Cancer Survivorship: Focusing on Future Research Opportunities

Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention (Impact Factor: 4.13). 10/2011; 20(10):1994-5. DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-11-0837
Source: PubMed

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    ABSTRACT: Although obesity is a well-known risk factor for several cancers, its role on cancer survival is poorly understood. We conducted a systematic literature review to assess the current evidence evaluating the impact of body adiposity on the prognosis of the three most common obesity-related cancers: prostate, colorectal, and breast. We included 33 studies of breast cancer, six studies of prostate cancer, and eight studies of colo-rectal cancer. We note that the evidence overrepresents breast cancer survivorship research and is sparse for prostate and colorectal cancers. Overall, most studies support a relationship between body adiposity and site-specific mortality or cancer progression. However, most of the research was not specifically designed to study these outcomes and, therefore, several methodological issues should be considered before integrating their results to draw conclusions. Further research is urgently warranted to assess the long-term impact of obesity among the growing population of cancer survivors.
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    ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. The number of breast cancer survivors has increased due to screening and improved treatment methods, which makes it important to increase knowledge on their health and well-being. Physical activity has been reported to improve quality of life, decrease fatigue and reduce all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality in breast cancer survivors. The beneficial effects of physical activity may manifest themselves in circulating levels of insulin, insulin-growth factors (IGFs) I and II and their binding proteins (IGFBPs), or inflammatory biomarkers. The aim of this report was to review available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effects of physical activity on biomarkers in breast cancer survivors. We identified 12 publications based on nine RCTs that fulfilled our inclusion criteria published until 19th June 2012. The RCTs were small (16-101 breast cancer survivors); mean BMI was ≥25 and the mean age in 8 out of 9 RCTs was approximately 50 years. Five RCTs reported statistically significant effects of physical activity on insulin, IGF-I, IGF-II and IGFBP-3 in breast cancer survivors, but the results were not consistent. None of four RCTs found any evidence for a role of investigated interleukines. One trial reported some evidence that exercise may decrease C-reactive protein levels. In conclusion, available RCTs have produced some evidence that physical activity may result in beneficial changes in levels of insulin, IGFs, IGFBPs, and inflammatory biomarkers in breast cancer survivors. However, further larger RCTs on physical activity and biomarkers in breast cancer survivors are warranted.
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    ABSTRACT: Unlabelled: There is a need to better understand the posttreatment concerns of the nearly 14 million survivors of cancer alive in the United States today and their receipt of care. Using data from 2,910 posttreatment survivors of cancer from the 2006 or 2010 LIVESTRONG Surveys, the authors examined physical, emotional, and practical concerns, receipt of care, and trends in these outcomes at the population level. Results: 89% of respondents reported at least one physical concern (67% received associated posttreatment care), 90% reported at least one emotional concern (47% received care), and 45% reported at least one practical concern (36% received care). Female survivors, younger survivors, those who received more intensive treatment, and survivors without health insurance often reported a higher burden of posttreatment concerns though were less likely to have received posttreatment care. These results reinforce the importance of posttreatment survivorship and underscore the need for continued progress in meeting the needs of this population. Efforts to increase the availability of survivorship care are extremely important to improve the chances of people affected by cancer living as well as possible in the posttreatment period.
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