Depressive Symptoms, Substance Use, and HIV-Related High-Risk Behaviors Among Opioid-Dependent Individuals: Results From the Clinical Trials Network

Department of Epidemiology and Psychiatry, Columbia University, New York City, New York 10032, USA.
Substance Use & Misuse (Impact Factor: 1.23). 10/2011; 46(14):1716-25. DOI: 10.3109/10826084.2011.611960
Source: PubMed


The sample included 343 opioid-dependent adults enrolled in two national multisite studies of the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN001-002). Opioid-dependent individuals were recruited from 12 sites across the United States from January 2001 to July 2002. We examined associations between depressive symptoms, co-occurring substance use (i.e., the use of substances other than opioids), and HIV-related sexual and injection risk behaviors. Data were collected using the Addiction Severity Index and the HIV Risk Behavior Scale, and analyzed using linear regression. Depressive symptoms were associated with an increased level of injection risk behaviors but were not associated with risky sexual behaviors. The co-occurring use of amphetamines also increased the likelihood of risky sexual behaviors. The study limitations and clinical implications are noted. The study was funded by the U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse.

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    • "Several studies have investigated the relationship between depression and drug use, with the prevalence of depression among IDU ranging from 25% to 81% (Callaly et al., 2001; Springer, 2012; Teesson et al., 2005; Pilowsky et al., 2011; Conner et al., 2008; Mackesy-Amiti et al., 2012). A meta-analysis of 55 studies investigating the association between depression and substance related behaviors among IDU identified 55% of participants with above average levels of depressive symptoms (Conner et al., 2008). "
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    • "Nonaddictive mental illnesses can also increase unsafe injection-drug use practices. In a study of 343 opioid-dependent adults recruited from 12 sites across the United States and enrolled in multisite studies of the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN001-002), depressive symptoms were associated with an increased level of injection risk behaviors [23]. Past suicide attempts were associated with a history of drug injection among almost 7,000 Swedish criminal justice clients with suspected substance-related problems [24]. "
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