[Safety profile of antimicrobial agents]

ArticleinYAKUGAKU ZASSHI 131(10):1423-8 · October 2011with2 Reads
DOI: 10.1248/yakushi.131.1423 · Source: PubMed
Many antibiotics have been developed and used for the treatment of infectious diseases. Although they have been known to have various adverse effects, most of the mechanisms remain still unknown. New quinolones are well known to induce convulsions and their convulsant activity enhanced by concurrent administration of anti-inflammatory drugs. Each new quinolone has an individual convulsant activity with individual drug-interaction with anti-inflammatory drugs. And enoxacin, lomefloxacin and gatifloxacin have been reported to decrease blood glucose levels in a dose-depend- ent manner, but ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin had no effect on the levels. It should be important to know the safety profile of antimicrobial agents before doctors administer these agents to the patients with infectious diseases.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the effects of ten fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents, levofloxacin, sitafloxacin, trovafloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gemifloxacin, tosufloxacin, gatifloxacin, grepafloxacin, moxifloxacin and sparfloxacin, on action potentials recorded from guinea pig ventricular myocardia. Sparfloxacin prolonged action potential duration (APD) by about 8% at 10 microM and 41% at 100 microM. Gatifloxacin, grepafloxacin and moxifloxacin also prolonged APD at 100 microM by about 13%, 24% and 25%, respectively. In contrast, levofloxacin, sitafloxacin, trovafloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gemifloxacin and tosufloxacin had little or no APD-prolonging effect at concentrations as high as 100 microM. These findings suggest that there are differences in potency to prolong QT interval among the fluoroquinolones.
    Article · Dec 2001
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Quinolones have been reported to possess potent convulsant activity, which is enhanced when they are administered concurrently with anti-inflammatory drugs. To define the individual drug interactions of quinolones with anti-inflammatory drugs, we studied the convulsant activity of six quinolones with or without 13 anti-inflammatory drugs and 3 analgesic/antipyretic drugs in mice. Intraventricular injections of norfloxacin (NFLX), enoxacin (ENX), ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin (LFLX), levofloxacin, and gatifloxacin induced convulsions in mice in a dose-dependent manner. Concurrent administration of biphenylacetic acid strongly enhanced the convulsant activity of NFLX, ENX, and LFLX. Flurbiprofen also strongly enhanced the activity of NFLX and ENX, and ketoprofen strongly enhanced the activity of ENX. However, mefenamic acid, piroxicam, tenoxicam, meloxicam, etodolac, sulpyrine, isopropylantipyrine, and acetaminophen had no effect on the convulsant activity of quinolones. These results suggest that each quinolone has an individual drug interaction with each anti-inflammatory drug. It was suggested that we should know which anti-inflammatory drugs enhance the convulsant activity of individual quinolones, and which quinolone has no/weak drug interaction with different anti-inflammatory drugs when these drugs are used concurrently for the treatment of patients with infectious diseases.
    Article · Jan 2004
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In fasted mice, plasma glucose levels were reduced by intraperitoneal administration of enoxacin, lomefloxacin, or gatifloxacin (50 mg/kg). A lower dose of these fluoroquinolones (5 mg/kg) also reduced the plasma glucose (PG) levels in glucose-loaded mice. Ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin did not reduce these levels in either fasted or glucose-loaded mice. These results suggest that each fluoroquinolone has an individual hypoglycemic action, and fluoroquinolone administration after meals might reduce PG levels at lower doses.
    Article · May 2006
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