Association of Maternal and Paternal IQ With Offspring Conduct, Emotional, and Attention Problem Scores
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, England, UK. Archives of general psychiatry
(Impact Factor: 14.48).
10/2011; 68(10):1032-8. DOI: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.111
Individuals with lower IQ scores have an increased risk of psychological disorders, mental health problems, and suicide; similarly, children with low IQ scores are more likely to have behavioral, emotional, and anxiety disorders. However, little is known about the effect of parental IQ on the mental health outcomes of their children.
To determine whether maternal and paternal IQ scores are associated with offspring conduct, emotional, and attention scores.
Members of the 1958 National Child Development Study and their offspring were studied. Of 2984 parent-offspring pairs with nonadopted children 4 years or older, 2202 pairs had complete data regarding all variables of interest and were included in the analyses.
Offspring conduct, emotional, and attention scores based on the Behavioral Problems Index for children aged 4 to 6 years or the Rutter A scale for children and adolescents 7 years and older.
Little evidence was observed of any association of parental IQ with conduct or emotional problems in children aged 4 to 6 years. However, among children and adolescents 7 years or older, strong evidence was observed from age- and sex-adjusted models to support a decrease in conduct, emotional, and attention problems in those whose parents had higher IQ scores. These associations were linear across the full IQ range. Individual adjustments for socioeconomic status and the child's own IQ had limited effect. However, adjustments for Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment scores and parental malaise attenuated associations with the mother's IQ but had little effect on associations with the father's IQ (scores were available for only 1 parent for each child or adolescent). Strong associations were no longer evident in models that simultaneously adjusted for all 4 potential mediating variables.
Children whose parents score poorly on IQ tests may have an increased risk of conduct, emotional, and attention problems. The home environment, parental malaise, and the child's own IQ may have a role in explaining these associations.
Available from: Mina Ha
- "First, neurodevelopment in children may be affected by many genetic and environmental factors . Factors associated with poor performance IQ include low socioeconomic status ; poverty ; lack of stimulation in the home , including lack of maternal warmth; poor maternal education ; iron deficiency  . To study the effects of cadmium exposure duration pregnancy on the IQ of their children, it was Table 2 Multiple linear regression analysis of the association between the performance IQ of children and maternal blood cadmium concentrations after adjustment for covariates # . "
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ABSTRACT: To investigate whether performance IQ in children is associated with maternal blood cadmium concentration in early pregnancy.Method
The present study is a component of the Mothers’ and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) study, a multi-center birth cohort project in Korea that began in 2006. The study cohort consisted of 119 children whose mothers underwent testing of blood cadmium during early pregnancy. All children were evaluated using the Korean version of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, revised edition (WPPSI-R), at 60 months of age. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to analyze the correlation between IQ in children and maternal blood cadmium concentration in early pregnancy, after adjustment for covariates.ResultsMaternal blood cadmium concentration during early pregnancy was inversely associated with performance IQ, after adjustment for covariates such as sex, educational levels of both parents, family income, and maternal BMI. Maternal blood cadmium concentration, however, was not associated with cognitive IQ.Conclusion
Performance IQ in children is associated with maternal blood cadmium concentration in early pregnancy.
Available from: Gloria Mcanulty
- "School-age anthropometric, medical, and academic history indices were measured or obtained by parent interview. Parent-IQ, reportedly correlating with child functioning, was measured with the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, Second Edition (KBIT-2), yielding a Verbal IQ, Non-Verbal IQ, and Mental Processing Composite (Mean-x: 100; standard deviation-SD: 15). Should parent-IQ, hypothesized to be comparable between groups, correlate with child-IQ, all outcome measures would be corrected for parent-IQ. "
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ABSTRACT: By school age, even low risk moderately preterm-born children show more neuro-cognitive deficits, underachievement, behavioral problems, and poor social adaptation than full-term peers.
To evaluate the outcomes at school-age for moderately preterm-born children (29-33 weeks gestational age), appropriate in growth for gestational age (AGA) and medically at low-risk, randomized to Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP) or standard care in the Newborn Intensive Care Unit. At school-age, the experimental (E) group will show better neuropsychological and neuro-electrophysiological function, as well as improved brain structure than the control (C) group.
The original sample consisted of 30 moderately preterm-born infants (29 to 33 weeks), 23 (8C and 15E) of them were evaluated at 8 years of age, corrected-for-prematurity with neuropsychological, EEG spectral coherence, and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT MRI) measures.
E-performed significantly better than C-group children on the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition (KABC-II) and trended towards better scores on the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test. They also showed more mature frontal and parietal brain connectivities, and more mature fiber tracts involving the internal capsule and the cingulum. Neurobehavioral results in the newborn period successfully predicted neuropsychological functioning at 8 years corrected age.
Moderately preterm infants cared for with the NIDCAP intervention showed improved neuropsychological and neuro-electrophysiological function as well as improved brain structure at school-age.
Available from: Gloria Mcanulty
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The experience in the newborn intensive care nursery results in premature infants' neurobehavioral and neurophysiological dysfunction and poorer brain structure. Preterms with severe intrauterine growth restriction are doubly jeopardized given their compromised brains. The Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program improved outcome at early school-age for preterms with appropriate intrauterine growth. It also showed effectiveness to nine months for preterms with intrauterine growth restriction. The current study tested effectiveness into school-age for preterms with intrauterine growth restriction regarding executive function (EF), electrophysiology (EEG) and neurostructure (MRI). METHODS: Twenty-three 9-year-old former growth-restricted preterms, randomized at birth to standard care (14 controls) or to the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (9 experimentals) were assessed with standardized measures of cognition, achievement, executive function, electroencephalography, and magnetic resonance imaging. The participating children were comparable to those lost to follow-up, and the controls to the experimentals, in terms of newborn background health and demographics. All outcome measures were corrected for mother's intelligence. Analysis techniques included two-group analysis of variance and stepwise discriminate analysis for the outcome measures, Wilks' lambda and jackknifed classification to ascertain two-group classification success per and across domains; canonical correlation analysis to explore relationships among neuropsychological, electrophysiological and neurostructural domains at school-age, and from the newborn period to school-age. RESULTS: Controls and experimentals were comparable in age at testing, anthropometric and health parameters, and in cognitive and achievement scores. Experimentals scored better in executive function, spectral coherence, and cerebellar volumes. Furthermore, executive function, spectral coherence and brain structural measures discriminated controls from experimentals. Executive function correlated with coherence and brain structure measures, and with newborn-period neurobehavioral assessment. CONCLUSION: The intervention in the intensive care nursery improved executive function as well as spectral coherence between occipital and frontal as well as parietal regions. The experimentals' cerebella were significantly larger than the controls'. These results, while preliminary, point to the possibility of long-term brain improvement even of intrauterine growth compromised preterms if individualized intervention begins with admission to the NICU and extends throughout transition home. Larger sample replications are required in order to confirm these results.Clinical trial registration: The study is registered as a clinical trial. The trial registration number is NCT00914108.
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