Bridge Over Troubled Stem Cells
Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.Molecular Therapy (Impact Factor: 6.23). 10/2011; 19(10):1756-8. DOI: 10.1038/mt.2011.184
mt is a cross-disciplinary biomedical journal devoted to publishing the most exciting advances in pharmacology and therapeutics, as they pertain to advances in translational and clinical medicine. It is recognized as one of the most prestigious journals in the field. With an impact factor of 6.825*, mt ranks in the top 4.2% of scientific journals in the latest Science Citation Index. Published monthly online and in print.
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ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used for cell therapy in various experimental disease models. However, the regenerative potential of MSCs from different tissue sources and the influence of the tissue niche have not been investigated. In this study, we compared the regenerative potential of dental pulp, bone marrow and adipose tissue-derived CD31(-) side population (SP) cells isolated from an individual porcine source. Pulp CD31(-) SP cells expressed the highest levels of angiogenic/neurotrophic factors and had the highest migration activity. Conditioned medium from pulp CD31(-) SP cells produced potent anti-apoptotic activity and neurite outgrowth, compared to those from bone marrow and adipose CD31(-) SP cells. Transplantation of pulp CD31(-) SP cells in a mouse hindlimb ischemia model produced higher blood flow and capillary density than transplantation of bone marrow and adipose CD31(-) SP cells. Motor function recovery and infarct size reduction were greater with pulp CD31(-) SP cells. Pulp CD31(-) SP cells induced maximal angiogenesis, neurogenesis and pulp regeneration in ectopic transplantation models compared to other tissue sources. These results demonstrate that pulp stem cells have higher angiogenic, neurogenic and regenerative potential and may therefore be superior to bone marrow and adipose stem cells for cell therapy.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells and differentiation of committed progenitors occurs in highly specialized niches. The interactions of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) with cells, growth factors and extracellular matrix (ECM) components of the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment control homeostasis of HSPCs. We only start to understand the complexity of the hematopoietic niche(s) that comprises endosteal, arterial, sinusoidal, mesenchymal and neuronal components. These distinct niches produce a broad range of soluble factors and adhesion molecules that modulate HSPC fate during normal hematopoiesis and BM regeneration. Adhesive interactions between HSPCs and the microenvironment will influence their localization and differentiation potential. In this review we highlight the current understanding of the functional role of ECM- and adhesion (regulating) molecules in the hematopoietic niche during homeostatic and regenerative hematopoiesis. This knowledge may lead to the improvement of current cellular therapies and more efficient development of future cellular products.