula-
tion at ST36 upregulated the expression of neuropeptide Y,
which promotes the proliferation of neuronal precursor
cells [42,54]. In addition, modulation of brain-derived
neurotrophic factor expression appeared to mediate the
effects of electroacupuncture stimulation at ST36, which
attenuated the neuropathologic effects of stress in rats
[43]. Upregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and
activation of the cAMP response element-binding protein in
the DG were also demonstrated in rats that exhibited
increased neuroblast plasticity after electroacupuncture at
ST36 and GV20 [49]. In this study, neurogenesis was
detected by immunostaining against Ki67, a marker of cell
proliferation, and doublecortin, which is specifically
expressed in neuronal precursors in the developing and
adult central nervous system [10,49].
5. Discussion: Neurogenesis Effect of ST36 and
the Primo Vascular System
Three reports have been published showing that acupunc-
ture stimulation at ST36 enhances cell proliferation in the
DG of the hippocampus [41e43]. Four additional studies
claimed that simultaneous stimulation at several acupoints
(including ST36) increased cell proliferation in the SGZ of
the DG [9,10,48,49]. Although one study [46] did not find
a beneficial effect with ST36, further investigation into the
mechanism behind the effects of acupuncture at ST36 on
adult neurogenesis is warranted.
An important first step in understanding the role of ST36
in neurogenesis is investigating the anatomy and physiology
of acupoints, in particular, identifying and characterizing
the anatomic structure connecting the acupoint ST36 and
the brain. Recently, the PVS was proposed as the anatomic
Figure 3 ST36, one of the most important and most
frequently stimulated acupoints, is located on the tibialis
anterior muscle. This figure originated from World Health
Organization Standard Acupuncture Point Locations.
Role of ST36 and the PVS in adult neurogenesis 155
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Table 1 Summary of Papers on Adult Neurogenesis by Acupuncture at ST36
Study Year Animal model Acupoints Stimulation Results
Kim et al [42] 2001 Mongolian gerbils (11e13 weeks)
with transient global ischemia
ST36 Acupuncture; 20 min, 2 times/day for 9 days Acupuncture increased cell proliferation in
the dentate gyrus of ischemic gerbils.
Kim et al [41] 2002 Sprague Dawley rats (6 weeks) with
streptozotocin-induced diabetes
ST36 Acupuncture; 20 min, 2 times/day for 7 days Acupuncture at ST36 enhanced proliferation
of neuronal precursor cells in the dentate
gyrus.
Yun et al [43] 2002 Male Sprague Dawley rats (6 weeks) ST36 Electroacupuncture; 2 Hz, 1e2 mA, 0.3 ms
pulse width
Electroacupuncture restored brain-derived
neurotrophic factor expression attenuated
by immobilization stress.
Park et al [46] 2002 Sprague Dawley rats (14 days) ST36, HT7 Acupuncture; once per day for 1 week,
3emm
depth, both sides, twisting the needle
2 times/s
for 30 s, and removing immediately
Acupuncture at HT7 stimulated cell
proliferation in the dentate gyrus.
Acupuncture at ST36 did not produce
a significant effect.
*
Gao et al [48] 2011 Sprague Dawley rats (14 days) ST36, LI11, SJ5,
GB30
Electroacupuncture (2 Hz, 0.7 mV);
30 min,
once per day for 1 week
Electroacupuncture produced a sustained
effect on progenitor cell proliferation
and promoted differentiation into
neurons.
Hwang et al [10] 2010 Male Wistar rats (13 weeks) ST36, GV20 Acupuncture; 20 min, once per day
for 3 weeks at 5-mm depth
Electroacupuncture (dense-dispersed
waves of 5/20 Hz, 2e4 mA); 20 min, once
per day for 3 weeks at 5-mm depth
Both acupuncture and electroacupuncture
enhanced cell proliferation, but the effect
of electroacupuncture on neuroblast
differentiation in the dentate gyrus was
greater than that of acupuncture.
Hwang et al [49] 2010 Male Wistar rats (13 weeks) ST36, GV20 Electroacupuncture (dense-dispersed
waves of 5/20 Hz, 2e4 mA) 20 min, once
per day for 3 weeks at 5-mm depth
Electroacupuncture enhanced cell
proliferation and neuroblast
differentiation in the dentate gyrus.
Cheng et al [9] 2008 Male SAMP8 mice (4 months) ST36, CV17, CV12,
CV6, SP10
Acupuncture; once per day for 15 days
with a rest on day 8
Acupuncture treatment stimulated cell
proliferation in the dentate gyrus of
this autogenic senile strain.
* Maternal separation is known to increase the risk of emotional problems later in life; HT7 is used to treat neuropsychiatric disorders in
Oriental medicine.
156 M.-H. Nam et al.
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structure of acupuncture meridians [55]. This idea was
originally put forth by Bong-Han Kim in the early 1960s [56],
but was ignored until recently because the Japanese
anatomist Fujiwara was the only researcher able to confirm
this discovery [57].
The PVS forms a network throughout the body in which
so-called primo fluid flows. This circulatory system has
several subsystems, one of which is the superficial PVS in
the skin, thought to correspond to acupuncture meridians
and acupoints [56]. The growth of the PVS around tumor
tissues has been characterized [58,59], as well as its
possible role as an additional pathway of cancer metastasis
[60]. The PVS has also been observed in the brain ventri-
cles, the central canal of the spinal cord [61], the
subarachnoid space of the brain [62], and along the
epineurium of the sciatic nerve [12]. These observations
are consistent with Bong-Han Kim’s claim that a primo
vessel from the primo node at ST36 has a course along the
sciatic nerve [56]. Primo vessels in the spinal nerves are
thought link the complex PVS network to the spinal cord
and brain, [63]. If ST36 is connected to the brain via the
PVS, the neurogenesis effect may be mediated by the
circulating fluid, which contains primo microcells [64,65]
that function like the very small embryonic-like stem cells
discovered by Ratajczak [66]. Bong-Han Kim claimed that
primo microcells may be involved in tissue regeneration,
similar to the role of pluripotent stem cells [63]. Thus,
appropriate stimulation at ST36 may promote adult neu-
rogenesis by improving the flow of primo microcells to the
brain. This hypothesis can be tested by investigating the
putative PVS path from the ST36 to the brain, followed by
characterizing the substances flowing along this path and
their therapeutic effects.
6. Conclusion
Adult neurogenesis, which may be a key process in recov-
ering from brain disorders, occurs in two distinct regions of
the brain: the SVZ of the lateral ventricles and the SGZ of
the DG. Numerous studies have reported that acupuncture
stimulation at ST36 appears to enhance adult neurogenesis.
Circulation through the PVS may be the underlying mech-
anism of this beneficial effect of acupuncture stimulation.
Acknowledgment
This work was supported by the Association of Korean
Oriental Medicine and Pilot Project 2011 of Advanced
Institute of Convergence Technology, Seoul National
University.
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... 17 ST 36 stimulation activates cyclic-adenosine-monophosphate response element-binding protein, which is an important transcription factor in proliferation, differentiation, and survival of neuronal precursor cells. This point stimulation also regulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression, which helps the growth of nerve cells 18 and plays a role in neuropathic pain by activating ephrin B/EphB signals, which can also improve nerve-cell developments, such as axon growth and synaptic plasticity, as well as repairing nervous-system damage by improving axon regeneration, nerve-cell function, nerve-cell remodeling, and reducing mechanical hypersensitivity of nerve cells. 19 This patient also had local facial stimulation points on ST 5, ST 6, and ST 7. Animal studies have shown that a combination of facial acupuncture points and LI 4 increases ...
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Background: Third-molar extraction is a common oral surgical procedure that can cause complications. Although rare, nerve injuries that result in permanent neuropathy can occur and include a variety of complaints such as sensory disorders, taste-sensation disorders, speech articulation disorders, etc. Acupuncture is one of several nonpharmacologic therapies that has played a role in managing neuropathic lesions and has been proven to produce good results. Case: A 44-year-old woman with postodontectomy neuropathy developed paresthesia, dysarthria, xerostomia, dysgeusia, pain in the gums and lower right jaw, a chewing disorder, and cephalgia. Her numerical rating scale (NRS) results were: lower right gum pain, 3/10; numbness of the tongue, 4/10; and headache, 1/10. A physical examination revealed dysarthria, a decreased sense of sharpness and dullness in the right mandibular nerve branches, decreased right masseter muscle contractions, and tenderness on the right GB 20 point. Electromyography revealed partial functional lesions in the postganglion at the right fifth cranial nerve. She had body acupuncture therapy at GV 20, GB 20, ST 5, ST 6, ST 7, CV 23, LI 4, HT 5, ST 36, LU 7, and KI 6; ear acupuncture at the Parotid and Shenmen points; and treatment with the Tan Balance Method. Results: After 3 consecutive sessions of acupuncture therapy, this patient's symptoms were reduced. Conclusions: Acupuncture was helpful for reducing paresthesia, dysarthria, xerostomia, dysgeusia, gum and lower right jaw pain, a chewing disorder, and cephalgia in this patient with postodontectomy neuropathy. Clinical trials are needed to support the findings in this case.
... Taichong (LR3), Zusanli (ST36), and Fengchi (GB20) have been reported to be useful to decrease BP according to previous research [8,27]. Zusanli (ST36) is one of the most commonly used acupoints in research studying the mechanisms of acupuncture, evaluating modulation of the digestive system, cardiovascular system, immune system, and nervous system [28]. Early studies regarding hypertension generally selected Zusanli (ST36) to explore the antihypertensive mechanism of acupuncture and demonstrated that acupuncture improved elevated BP through activation of neurotransmitter systems [10,29]. ...
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Background: Sympathetic activation leads to elevated blood pressure. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibits sympathetic nervous system activity, thereby decreasing blood pressure (BP). nNOS is highly expressed in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG), which play essential roles in the regulation of the cardiovascular and sympathetic nervous systems. Objective: This study was designed to verify the hypothesis that acupuncture exerts an antihypertensive effect via increasing the expression of nNOS in ARC and vlPAG of spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats. Methods: Rats without anesthesia were subject to daily acupuncture for 2 weeks. BP was monitored by the tail-cuff method. nNOS expressions in the ARC and vlPAG were detected by western blot and immunofluorescence. BP was measured after 7-Nitroindazole (7-NI), a specific nNOS inhibitor, was microinjected into ARC or vlPAG in SHR rats treated with acupuncture. Results: Acupuncture for 14 days significantly attenuated BP, and the Taichong (LR3) acupoint was superior to Zusanli (ST36) and Fengchi (GB20) in lowering BP. In addition, acupuncture at Taichong (LR3) induced an increase of nNOS expression in ARC and vlPAG, whereas microinjection of 7-NI into ARC or vlPAG reversed the antihypertensive effect of acupuncture. Conclusions: This study indicates that acupuncture at Taichong (LR3) induces a better antihypertensive effect than at Zusanli (ST36) or at Fengchi (GB20) in SHR rats, and enhancement of nNOS in ARC and vlPAG probably contributes to the antihypertensive effect of acupuncture.
... Wu Command Point and Ma Dan-yang Heavenly Star Point [5]. In addition to previous reports with evidence showing it can enhance cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation, affect the limbic and paralimbic systems in the brain that may affect the body's response to stress [6][7][8], ST36 is commonly recommended and traditionally used in clinic with the features of Command point of the Abdomen, ...
... Cutting in some Eastern countries. 40 Scientific investigations on the mechanism of acupuncture have mostly focused on the relation to the nervous system either in molecular mechanisms such as neurotransmitters and imaging in brain with fMRI. The therapeutic efficacy is also related to the nervous system, because pain is the most widely admitted symptom to be effectively treated with acupuncture. ...
This review is designed to initiate a discussion we believe is necessary for the biomedical community, because of some recent evidences for existing of a new body anatomical system, or the primo vascular system (PVS), which could be the missing link in the scientific explanation of the unknown mechanism of action of acupuncture. Some important questions for the medical society, (eg, "What is the main source of the mistrust of Western medicine toward traditional Oriental medicine and could it be overcome?" or "Is the PVS a real one and what is its distribution, formation, and function?" or "Are there scientific proofs for intimate relationships of the PVS with meridian system and whether the PVS would be the physical basis of meridians?") are deeply studied and appropriately answered. Various pieces of knowledge are now combined to achieve a better understanding and to provide an acceptable explanation about the functions of such new system and to explain the functional path used by traditional Eastern medicine to cure diseases. Some possibilities to use this PVS for development of some innovative therapies to treat some diseases are also discussed (eg, pharmacopuncture as a new innovative drug delivery method that combines acupuncture therapy with medication by injecting pharmacological substances into target acupoints).
... When compared with a sham acupuncture, verum acupuncture induced a higher level of correlations among the amygdala-associated network. 155,156 Discussion Based on presented studies, an evidence-based neurobiological basis for the treatment of PTSD with acupuncture can work to be developed. Protocols can be established based on evidence-based fMRI studies of cortical region activations and deactivations with acupuncture points correlating with findings and understandings of changes which tend to occur in the brain in cases of PTSD. ...
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Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) awareness has seen an upsurge in recent decades and correlations with brain injuries within military populations, community, or mass traumas. The national prevalence in the United States is an estimated 7-9% of the population being affected. Acupuncture has been utilized and demonstrated to be effective in aiding in PTSD-related symptoms. This paper explores the body of evidence for an evidence-based neurobiological foundation for the use of acupuncture in PTSD including bioregulatory effects on the autonomic nervous system, modulation of neurohormonal and neurochemical dynamics, and demonstrated activation and downregulation of various cortical regions as demonstrated by functional MRI with their relation to known changes in the brain as a result of trauma
... On the other hand, the hippocampus, which plays an important role in learning and memory, demonstrates a high degree of neurogenesis, and only the DG of hippocampus continues to develop through adulthood [25]. Presently more and more research demonstrated that there are only two neurogenic areas in the brain including subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the DG in hippocampus [26]. So it is obviously that the ability of undifferentiated and rapidly proliferating for the progenitor cells that could differentiate into granule in the SGZ of DG throughout life. ...
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Our previous study showed that the acupuncture stimulation on the acupoint (ST-36) could activate the brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) signaling pathways in telomerase-deficient mice. Recently, we set out to investigate whether the manual acupuncture (MA) or electroacupuncture (EA) displays a therapeutic advantage on age-related deterioration of learning and memory. Both telomerase-deficient mice (Terc −/− group, n=24 ) and wild-type mice (WT group, n=24 ) were randomly assigned to 3 subgroups (CON, controls with no treatment; MA, mice receiving manual acupuncture; EA, mice receiving electric acupuncture). The mice were subjected to behavior test, and EA/MA were applied at bilateral acupoints (ST36) 30 min daily for 7 successive days. The brain tissues were collected after the last Morris water maze (MWM) test and were subjected to the immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. The MWM test showed that EA can significantly increase the time in target quadrant ( P≤0.01 ) and frequency of locating platform for Terc −/− mice ( P≤0.05 ), while nothing changed in WT mice. Furthermore, western blotting and immunohistochemistry suggested that EA could also specifically increase the expression of TrkB and NF- κ B in Terc −/− mice but not in wild-type mice ( P≤0.05 ). Meanwhile, the expression level and ratio of ERK/p-ERK did not exhibit significant changes in each subgroup. These results indicated that, compared with MA, the application of EA could specifically ameliorate the spatial learning and memory capability for telomerase-deficient mice through the activation of TrkB and NF- κ B.
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Introduction: Is Primo Vascular System (PVS) a paradox? Finding the connection between PVS as a carrier of information and the body’s reactions at the micro and macro levels will be the starting point in understanding the meaning of life as such. Before the past of PVS knowledge: The initial phase of medicine in all cultures is reduced to the transfer of specific energy by special pathways throughout the body! This is the case in China, India, Japan, Korea, Tibet, etc. Undoubtedly, the five articles by B. H. Kim published in the early 1960s are considered to be the past of PVS. Strange present: PVS studies after 2002 are accepted as a present. Most of the articles on the topic are in journals with editors-in-chief originating and/or accepting the achievements of Eastern medicine. Is the science of PVS local since its research is in journals that publish mainly articles on Eastern medicine? Why few of the articles concerning PVS are in Western medicine journals? PVS: after the future or some conclusions and proposals: All substances, objects, biological objects generate a weak electromagnetic radiation typical for each of them which is a passport of the information. PVS has all the data to be the main carrier of information. Information medicine and Quantum Biology can serve as a basis for medicine and biomedical sciences, and it should explain the processes that exist for the change of DNA and organisms in
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Objective: To investigate the effect of acupuncture pretreatment at specific acupoints on action potential of cerebellar Purkenje cells in rats early after cerebral ischemia. Methods: Forty male SD rats were randomized into control group, ischemia group, acupuncture pretreatment group and acupuncture pretreatment plus ischemia group. The rats in acupuncture groups received acupuncture pretreatment at Baihui and bilateral Zusanli twice daily for 7 consecutive days, after which brain slices were prepared and perfused at a lowered rate to simulate in vivo ischemic stroke. Microelectrode and whole cell current clamp technique were used for recording the action potentials of cerebellar Purkenje cells to detect changes in spike encoding of the cells. Results: Compared with those in the control group, the rat brain slices early after simulated ischemia showed significantly shortened inter-spike intervals, increased standard deviation of spike timing and decreased voltage of threshold potentials (P<0.01), suggesting overexcitation of the Purkinje cells. Acupuncture pretreatment at Baihui and bilateral Zusanli obviously suppressed overexcitation of the Purkinje cells in response to ischemia. Conclusion: Acupuncture pretreatment at Baihui and bilateral Zusanli can improve ischemic stroke by suppressing overexcitation of Purkenje cells in rats.
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Abulk of experimental evidence supports the idea that the stroke-damaged adult brain makes an attempt to repair itself by producing new neurons also in areas where neurogenesis does not normally occur (e.g., the striatum and cerebral cortex). Knowledge about mechanisms regulating the different steps of neurogenesis after stroke is rapidly increasing but still incomplete. The functional consequences of stroke-induced neurogenesis and the level of integration of the new neurons into existing neural circuitries are poorly understood. To have a substantial impact on the recovery after stroke, this potential mechanism for self-repair needs to be enhanced, primarily by increasing the survival and differentiation of the generated neuroblasts. Moreover, for efficient repair, optimization of neurogenesis most likely needs to be combined with promotion of other endogenous neuroregenerative responses (e.g., protection and sprouting of remaining mature neurons, transplantation of neural stem/progenitor cells [NSPC]–derived neurons and glia cells, and modulation of inflammation). © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.
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The possibility has been raised that Folium mori is clinically effective for the treatment and prevention of diabetes. In the present study, the effects of Folium mori on cell proliferation and expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the dentate gyrus of rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes were investigated by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry and NPY immunohistochemistry. In rats with STZ-induced diabetes, cell proliferation and NPY expression in the dentate gyrus were suppressed, and treatment with Folium mori was shown to increase new cell formation and NPY expression in the dentate gyrus in both normal rats and those with STZ-induced diabetes. In light of previous studies, this result appears to indicate that increased expression of NPY in the dentate gyrus induced by treatment with Folium mori is associated with the observed effect of Folium mori extract on cell proliferation. Based on the present results, it is suggested that Folium mori treatment may aid in the recovery from the central nervous system complications of diabetes mellitus.